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THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 
Govetnor nf Massachusetts, 



THE 

DIAEY AND LETTERS 

OF 

HIS EXCELLENCY 

THOMAS HUTCHINSON, Esq., 

B.A. (Harvard), LL.D. (Oxon.), 

CAPTAIN-GENERAL AND GOVERNOR-IN-GHIEF OF 

HIS LATE MAJESTY'S PROVINCE OF MASSACHUSETTS BAY, 

IN NORTH AMERICA; 

WITH AN ACCOUNT OF HIS ADMINISTRATION WHEN HE WAS MEMBER AND 

SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, AND HIS GOVERN- 

MENT OF THE COLONY DURING THE DIFFICULT PERIOD 

THAT PRECEDED THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE. 

COMPILED FROM THE ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS STILL REMAINING IN 
THE POSSESSION OF HIS DESCENDANTS. 



PETER ORLANDO HUTCHINSON, 

ONE OF HIS GREAT-GRANDSONS. 



" Motto for Title-page of a History of the Revolt of 
the Colonies: — 

' I HAVE NOURISHED CHILDREN AND BROUGHT THEM UP, 
AND EVEN THEY HAVE REVOLTED FROM ME.' — Isaiah, I. 

Chap., 2n(l verse. Bp. of London's translation." 
[ Written on fly-leaf of Diary.] 



VOLUME n. 

BOSTON: 
HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN, & CO., 4, PARK STEEET. 

1886. 






^JL. 



PEEFACE. 



At the time the firi^t volume of this work was published, I 
did not think it likely that I should undertake another, and 
that is why " Vol. I." was not placed on the title-page. 
Favourable circumstances however have led to the compilation 
of a second, which absorbs the remainder of Governor Hutchin- 
son's Diary and Letters ; and what is equally valuable in a 
historical point of view, it gives opportunity for introducing 
portions of the Diary and Letters of the Chief Justice Peter 
Oliver, a prominent figure in those troublous times, and per- 
haps as much so as his elder brother the Lieutenant-Governor ; 
— as also of those of his son, and of those of Thomas and 
Elisha Hutchinson. This work therefore, is the English ac- 
count of the outbreak and course of the American Kevolution- 
ary war, in contradistinction to the American accounts, which 
have been legion, and which, for reasons not hard to discern, 
have been industriously and continuously introduced into the 
cheap popular literature of this country, and put off in Parts or 
Numbers by travellers or others, and carried to neaily every 
household for subscribers' names. It is time the English side 
of the story should be better known. 

There is one matter I cannot avoid alluding to, however 
unwilling I rnay be to do so. At the foot of page 163 of the 
former volume, I was induced to throw out a challenge to one or 
other of the three gentlemen whose names were connected with 
the discovery in America of part of Governor Hutchinson's 
Diary, the existence of which copy had never been known or 
suspected by his descendants in England. In reply to that 
challenge Dr. Everett called attention to the subject at the 
annual meeting of the Historical Society at Boston in April 
1884: he "commented somewhat on the isuorauce of the lives 



ix V UK FACE. 

and character of public men in America, displayed in such a 
charge of siirnptitious use of Governor Hutchinson's Diary," 
and ho produced Icttors to sliew that tlie first voluiui' of the 
Diary had been freely lent by the liev. J. Hutchinson to Mr. 
Everett, the United States JMinister in England, whom he met 
at the dinner table uf the Duke of Sutherland at Tienthani, 
with permission " to read," but there is no permission to copy. 
I am obliged to Dr. Everett for producing at that meeting the 
two letters of the liev. J. Hutehiuson, and the one by ^Fr. 
Everett, because they supply me with the very evidence I stood 
in need of. They shew that the volume was freely lent and 
honourably received, which gives me the pleasure of withdraw- 
ing all imputation of unfairness on that head, done only in ignor- 
ance, and of apologising to Dr. Everett, and to any one else who 
may have been annoyed thereby. Upon being better informed, 
I explained myself as shewn in the following letter to Dr. F. E' 
Oliver, and I hope there can be no offence in quoting it liere : — 

Old Chancel, Sidmoutli, Devon, England, Dec. 5, 1S84. 
My Dear Sir, 

According to promise, and having heard from my cousins, I 
now' proceed to make a few remarks. They join with me in sur- 
prise that the Rev. John Hutchinson should have allowed the 
manuscript to go out of his custody, as he had always enjoined 
upon us the most jealous care over these papers. I can only ac- 
count for it by concluding that he reposed the fullest confidence 
in the honour of a gentleman who held the high position of an 
Ambassador and representative of a great nation like yours, whom 
he met at the dinner table of the Duke of Sutherland at Trentham 
Hall, and that he would not go beyond the permission given him 
along with the loan. Mr. Everett, in conversation with him, took 
occasion ti) express a wish to see some portion of Governor 
Hutchinson's Diary, to which my cousin assented, and the next day 
forwarded to him Avhat must have been the first A'olume, as it is 
that volume which contains the conversation between George III. 
and the Governor, a portion, about which Americans had manifested 
some curiosity. It is a relief to know who gave up the MS., 
because, for many years jiast different members of my family have 
suspected two or three of their friends, as possibly having made 
use of the opportunities which intimacy afibrded, and to have 
incautiously lent it. Your Ambassador obtained it faiily and 



JPIiEFACK V 

honourably, and as far as that goes, I have much pleasure in with- 
drawing any appearance of unfair implication against any of the 
three gentlemen before named, and of oftering them every apology 
in my power, if I have aggrieved them by any such appearance. 
In the Diary and Letters just published, I know I have, at the foot 
of page 163, thrown out a challenge to the said three gentlemen, 
b'gging them, for their own sakes, to grant some explanation, 
because none of the Governor's family in England_had ever known or 
suspected, that anythhig had, or could have been copied; nor would 
they have permitted such a thing, for the simple reason that they 
intended to reserve it for the pages of a printed book themselves. 

M}^ tirst stay at Blurton, a parish adjoining Trentham on the 
east, then a Perpetual Curacy, now a Yicarage, extended for several 
weeks, so long ago as in the autumn of 1833, and I was also much 
there during the two following years. After my cousin became 
Canon of Lichfield, and resided there three or four months out of the 
twelve, I sojourned with him in the Close on several occasions for 
weeks, if not months at a time, and the subject cf the " Hutchinson 
Papers," or the " American Papers," as they were indifferently 
called, frequently became a topic of conversation. He often re- 
gretted his inability to find leisure to work up a volume out of the 
materials in his custod}', and time went on. He was in residence 
again during the last quarter of 1864, and I was with him the 
greater part of the time, his children, and occasionally some of my 
other cousins, being there also. I then made a proposition, to the 
effect that I would do the manual labour if he would do the head- 
work, or in other words, I would be his Secretary or Amanuensis, 
under his guidance and dictation, if he would resolve to attack the 
subject in earnest. He was not in good health at the time, and 
said he had decided on going to Bath about the beginning of May 
in the next year, to drink the Avaters and recruit his health, and 
that if he took the papers with him to that place, which was in a 
direct line to Sidmouth, and near two-thirds of the way, would I 
come up the other third and join him, and then go boldly into it ? 
I readily fell in with this plan, and leaving him on the 21st of 
November, I went S. by W. about 150 miles to Sidmouth, and he soon 
returned N.W. 20 or 30 to Blurton. 

Ju.-it before the first of May, 1865, however, I received a summons 
to come to his funeral, and I attended it at Blurton on the 2nd of 
that month. Before his death he had expressed a wish that tlic 
papers should be handed over to me, so I took them home. Owing 
to sundry occupations of my own, and the common vice of pro- 
crastination, I delayed writing ; but during several yonr-i, at odd 



liinos, I iiiiniKiHl myself \vitli unfoKlinp;, reading, iioiiiii};- tint, ro- 
jiairiiig, nnimj^iiii:; ac(ortlin*j; to tlato, ami binding into vidtuucR, 
tlio Ifttiis and other doeiinnnts, wliicli were absolutrly unin- 
ti'lligiliU> until this was done. All this work had tlie cfVeet of 
familiari«ing lue witli the niutcrials, bo that when 1 began in ear- 
nest, I wrote the vidunie in fifteen montliH, and spent two more in 
going oviT it a second time, and ro-writing several portions, and 
even skimming it a third time, and felt that if I went over it six 
times, I could alter with advantage. 

Such being the facts, liow is it possible tlmt my late cousin know 
or suspected that any po) tion of iiis i)ri/.od manuscript book had 
been, or could have been, co})i('d ? or that ho would have suffered 
it, seeing that he was preserving everything to enrich the pages of 
his own proposed book ? 

As to the challenge above alluded to, tlic obliging answer to it as 
given in tlio Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society for 
April to June, 1884, clears up many obscurities, l)ut not all. Tho 
lending of tho volume was fair and open, but there is a point beyond 
this wliich invites attention. Tliero is every permission to read, 
but no permission to capif. And my cousin, in his letter of January 
7, 1843, (which accompanied the book,) when alluding principally 
to the pages containing the conversation with the King, nses tho 
■words — " to rend iliem ; " and further down ho says — " and therefore 
am proud to forward /(»• your i^crusal the enclosed," Surely there 
is no permission here to make any copy, but only to read ; and so 
the Ambassador evidently understood it, for when writing to ]\[rs. 
Everett, January 8, he says — " He has sent me to-day, to read, a 
part of his grandfather's private Journal, which has never seen the 
light." Mr. Eives, his Secretary- of Legation, having transcribed 
so much as was desired, he stamped tho act with his approval on 
the first of February', by appending thereto his sign manual. 

Beyond an expression of surprise, I will refrain from making 
any remark on these facts, preferring to leave them to the judgment 
of others. 

I readily excuse Mr. Eives for his share in the transaction, on 
the ground that as Secretary', he was merely carrying out the in- 
structions of his superior in office. Qui facit per alium facit per se, 
is an old maxim that well suits the present case. I also have plea- 
sure in exonerating Mr. Bancroft from blame, on the ground that 
he was in America when the other parlies w^ere in England, and 
could not know what they were doing ; and I beg to offer to those 
two gentlemen every expression of regret for any annoyance I may 
h ive caused them. 



PREFACE. 



You are at liberty, of course, to show this letter to any person 
yuu please, and as it is a reply to what has appeared in the Pro- 
ceedings, I should only be too glad to see it find a place in a future 
number. 

I cannot conclude these remarks withoiit expressing my gratifi- 
cation at the friendly and courteous tone of most of the notices and 
Eeviews of my book in the American Journals, fearing, as I did, 
that in handling a controversial subject, there might be much to 
offend, however unwilling I might be to give offence. 

I beg to remain. Dear Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 
Dr. F. E. Oliver. P. 0. HuTCHINSON. 

Some little time afterwards I received an iutiraation, as com- 
iug from the Officers of the i^Iassachusstts Historical Society — 
" that Mr. Everett, although he had no \Yritten permission to 
have a cojsy taken of that portion of the Diary loaned him, it 
is more than probable that he had a verbal one, or to that 
eft'ect." 

I had not thoiiglit of this, and in my rejoinder I said — " I 
made no remal-ks on a probable verbal permission to copy, be- 
cause there is nothing in tb.e piinted letters of my late cousin 
and of Mr. Everett that could lead me to do so, and for this 
reason the idea did not come across my mind. I simply 
adjudicated upon the evidence that was before me, and there 
I left it." 

I am sorry I have been so long upon this subject, but having 
thrown out the challenge, I have been obliged to follow tlie 
incidents to their end. After an interval of 42 years, I have 
traced the mystery to the fountain head. What Mr. Bancroft 
may have done in America with what was copied in England, 
does not concern me. Mr. Bancroft has been pretty severely 
taken to task by me in the first volume, (p. 118,) for his shame- 
ful slanders on Governor Hutchinson ; but though I blame him 
freely where I think he deserves it, I love fair play and justice 
so well, that I will defend him to the utmost of my power 
where I think he does not. 

I beg again to express my full sense of the kind and valuable 
assistance rendered to me by Dr. F. E. Oliver, during the time 



PREFACE. 

this second volume has been in preparation ; and I liuve also 
to thank I\rr. C. (i. Ilntidiiiistin. ( '' Jlnti-liinson of Cliarlcslown," 
p. '^^^)) for having forwarded to nie numy usefnl extraets from 
the lloston Registers, which have enabled mo to fill in gaj^s 
and verify dates in genealogical tables towards the end of the 
book. 



EKRATA. 



Page 8S3, line 5 from the bottom, for " second " read •' third." 

„ 383, „ 3 „ „ „ for " property lianded " read " property 
probably handed." 



DIARY AND LETTEES 

OF 

THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 



CHAPTEK I. 

At the end of the former volume we left Governor Hutchinson 
at Tylney Hall, about five miles from Basingstoke in Hampshire, 
where, in company with his youngest daughter Margaret, com- 
monly called Peggy, he was enjoying the hospitality of Mr. and 
Mrs. Welbore Ellis, of Pope's Villa, Twickenham. He had asked, 
and had obtained, the King's leave to come to England " for six or 
nine months," flattering himself that by the expiration of the 
shorter, or at all events of the longer of those two periods, all 
matters in dispute between the Mother Country and her Colonies 
would be so far accommodated, as that he should be able to return 
in peace to his government of Massachusetts, there to enjoy in 
all time to come, the prosperity and the happiness of the country 
he loved so well. Double the longest of those periods however 
had elapsed ; yet so far from a settlement, the plot had rather 
thickened than otherwise : all attempts at conciliation had failed : 
several fierce and bloody battles by the beginning of 1776 had 
been fought : Boston was blockaded by a force of from ten to 
17,000 Provincials, and every day only seemed to add to the 
bitterness, and put the possibility of accommodation still further 
off: yet he persisted in clinging to a forlorn hope of better times 
— of a happy chance, or a favourable turn — with a simplicity that 
may now almost surprise us. The motive for his coming to 
England is not very clearly stated ; but the general tenor of his 
remarks to those members of the government with whom he 
chiefly came in contact when discussing the probable effects of the 
Boston Port Bill, the Declaratory, and some other Bills, may 
suggest that his chief object was to try and get those Acts either 
VOL. II. B 



2 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON, [me! 

repealed or mitigated : but if he had cherished the feeling that he 
should be able to accomplish either of those ends by personal 
interviews ^vith the Ministers, it is certain that ho had been sadly 
disappointed. The King, the members of the Cabinet — aye, I may 
add, the great majority of the English nation, surveyed the posi- 
tion of affairs with an amount of equanimity that shewed how 
little they realised the gravity of the case. Absent just then from 
London, the centre of political activity, and staying at a friend's 
house, the graver topics of conversation in a great measure gave 
jilace to such as were of a lighter and more varied character. The 
story of Sir Robert Walpole and the] Princess, here following, is 
sufficiently pronounced in its accents to startle most readers : — 

January 1st. 1776. — The fine weather in the forenoon in- 
duced us to walk out ; but the afternoon was dull, and the 
evening rainy. I meet here with Baretti's Travells, and 
Kempfer's History of Japan, with one or other of which I fill 
up gaps. 

2nd. — After breakfast M' Ellis gave us a more particular 
account of Sir Eob* Walpole on the death of Geo. 1. than I 
ever heard before, w*^'^ he says he had from S' Kob*'^ own 
mouth. Everybody considered Spencer Compton as the 
Minister, and paid their Court to him as such. Sir Eob* 
himself supposed he had no chance, tho' it appeared Compton 
had no talents for it, but was a meer [sic] formal mau, governed 
all by precedents ; and when the Queen's dower was proposed, 
searched to find the most w^^ had been settled on a Dowager, 
and found it 30,000£, and proposed it accordingly. Some 
about the Court hapned [sic\ to ask S"" Eob. Walpole what his 
opinion was ? He said he had not considered much about it, 
but he was clear that a less sum than 50,000£ ought not to be 
mentioned for a Queen. This was carried to her; for very 
soon after Lady Sandon [? indistinct] of the Queen's family, 
sent him a card to aquaint him that — " The fat bitch forgave 
M' Walpole, or Sir Eobert, if he was then Kn*."* He was 

* The addition of £20,000 to her dower, jjroposed by the man whom she 
thought had spoken disrespectfully of her, might be calculated to soften her 
feelings towards him. This Princess was Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline, 
daughter of John Frederick, Marquis of Brandenburgh-Anspach. She was 
married in Germany, Sep. 2, 1705, to Prince George of Hanover, Queen Anne 
being on the throne of England. On the death of Anne in 1714, the Elector 



Jan. 
1776. 



] DIARI AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 3 



amazed ; but concluded the Queen had been told he [had so] 
expressed himself while she was Princess. This caused him to 
seek an opportunity of throwing himself at the Queen's feet 
and declaring his innocence. 

The Queen's prejudice being removed, other matters were 
soon settled. Compton was made Earl of Wilmington and 
Presid* of the Council, w*'' a pension for life of 3,000£, and 
Walpole retained his posts and powers. 

A cloudy dull day, and except ^ an hour's walk on the 
Terrace, kept house. 

3rd. — [Mr. Jenkinson and his son arrived.] 

4th.— [Kain] . . . 

5th. — Left M' Ellis's house after a most polite and courteous 
entertainment of 10 days, and returned to London. Find, to 
my surprise, M'' Eich'^ Clarke arrived from N. England. 

6th. — At Lord G. Germaine's : corhunicated the intelligence 
I had rec*^ from Boston. I never saw him more dull. Con- 
demed Lord S. [Sandwich ?] for appointing such an Adm.* and 
supporting him when everybody else gave him up : said he did 
not know much of his successor : wondered at his being suffered 
to remain here so long after he ought to have sailed, &c. 

7th.— At the Old Jewry : M'" White, &c. 

In the evening M"^ Mauduit called, and gives an account of 



of Hanover came to the English throne as George I., when she and her husband 
took the position of Prince and Priacess of Wales ; and in 1727, when she was 
about forty, and he forty-three, they became King George II. and Queen 
Caroline, as she was usually called : and here we come to the point where, in 
some cases, the forgiveness of a Queen may be bought for £20,000 a year. 

The taunt was rather severe : — " Mr. Walpole, or Sir Eobert, if he was then 
Knight " — as if she did not know ! 

The following low and impertinent doggerel attempt at verses, taken from 
one of the Editions of Hume's History, is only tolerated here as going to 
support the idea of a portly figure in a lady. The impertinence runs thus — 

'• You may strut dapper George, but 'twill all be in vain. 
We know 'tis Queen Caroline, not you, that reign, 
You govern no more than Don Philip of Spain ; 
Then if you would have us faU down and adore you, 
Lock up your fat spouse, as your dad did before you." 

And yet, did not her great-grandson George the Fourth proclaim that " fat, 
fair, and forty " was perfection in a woman ? 

* Lord Sandwich was First Lord of the Admiralty. The Adm, probably 
refers to Admiral Graves, who in time was succeeded by Adm. Shuldham, 
sometimes written Shuldam in the Diary. 

B 2 



DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUJCEINSON. fme 



Ll776. 



one of the N. England privateers being brought in by a Man- 
of-War. She had 70 men aboard. He says the rebels had 
taken the Island of St. John's and 25 sail of vessels belonging 
to Pool, who were at Causo. 

Very stormy, and snow. 

8th. — The snow lay all day to-day in the squares and parts 
of the streets, tho' not very cold. It was the Tartar w*^** arrived 
yesterday : left Boston the 16 Dec. : sent express to bring the 
crew of a rebel brig coinissioned by Congress, and taken by 
Geo. Montagu. They seem not to know what to do with the 
prisoners here, being afraid to punish them as rebels, as the 
rebels threaten the like to their prisoners. Several store ships 
taken, and they are afraid of suffering for want of provisions as 
well as fuel at Boston. The story of St. Johns seems to be only 
two or three Beverly scooners, [sic] having plundered M'' Calbeck 
the Collector, and taken him and M'' Wright prisoners. They 
took vessels also in the Gut of Canso, but it does not appear 
what they were. 

Called upon M'' Clarke at M'' Copley's in the evening. 

9th. — At Lord Hardwicke's. M"^ Nath. Coffin came to town, 
being a passenger in the Tartar, from Boston. The snow, &c. . . . 

10th. — I walked to Devonshire Square and back. We have 
an account to-day, by the N. York packet, that Lord Dunmore 
had set up the Royal Standard, and a printed Proclamation 
invites all Whites and Blacks to come in : and the letters from 
Philad. say 2000 had joined him. Doctor Chandler says the 
people of N. York, or the major part, will join the K.'s troops, 
if any arrive, but it is certain the rebels are in possession of 
Mreal, [Montreal] and that Quebec is in danger. 

11th. — Called on the Bishop of London . . . [Letter from 
Boston, &c.] 

12th. — I paid James a quarter's wages, due Ocf 4th. Report 
from Virginia of Lord Dunmore, said to be confirmed by way 
of Ireland : but it is added that Lee, one of the Delegates, was 
at the head of a body of men to oppose him. 

13th. — Walked to the city again, and back. D"" Chandler, 
riucker, and S. Oliver, dined with us. A letter bro't me 
to-day, I suppose by a passenger in the Tarter from Judge 



f.^fel DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 



1776. J 



Oliver of 15 December, [not saved] very discouraging, L*^ 
Hardwicke, in a note says, 9 or 10 Battalions are ready in 
Ireland, and are to embark in the course of the next month. 

14th. — Snow storm continues, and I continued at home all 
day. 

15th. — A fair sky, but N.E. wind, moderate. There is now 
so much snow on the ground, that fresh butter is advanced 
from 9'^ to 14^^ the pound, and all vegetables in proportion. In 
the evening at M'^ Sewall's. 

16th. — Cold, and N.E. wind, continues. There is so much 
ice in the Thames as to obstruct business, and some say there 
has not been more since the winter after 1739, and they begin 
to fear a very hard winter. I went with M'" Sewall to Lincoln's 
Inn Hall, and introduced him to M'^ Thurlow and [M''] 
Wedderburne, and afterwards to M^ Jackson, at Southampton 
Buildings. 

M' Ellis called— returned with M" Ellis, M' and M'"^ Doyley 
to town yesterday. 

Billy ill with his bilious disorder all day. 

There is something yet remains to be settled concerning the 
Hessian troops, as M'^ Ellis says he finds, since he came to 
town. 

In his Letter Book, at this period, he entered his opinions on 
the amount of forces destined for America, more fully than in his 
Diary. The name of his correspondent is not retained, but he was 
apparently residing in Boston. I have an objection to degrading 
Governor Hutchinson's letters to the level of Foot Notes. Having 
been written by him, they are as authentic as his Diary, and often 
more valuable, as containing more information. An intermediate 
place was suggested to me by a practical printer, and in certain 
cases it has its merits, making it worthy of adoption. And where 
is the reader that does not look with dismay at the sight of a long 
Foot Note — his spontaneous feeling being a desire to avoid and 
skip it altogether ? And if he has courage to go through with it, 
he is likely to lose his equanimity at having the trouble to 
hark back in order to find his place in the text to go on. He 
writes to his American friend — 

" I thank you for your two last letters of Nov. 28, and Dec. 15, 
and for so particular a state of affairs. I have not subject for so 



6 DIABY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTOEINSON. [mS". 

circumstantial a letter, and if I had bo far as relates to publick 
measures, I am inidor restraint ; bosidos — conveyances from hence 
are more liable to accidents than they are from you. In general 
it is agreed that the force for America is as great as has been 
desired by the Commanders there, and as certain of being obtained 
as the state of human affairs, always liable to disappointments, 
will admit of. I believe there is no doubt that eighty thousand 
tons of transports, besides what are in America, are actually taken 
into the service. Their destination I had rather should be known 
from the Bearer, and from other accounts than from my conjec- 
tures. It is supposed the first embarkation of 7 Kegiments from 
Corke have been sailed some days. In addition to what had been 
before determined, Lord Loudoun on the 24:th, at an Audience 
after the King's Levee, informed him that 1500 of the Guards 
were very ready for service in America, if His Majesty thought 
fit. One tliousand I hear are ordered. I am always wishing, and 
yet always afraid, to hear from Boston. I count the days, and 
absurd as it is so near the close of life, I can hardly help wishing 
to sleep away the time between this and the spring, that I may 
escape the succession of unfortunate events which I am always in 
fear of. God is above all, a consideration which ought to keep 
the spirit from failing." 

The Diary continues — 

17th.— Called upon II' Ellis and W D'oyly. Met the 
people returning from the execution of Daniel and Eobert 
Perreau, twin brothers : as they came into the world, so they 
are gone out on the same day. Daniel was a Merchant, and 
great dealer in the Alley : lived with the wife of a Lieutenant, 
or some other officer in the Army named Rudd, as his own 
wife, and had several children by her. Robert is said to have 
had as fair a cliaracter as any man, and to], have been greatly 
beloved by all bis acquaintance in business, as an Apothecary 
of 12 or 1'100£ a year profit. There was no evidence against 
Eobert of any part in the forgery ; but it was certain he 
published a forged bond, and there were strong presumptions 
that he knew it to be forged, for it being offered as a bond of 
M"" Adair's [?] to M'" Drummond, was scrupled ; but Robert 
affirmed it to be M'' Adair's writing, and the next morning told 
Drummond he had seen M"" Adair, and that he acknowledged 



Jan 



me.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 



his hand, and though he had not seen him, yet went with 
Drummond to Adair to ascertain whether it was or not. 
Everybody agrees that IM" Eudd ought to have been hanged, 
as being the most guilty ; but the Jury had not evidence before 
them to convict her. 

Lady Franldand, Cromwell, Waldo, Gray and wife, dined 
with us. 

18th. — At Court : the Queen's Birthday. Very cold yet, 
but no snow to-day. 

19th. — Still the cold continues. I called at a shop by 
Charing Cross where are sold thermometers and other glasses, 
and inquired how low the mercury had been in Farenheit's, 
and was informed that out of doors it had been as low as 19, 
but in the house just below freezing. This would be called 
moderate winter weather in America. 
]VF Clarke and son spent the evening. 

At Lord Dartmouth's in the morning. I left with him a 
printed Vindication* of my conduct, which at my desire, he 
promised to shew to the King. I desired him to renew his 

motion to Lord North for my son. He lamented G 's 

misfortune, but said he did not see how Gov* could do other- 
wise than it did.f . . . 

20th. — At Lord North's, but could not see him. At Sir 
Gilbert Eliot's. He thinks Quebec is gone : says we have been 
deceived in supposing the Quebec Bill was agreeable to the 
French people. I thought infinite pains had been taken to 
make it disagreeable since it passed. He can't account for 
Carlton's scatteriag his forces about the country, and so 
leaving no part defended : intimated being disappointed in 

him. G , he said, was known, when appointed, not to be a 

fit person : blames his not following instructions to suppress all 
riots, &c., by his troops. I expressed my doubts of a Gov- 
ernor's directing the military in the Plantations, in a case 
where the K. would not do it in England, but observed that G. 
had no doubt. 

* This must be the Vindication alluded to at p. 575 of the former volume. 
There: s no printed copy among the H, papers. 

t This is doubtless the " G. Gr." mentioned at p. 686 of the other volume, 
who tried to sit upon two stools, and fell between both. 



8 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS nUTCHINSON. [ 



Jan. 

1776. 



I called upon W IMackenzy, Hill Street, who was abroad. 

In the evening at IM"" Knox's, Soho. He says six of the seven 
Rog^ at Corke were embarked, and he concludes the whole 
have been sailed some days : that thoy are to go first to Cape 
Fear : that Gov'' Martin has given strong assurance that many 
thousands in the back counties will take arms and join them 
he said further, that 4000 men had been in arms in S"' Carolina 
in favor of Govcrnm', whicli I had not heard before. Eight 
battalions more, in Ireland, are to sail for Quebec the first of 
March : one regiment is going immediately, in order to be at 
Isle Coudre before the ice above breaks up. The four thousand 
Brunswickers are also to go to Quebec: twelve thousand 
Hessians and Frazer's Highlanders are for New York, and the 
remaining force, to compleat [sic] 35000 rank and file, in- 
cluding those now in America, aie to join Howe, where he may 
order. Ehode Island is at present thought on. Eighty 
thousand tons of Transports are taken up. 

21st. — At the Old Jewry : a stranger preached. 

Dined at Lord Hardwicke's with Peggy, M"" Mauduit, and 
Auchmuty. In the evening at D^ Heberden's. Glasses in 
open air at 19. Wind changed to S.W., but a cold frozen air 
like some winter north winds in N. England. 

22nd. — More moderate in the morning. At M'' Ellis's near 
an hour. Dined at the Attorney General's, with the Sollicitor 
Gen. [Thurlow and Wedderburn,] and M'' Jackson, and 
Sewall. 

Cold again, afternoon. Wind northerly again. 

The Americans, by their agents in England, were made fully 
acquainted with the amount of forces collected in various parts of 
the British dominions, with the times of their sailing, and even in 
some degree, with the points of destination to which they were 
directed. The forces mentioned above may seem sufficiently for- 
midable for the purposes intended. Eelief in any form that might 
afford deliverance to the half-starved and half-frozen inhabitants 
of Boston, naturally enough, was eagerly looked for. There is an 
original letter from the beleaguered city, written by Dr. Peter 
Oliver at the period to which we have arrived, couched in his 
usual excited and amusing style, wherein he first discourses on the 



Jan 

1776 



:.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTQHINSON. 9 



fate of nations, and closes witli a prayer for a new tobacco box. 
He sends his letter by the obliging hand of Sir William Pepperell, 
Baronet, the second of that title who, like so many other loyal 
men, was retiring back into the serener atmosphere of the Mother 
Country, where, though he got quiet and security, he suffered the 
pain of knowing that his vast estates were seized and sold to 
strangers, and his character traduced to justify it. There will be 
some account of the Pepperell family further on — modern and 
original, by one of the representatives of it. 

Hear Governor Hutchinson's lamentation, poured out on the 8th 
of December, 1775 — " Mr. Hatch called upon me, as he &^, by y" 
direction, and asked if I had no letter to send to Amer[ica] ? I 
never think of it but w"" distress. My children suffering the calam. 
of war — my property taken possess, of by my enemies, and sold or 
destroyed — as elegant a house and appendages as I ever desired to 
enjoy, turned into Barracks — and my most priv. lett' and papers 
put into the hands of malevolent men, and such scraps published 
to the world as they suppose will hurt my character ; and possibly 
they may answer their purpose w*^ some of my countrymen ; but 
here they fail of their end, for even those who are in opposition 
to Gov* wonder at their folly, nothing having appeared out of 
character ; and after one or two extracts had been reprinted in the 
anti-Gov* papers, no further notice has been taken of them. But 
the wickedness lyes in giving, by their comments and remarks, a 
sense and meaning diflf from what they know in their consciences, 
to be true. I never concealed my principles. I have repeatedly 
declared against violent opposition to the authority of Parliament ; 
the measures used by tarring and feathering, and other injuries to 
such persons as thought they had a right to act according to their 
own judgment ; and have freely spoke my opinion of the necessity 
of Pari*' exerting its authority, by incapacitating persons guilty of 
such acts, and their abettors, for publick posts, and by laying other 
penalties, according to the nature and degree of offences W^^ I 
believe in early times would have been effectual." &c. 

The Doctor's letter runs as follows : — 

" Boston, Jan^ 23'" 1776. 
" Dear Brother Elisha, 

" I take this opportunity by S" W"" Pepperell to inform you I 
received y"^ last of Sep*^ — 

" At last the Old North Meeting House is pull'd down by order 
of the General [Howe] for fuell for the Associators. D"^ Cooper's 



10 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCETNSON. [fjfg. 



Meeting House is BarrackB for the troops, find so is Howard's 
Meetin<; Hoxiso. 

" Wo liavo lately receiv'd good iiitelligonco from your side of 
the water, such as seiz'd money for the Kebells :* a largo number 
of troops for America. I hope we shall como to rights next 
summer. 

" Last Saturday! Gen' Clinton sailed for Virginia with a few of 
the Light Infantry, to join Lord Dunmore. We have just receiv'd an 
ace* of a defeat of the Eebells at Quebec : 300 killed : it comes from 
the Eebells. Last ev^ was acted at the Theatre the tragedy of 
Tamerlane, and The Blockade of Boston. I did not attend for want 
of money. 

" We are threatned [sic] daily of being attack't by the Eebells. 
For my part I wish onr "Wife's and children were out of the way. 
I shall stand it to the last : if I can but live to see the Eebells 
disarni'd, and 10 Acts of Parliament where we have one now, will 
I believe secure our posterity from any further rebellions. Cruel 
hard life I lead upon expense, and in no business ; but I believe, 
when matters are settled, I shall have business enough. 

" I wish you would send me by a safe private hand, who may be 
coming in an arm'd vessell that you are acquainted with, a cheap 
Tobacco Box of iron Japann'd, in imitation of Turtle shell, ab* two 
inches and ^ diameter, round and flat ; as I have left off snuff, I 
have began upon tobacco. However, I leave it to your judgment, 
not more that 2/- charge. 

" My love to all. *' I am Y" Affectionately, 

" Peter Oliver, Jun^" 

2.Srd. — At Lord Suffolk's. He promised to mention to the 
King my sufferings by taking my estate in America out of my 
hands, and that I would have desired an audience, if I had not 
wished to avoided giving His Majesty trouble. I saw M'^ 
Wedderburn there, who thinks Boston will not be abandoned 
by the troops. 

Cold continues. Evening at L'^ Gage's. 

24th.— Dined with M' Agar. S^ Charles Thompson, S"" Grey 
Cooper, S'" Geo. Hay, M"" Hely Hutchinson, and M"^ Courteuay, 
an Irish gentleman, formed the company. . . 

* He appears to mean — that money had been seized which had been 
intended for the use of the rebels. 
t It was now Wednesday. 



f^fil DIABT AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUIGEINSON. 11 



1776. J 



25th. — At Lord George G 's Levee. Very little passed, 

M' Pownall being present. In the city at M"" Smith's, Alder- 
manbury, to settle what stores to send to friends in Boston. 

Cold, and E. wind continue. 

In a letter of the present period to some friend whose name is 
not recorded, the Governor has an entry in his Letter Book hearing 
date January 27, 1776, in which he speaks highly of the capabilities 
and the fitness of the nobleman whose Levee he had just been 
attending. He writes— 

" It would have been impossible, on JJ^ Dartmouth's going out, 
to have found a successor who would have escaped abuse. I don't 
know of any j)erson more to general satisfaction than L^ George 
Germaine. He has the character of a great man, and I verily believe 
is a true friend to both countries, and would have no inducement 
but a regard to the publick interest, to accept of a post attended 
with so many difficulties." 

In the same Book the day after, that is to say, on the 28th of 
January, writing from St. James's Street to his brother Foster, 
who was shut up in Boston, he says — 

" I have been much dispirited for many weeks past, more from 
the distresses of my family and friends, than from the loss of my 
property, the greatest part whereof I find is taken from me. It 
will be a great relief to me if I can hear you have lived tho' the 
winter. 

" The force gone and going to America is greater that I ever 
expected, owing much to Lord G. G.'s zeal for the service of his 
country. God grant it may produce peace and tranquility to the 
most infatuated people upon the globe. 

" You wrote me in one of y'" lett^ to know the state of M'' Hall's 
money. I think I wrote you an answer ; but from being so full 
of anxiety I am not certain, and had rath, repeat than neglect 
informing you. 

" It is so uncertain into whose hands letters may fall, that I do 
not think it advisable to write you more particularly. It's natural 
for you to believe that disappointm' and anxiety will cause age to 
advance faster than otherwise, in my regular way of living, it 
would do. I am however, in tolerable health, and do not despair 
of seeing before I die, my dear friends, to all of whom I desire 
to be remembered." 

On the same day he addresses a letter to his son Thomas, also 
in Boston, which he begins thixs — 



12 DIART AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCSIN80N. fme 



H"6. 



" ]\[y Dear Son, 

" I am never free from anxiety and distress for my friends 
in Boston, but never folt a p;roatov dogreo than at tliis time. 

" The Tartar arrived 3 w' ago, aV '' brings tlio lett' as late as the 
16 of Dec"^: the E. Avinds ever since have kept out all the trans- 
ports w'' sailed w"' her, one excepted, the news of whose arrival 
came yesterday. I have y' Ictf also by the vessels w"'*' sailed 1 
daj's before the T., and M' Clarke and M' Coffin, both toll mo 
they saw you just before they sailed. I hupo somo of the ships w"* 
supjilies might arrive ; but as this and other like events are out of 
our power to direct, or even to know here, I know of no relief but 
a patient acquiescence in, and submission to, the will of God. 

" The weather is more severe than has been felt since 1739/40, 
and it would bo accounted rather cold in N.E., the thermometer 
being about 19 ; it puts by all business, and prevents an armed 
vessel for sailing w"' the produce of the subscript, money for the 
army. Aboard this vessel I have procured a promise for somo 
necessaries for you, w'^'' [will] be ready as soon as the sea will 
admit of it. 

" It is uncertain what state you will be in when they arrive, 
but I thought it bettor to ship them if there was but a small chance 
for relieving you, than that you should have the ship arrive 
withoTit them, tho' they should be of no service. 

" All you say about my estate does not affect my spirits. It is 
a greater loss of goods at Milton than I expected. Perhaps I may 
not live to have it restored to me, or to receive a compensation, 
but I hope my children will." [Aside — They haven't yet. 
Patience ! patience !] 

The winter of 1775-6 seems to have been very severe; and yet 
an equally low degree of temperature has not unfrequently been 
observed in England within living memory — at all events for 
short periods. Addressing himself to Mr. Winslow on the 30th of 
January he says in his Letter Book — 

" It will be to no purpose for any of us who have lost our estates 
for our fidelity to seek relief at present. We must exercise 
patience, and hope that in some way, and at some time or other, 
we shall, in a greater or less degree be relieved. It has been a 
very cold season in Eng'^ for 3 weeks past. I would fain hope 
that there is no reason to infer it is proportionably cold with you." 

I would wish to make a remark on the last sentence. The 
winter I was in America was accounted mild, the frost in Boston 



Jan 
1776 



:.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 13 



and in New York being lenient in its pressure. At the latter city 
there was a good deal of floating ice in the North River, and great 
heaps on the banks ; but as the waters continued open, several 
persons who were engaged in the coasting trade, who had unrigged 
and laid up their small craft for the winter, rigged them again in 
January, and sent them to sea. If there was but little winter in 
America, I concluded there was none in England, basing my con- 
viction upon the general prevalence of milder seasons in the latter 
country : my surprise was great therefore, on nearing England, 
when I beheld the hills in the Isle of Wight, towards the latter 
part of the month of March, all covered with snow. On expressing 
my astonishment, one of the sailors told me that the degree of 
temperature was generally just contrary on the two sides of the 
Atlantic, and that having been a mild winter in America, it had 
been a cold one in England. Whether there is any real truth in 
this assertion, I must leave to meteorologists to determine. In 
commenting on the cold in England, the Governor expresses a 
hope that it is not proportionably colder or more cold in America, 
so that this notion, or whatever it be, was not known to him. 

26th. — Colder than it has been since the frost began : clear 
E. wind — has all the feeling of NNW. in America. In the 
city again — at Mauduit's, Palmer's, and Gines's. Called also 
upon M' Taylor, Bread Street, and M'' Amory, College Hill. 

27th. — Two of the Transports which came out with the 
Tarter, we have the news of to-day : other three not yet in. 

Flucker, Quincy, D. Greene, and T. Clarke dined with us. 

I called on M' Cornwall — from home: on M"^ D'Oyley. 
This, I think the coldest air I have yet felt in England, but 
the Thames is not quite close. With this degree of cold I 
think that Cambridge river, as low as Boston Neck, would be 
froze over. The weather stops all shipping in the river from 
business. 

28th. — The cold continues : clear sun, and thaws only out of 
the wind, and on the south side of the great streets. 

A vertiginous turn [swimming in the head] yesterday, 
discouraged me from sitting in a cold Church or Meeting House. 

29th. — The cold and clear weather still continues, which 
must retard the Americian expeditions. M'^ Keene called, and 
seems to have more spirits than when affairs were in a much 



14 DIABT AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HU2OEINS0N. [nVe! 

better state. Yesterday I was at M' Cornwall's, He says 
everything goes on with respect to troops as he could wish. 
The House of Commons met the 26"', but no motion has been 
yet made respecting America, uud they have hardly been able 
to make 100 IMembers, to proceed on controverted Elections. 

30th.— I went into the city to M"" Strahan's, New Street. 
He is very sanguine in his expectation that Government will 
succeed in America, and a report prevails that Lord Howe 
will go out in command of the naval force. It is said in the 
city that a transport is arrived which left Boston the 2"^^ Jan., 
and that Shuldham, and several transports from England were 
arrived, but no letters yet, and some doubt the news. Cold — 
Glass 19. Mauduit says his has been at 13 : in some parts out 
of town it has been 11. The Thames in some places closed, but 
nobody ventures across. The current is swift, and the rapidity 
increased since 1739, by the obstruction from three or four new 
bridges below Fulham bridge, otherwise I think it would have 
been passable.* 

31st. —]\F Curwen has a letter from Salem from IVF Pynchon, 
who writes that John Adams is appointed Chief Justice : Will™ 
Gushing, Will™ Read, and N. Peasler [? indistinct] Sergeant 
Judges of the Superior Court. 

Feb^ 1st. — Cold rather abates. M' Lyell has a letter from 
Plimouth which says a ship is arrived in 25 days from Boston ; 
and the people say they met Admiral Shuldham going in ; and 
on Lloyd's Books the Olive Branch, Frampton, is entered as 
arrived, but it is thought there must be some mistake. 

Smith, Oxnard, and Whitworth dined with us. 

2nd. — No further account of the Boston ship. At Lord 
North's Levee. He had heard nothing but the common 
report. Saw Guy Johnson there, of New York, arrived from 
Quebec. 

Called upon M"^ Watson at Garlick Hill: find him much 

* The evils of the ancient and unscientific practice of obstructing and 
damming back the upper waters of a river by a number of clumsy stone piers, 
are fully recognised in the present day. The clearing away of old London 
Bridge, with its multitude of piers, had the eifect of lowering the upper waters, 
by giving them a free run down stream. The fewer obstructions the better. 
The modern London Bridges are noble examples of scientific construction. 



me.] BIABT AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTGEINSON. 15 



dissatisfied with. American measures : still laments the Quebec 
and the American Fishery Bills, both which he blamed the 
Ministry for when they were passing. M'^ Smith has letters 
from his father and other correspondents in Salem, dated in 
November, and representing the determined state of the 
people to die rather than submit, and yet urging an accommo- 
dation.* 

More moderate to-day than for 3 weeks past, and some rain, 
but the Thames is froze over at Eichmond, and the streets of 
London are covered with a body of ice 6 or 8 inches thick in 
some places, and as hard as the pavement. 

3rd. — The frost seems to be over, and a general thaw to be 
began. It is now agreed that Lord Howe is going to America 
to command at sea. 

4th.— At the Old Jewry. M'" White, &c. 

A little while at Court, and in the evening at D"" Heberben's. 
The observers settle it that Farenheit's thermometer has been 
as low as 12 or 11^ at Greenwich, and that, one morning only : 
the general state for about 3 weeks has been about 20. D'^ 
Herbeden, upon mention of some of the New Eiver pipes being 
stop'd, remarked upon the great benefit to the city from that 
river, which not only a supply of more healthy water than it 
was ever furnished with before, but by the overflow of the 
cisterns, purified the streets and vaults ; and he verily believed 
was the principal cause for the last 100 years there had been 
no plague, and other malignant distempers proceeding from 
nastiness and corruption, which formerly were common, and 
seldom seven years passed without. 

5th. — The weather is now moderate — the thermometer at 
47 — the wind west — and we may expect vessels from America. 

6th. — A vessel from Boston — another from Halifax. Letters 
by the latter of 2°*^ Jan^ say they have an account that Quebec 
was in the enemy's hands: from Boston December 28: four 
transports had arrived after the 16**^, and one was taken. I 
have no letters. 

7th. — At the King's Levee, which was fuller than I had 
known it. I observed a great number of officers kissed the 
* Only the accommodation was to be according to their own fashion. 



16 DIABY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. [n?S: 

King's haiul, I suppose on promotions. They have nothing 
relating to Quebec at Court. General Burgoyne told mo he 
should go to Cauada. 

Tho determination of the Americans to invade Canada was a 
very bold measure, and it was prosecuted with untiring energy and 
pereeverance under extraordinary difficulties, and in the midst ot 
great severities of climate. Not awed by the arrival of successive 
bodies of fresh trooj^s from England, but feeling that they were 
fully able to cope with them, they determined to undertake some- 
thing more, and according to the grandiloquent style and 
phraseology of the older historians, " they resolved on carrying the 
war into the enemy's country ; " — wherefore they told oif bodies of 
men, who proceeded to attack Canada vigorously, 

8th. — A vessel from New York. Col. Dalrymple and other 
passengers came out Jan. 10. They had no news of the taking 
of Quebec. The Congress rose higher and higher. One of 
Dr. Chandler's letters says they had fitted out 5 sail from 32 
to 14 guns, and it was thought were going against Wallace at 
K. Island, and had ordered the several Colonies to build 30 
sail of Men-of-War. They heard that Lord Dunmore had 
retired aboard the ships. I have a letter from my son to-day 
at Boston, dated the 21 December : * had all got well through 
the small-pox, and had a considerable supply of provisions and 
fuel. 

9th. — [Dinner party. Conversation.] 

lOtb. — At J\P Ellis's. This morning he says he now knows 
that 50,000 men, on paper, are to be in America this sumer ; 
and he knows so much of raising them, that he depends on at 
least 40,000 effective men. 

M'^ Robie of Marblehead arrived from Halifax. . . . 

11th. 12th. [At Church. Took a walk.] 

13th. — The Somerset Man-of-War arrived from Halifax : 
sailed the 14th of January. Eeport at first that Quebec had 
surrendered, but contradicted. It seems agreed that Shuld[h]am 
was arrived at Boston, and that he had made new arrangements 
which pleased the people. It is said they had begun to throw 

* This letter unfortunately has not been preserved. All letters from the 
interior of Boston at this particular time would be welcome. 



ie/ 




ANDREW OLIVER. 
Lieut. G-Dvernor of Massachusetts. 



Peb. 

1776. 



] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 17 



shells from the enemy, and one had fallen between the Chapel 
and the house that formerly was Col. Wendell's : this was on 
Xmas Day. The Conanicut people killed Wallace's Boatswain. 
He ordered a party ashore which killed 5 men, burnt 13 houses, 
one belonging to me, and brought off 50 head of cattle. Sir 
F. Bernard called. I could not lodge him. 

14th. — Letters from Boston by the Julius Csesar, a returned 
store-ship, at Plymouth : came out 19 Jan. M'^^ Oliver, the 
L' Gov'^ Iftdy, w**^ her family, arrived in her,* and M''^ Went- 
worth. They [in Boston] began to pull down the Old North 
Meeting House for fuel the 18. L* Gov. writes he thought 
they would annoy the town from Phips's farm as soon as the 
frost would admit of their working at their batteries. My son, 
the 15, rec^ my letter of the 24:th Sept., f which he says em- 
barrassed him, it being difficult to remove, and yet it would be 
necessary if the troops removed. What is said yesterday of 
shells, is now said to have been cannon balls. 

15th. — M"^ Troutbeck came to town, having arrived in the 
Somerset from Halifax after an exceeding difficult passage. 

M"^ D'Oyley called and spent an hour. He thinks the 
troops will still go forward from Ireland to the southern 
Colonies, tho' it is so late. The Hospital Ship had got into 
Crook Haven : the rest of the fleet at Cork. 

E., [Elisha] P., [Peggy] and I dined at I\P Watson's, 
Gailick Hill. 

Mr. Troutbeck, like other Stormy Petrels in troubled waters, 
■was one of the many birds of passage now crossing the Atlantic, 
and if we may judge from the Letter Book, which contains 
information as authentic as the Diary, and generally more copious, 
we perceive that the Americans were dropping in thick and fast 
upon the English shores. In the second volume there is a Letter to 
Mr. Paxton of February the 16th, begun by the Governor himself, 
but finished by the hand of Peggy. Speaking of the new arrivals, 
it says — 

" The passengers in the Julius Csesar are not yet come to town. 
M"^ Troutbeck arrived the day before yesterday — had a very 

* It lias before been observed that Thomas Oliver, the preseut Lieut. 
Governor, was no relative of Andrew Oliver his predecessor, 
t It is printed at p. 538, vol. i. 

VOL. II. 



18 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. \l'^a 



L1776. 



stormy passage, and is much emaciated, but will soon recruit. 
Buutiueau and M" Borland have been in town, but are fixed at 
Bristol. Lady Frankland has made a visit too, but is gone home 
to Chichester, near the tliree Flag Officers she Icnew at Boston. 
Admiral iSlont^igu called on me to-day — grows I'at with prosperity. 
M' Jo. Green and his wife keep house altogether, except when 
forced out. He has dined with me about half a dozen times, Avhieh 
I believe is as much as he has done at all other pla(;os besid(;8 his 
own room. Flucker can't like this country as well as his own, and 
everything goes cross with Auchmuty. They have been a little 
funny with his wife in the newspaper, and brought her a-bed with 
twins: ho guesses what quarter it comes from. Sewall was very ill, 
but is now well. He, Gray, and Waldo, and Robinson have taken 
houses about half a mile from Hyde Park Turnpike towards Bromp- 
ton, where there is a row of 50 or 60 houses built since you were here, 
but is not a clever situation, and they are growing tired of it. 

" I did very well the first winter, but have had a bad cold for 
the last five or six months, except with short intervals of relief. I 
hope as spring comes on to recruit, but am much enfeebled, though 
I have not been so bad as to keep house for any considerable time 
together." 

16th. — A motion yesterday in the H. of Com^ by T. Towns- 
heiid, to censure the K.'* declaration to the Parliam* of Ireland, 
assuring them that tlie troops from thence to America should 
be at the charge of this kingdom — w'^'' assurance could not be 
given without the authority of Parliam^ Lost : — 224 against 
104 or 6.* This seems to be the last effort. 

I have been much indisposed to-day, and tried walking up 
and down the Park, and round Piccadilly. 

I paid my stable man for horses to 5^^ January. 

Admiral Montagu called upon me. 

17th. — No news of Sir P. Parker w*"^ the ships and Lord 
Cornwallis, the land force there sailing from Ireland. After 
several days W. wind, it changes to E. to-day, and rain. 

Flucker, Waldo, E. Clarke, Gray, and T. Bernard dined 
[with him.] Sir F. B. promised, but went out of town a little 
before dinner to M'' Scrope's. 

* Adolphus, 2nd Edit., ii. 308, discusses the question more full}', and 
gives the Division on the Debate as 224 against 106. 



J^te.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTGHINSON. 19 

18th.— At the Old Jewry— ^r White. 

In the evening at D"" Heberden's — Bp. Bath and Wells, Dean 
Tucker, T)^ Ross, General Parslow, &c. 

19th. — Breakfasted at Dean Tucker's lodgings : D^' Chandler 
and Cooper there. The Dean is writing an answer to M*" 
Locke upon Government. He says, properly enough, all the 
talk about an original compact, is idle ; but he adds that Man 
is gregarious, and not only associate, but [men] take their first 
notions of Gov^ from instinct. I thought he had better consider 
well the latter part before he threw it out in print. I rather 
thought feeling the want of Government, first puts into men 
the thought of submitting to it. He said he would think more 
upon it. 

20th. — At ]VF Cornwall's. Lord Hardwicke sent me a note 
to tell me L*' Cornwallis sailed from Corke the 13'**, and was 
certainly bound to the southward from Virginia to S. Carolina. 

21st. — At the King's Chapel, being Ash- Wednesday, to hear 
the Bishop of London, who preaches as Dean of the Chapel on 
this day. The King not present. From the character of 
Abram, that he would command his household, &c., he re- 
commended care of children and servants — lamented the dis- 
sipation of the present age, &c. — and delivered his sermon, 
considering his age, with unusual fervor and vivacity. 

Two Sewalls, and Clarke jun"" dined with us. 

22nd. — Account of Admiral Graves's arrival from Boston in 
18 days at Portsmouth. My letter from T. Oliver 22°'* January, 
but it is said that there is advice of later date, — that Mont- 
gomery and 70 men were killed before Quebec, and that Arnold 
and 300 were taken prisoners. This gives some spirits to 
Administration, who had given up Quebec. 

23rd. — We hear to-day that the Trident came out with the 
Preston, Admiral Graves, and that Sir W°* Pepperell is aboard, 
and other passengers. 

24th. — At M'^ Ellis's this morning. He has a letter from 
Paxton dated the 2^** of February, with a more particular 
account about Quebec than any other. He says an express was 
arrived at Boston from Rhode Island, which gave an account 
of an express from Schuyler from Ticonderoga to the Governor 

c 2 



20 DJAliY AND LETTEliS OF THOMAS JlVTCIIlNSON. \_^^ti\ 

of Connecticut, advising thut j\Ioutgoniery with 1500 men had 
attempted to take Quebec by escalade on the I*'' of January : 
that they eutred tlio toNvn, w''' must mean tlio lower town : 
that 70 men were killed, and 3Iontgomery among the rest, and 
a Basset and many other ollicers : that Arnold was wounded, 
and a 3Iajor Green of 1th'' Island, ami oOO made prisoners : 
that tlio rest of the army were routed : that Schuyler had 
pressed a strong reinforcement for the army in Canada : that 
they had brought mortars, canon, «X:c., from Ticonderoga to the 
Ivebel army before Boston, w*^'' consisted of 12000 men: that 
the liebels were building 30 odd ships in different parts to be 
ready in April — and many other articles of news : so that now 
there seems to be no doubt of the truth of the substance of the 
Canadian intelligence. 

S"" W. Pepperell sent a letter from Boston to E. II.* i 

According to the arithmetical principles of the Rule of Three, 
and the corolhuy of a well constructed syllogism, the word 
"Rebel" used above, ought now to be withdrawn. Dr. Peter 
Oliver uses it in some of his letters freely eiaough to shock our 
sensibilities ; but then that young man seems to liavo had a rather 
excitable temperament, (judging by the tone of his phraseology,) 
and then he was shut up in the beleaguered city, stewing, or 
freezing, or starving, according to the change of time or season, and 
was sutferiiig persecution and the loss of property, and then ho 
might say in his heat that all men are liars, or some men arc 
Rebels. But the time is past. We have not forgotten those good 
old lines, where American treason has prospered so well — 

" Treason doth never prosper — what's tlie reason? 
Why, when it prospers, none dare call it treason." 

25th. — At the Temple : a stranger preached, tho' D"" Thur- 
low, the Master, was present. At the Drawing-Koom : the King 
more inquisitive about my being here, and what business I came 
on when I was here before, f than usual. In the evening at D'' 
Heberden's — a small company. 

26th. — Went^ into the city, and found I had recovered my 

* This is the letter of Dr. Peter Oliver already given, 
t The visit of Mr, Hutchinson to England in 1741, being 35 years before 
the period to which we have arrived, has been alluded to in vol. i. p. 51. 



JIar 
1116 



.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 21 



strength, and walked there and back witliout weariness. 
Entered Guildhall with Wilkes's mob, who breakfasted at the 
]^[ansion House, and were as great blackguards as can well be 
conceived, and seemed ripe for a riot. The contest is between 
Wilkes and Hopkins, for the Chamberlain's place, who is 
elected by the Livery. Never was so near Wilkes, to have so 
full a view since I have been in England. 

In the evening at M" Ellis's rout, where there was a vast 
assembly of nobility and gentry, equal to any I have seen in 
England. 

27th. — Wilkes lost his election for Chamberlain ; Hopkins 
exceeding near 200 votes, in between 5 and 6000, the number 
of voters. It is said the whole Livery would not exceed 
7000. . . . 

28th. — M""^ Oliver* sent a note to acquaint me of her being 
in Titchfield Street, and my daughter and I called upon her. 
Sir William Pepperell, and his brother Sparhawk called upon 
me. S"" W™ is more discouraged about the event of (Vmerican 
affairs than anybody. His spirits are very low from the loss of 
his Lady. 

Called on S"" H. Houghton and W Mackenzie, but neither at 
home. Three or four days past the weather has been mild, like 
the beginning of April in New England, and the trees are as 
forward here as at that season there. 

29th. — At Lord G. Germaine's, and afterwards at Lord 
North's Levee. The latter intimated the probability of the 
troops leaving Boston. I said what I could in behalf of the 
inhabitants, &c., and of the Council's leaving the Province, 
which was like giving up the government. He said it was 
much the same thing to have no power, or room to exercise the 
powers of government. 

March 1st. — A day without rain, &c. . . Wilkes made a 
speech to the Livery to-day, charging them with being as 
corrupt as the House of Coiiions, which has lost him friends ; 
and being down, it is hoped he will never rise again. 

2nd. — By appointment at 1/ George Germaine's. Presented 

* rrobubly the Lient.-Govcrnor's wife, recently arrived, 



22 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON, [me'. 

to him i\I' Apthorpe's rotition, in behalf of M' Eliakim 
Hutchinson's family.* Mentioncrl Flncker's hard case, but 
chiefly dwelt on the inexpediency of removiu}^ the troops from 
Boston. He said he never was more astonished than when he 
came into office to find — which he did by accident — that a 
pcremtory [.*>'/(;] orch^r had come from Lord Dartmouth, at all 
events to remove them. This must bo done in November or 
December. He immediately applied to the Kin^, who said the 
order was conditional ; but he assured his IMajesty it was 
absolute ; and not only wrote a publick, but private letter to 
General Howe ; though his great confidence was in the im- 
possibility of carrying the order into execution. How it would 
be now, he could not determine — whether, if the Kebels were 
W(^alc, Howe would not strike a blow ; or whether he would keep 
a garrison in l^oston ; or whether he wonld not take post in the 
neighbourhood. I suppose he referred to a proposal for forti- 
fying Nantasket. I mentioned the neglect of performing the 
promises made to me. He condemned it: attributed it to 
Lord North's indolence : said Lord Dartmouth could prevail on 
him if he would : he should dine with him : promised to speak 
to him, and would let me know how it stands. 

M"" Binney, one of the Council for Nova Scotia, dined with 
us, and Fiucker, 

3rd. — At the Temple, Peggy with me. By a ship from 
Virginia, an account of the burning of the town of Norfolk. 
The circumstances not agreed : some say the rebels fired on 
the ships, and the fire was returned upon the town, which set 
some houses on fire, and the rebels burnd [sie] the rest. 

4th.— Called on S' W. PepperrelLf M^ Ellis called. At 
M"^ Knox's in the evening with Fiucker. M"" Knox says a 
scooner from Virginia has orders, if troops are going out, to 

* ]\Ir.s. Eliakim H. had a daughter Kate, and a son William. 

The Refugees from America, scared from their ruined homes, had taken 
flight across the Atlantic, and were pitching down upon England by sixes 
and sevens, like rooks upon a corn field, to see what grain they could pick up ; 
but so numerous were the flocks becoming, that the custodians of the granaries 
in the old country had great difficulty in finding a few grains each for all the 
hungry mouths. 

t The two letters r in the middle of the Baronet's name, do not appear to 
be the approved spelling, though so written sometimes. 



Mar. 

1776, 



] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTOHINSON. 23 



return with goods. There are no letters to the Seer'' of State. 
Private letters relate the affair of Norfolk, as mentioned 
yesterday. He blames L** Dunmore for a very ill-judged 
attempt upon the rebels. He is now sure the Liverpool and 
two sloops-of-war being there, and Cap. Hammond and General 
Clinton near at hand when these advices came away, 

5th. — At M'" D'Oyley's. He says things now go on to his 
mind, and he hopes to see America in order before another 
year. He complimented me with an opinion, that I ought to 
go out soon. 

6th. — A steady moderate rain all day, which tho' scarce any 
day is without rain at this season, is not common in London. 
We all dined at W Buvch's in Chesterfield Street, w*»^ M' 
Flucker and E. Clarke. A vessel is said to be arrived at 
Corke, which left New York 5 days after the last, and a letter 
is published as from Albany of Jan. 10, which says Arnold was 
drawn into a snare by a correspondence Avith one Grant, a 
Connecticut man in Quebeck, who opened a gate and let him 
and his Company into the lower town, where they found they 
were betrayed, &c. 

7th. — W Clarke and Auchmuty called on me, and were 
anxious to do something to shew the sense of the Americans 
in London, of the removal of the troops from Boston, and 
particularly the difficulties to which the inhabitants would be 
exposed.* I went to L'' Suffolk, and let him know how uneasy 
we were. He gave me more encouragement tlian I have had 
before, that they would not be removed. His Lordship told 
me at the same time, that he had said to the King that I 
proposed desiring an audience, to represent to him my losses 
in New England, and the distresses of my family, but was 
unwilling to give him the trouble. The King answered — " I 
hope the time of retribution is not far off." 

8th. — A rumor to-day that the news from Boston of the 
repulse at Quebec was not well founded, and that letters 

* This must refer to the loyal Americans and Refugees, who were anxious 
for the safety of their friends in the beleaguered city, now under protection of 
the English forces, as, if the troops were removed, as the Duke of Richmond, 
Lord Chatham, and some others proposed, they would be exposed to the 
tender mercies of Washington's army. 



24 VJABT AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS HUTGEINSON. fms 



\_Vi1% 



from N. York of Jaii'' 18, by ^^ay of Ireland, took no notice 
of it. 

Otli. — I^I"" Douglas tin's niorning met me and said Lord Mahon 
l)nd told him there was a letter from N. York of 8"' Feb'', and 
no mention of (Jnebee, and that at Almon's shop they were all 
in spirits, supposing the news without loundation ; and soon after 
IsV J. Clarke came in and acquainted me a vessel was arrived 
from N. York in 27 days, and he could not learn in the city 
that the news was confirmed ; but upon going to Lord (x. G.'s 
ofYice I found all the former accounts confirmed by a Phila- 
delphia publication ; and Gov. Tryon's letter supposes Govern- 
ment to have gained greater advantages. 

An account of Lee's being at N. York with 3000 men, and 
having disarmed the Long Islanders, which shews they are not 
all of a mind. It was feared New York would be burnt by one 
side or the other. 

10th. — At the Old Jewry. Sir H. Houghton feared the 
accounts from Boston were false, but was much pleased with 
the account I gave him of the Y^ork news, which he had not 
heard before. M"" Knox called and gave me a full account of 
what they had from York — copy of a letter from Skene at 
Hartford to Tryoo, tho' anonymous to prevent discovery, 
whicli mentions the accounts they had from the Express : that 
Carleton had sallied out after the repulse and killed 200: that 
he had hanged up 22 Canadians as Eebels : that Worster had 
left Montreal and retreated to S* Johns. Skene is wild, and 
his accounts always doubtful. Tryon hoped he should prevail 
on the Indians to destroy the batteaux and craft on the 
Lake. 

11th. — Lord Hardwicke, having presented Miss H. with two 
tickets, I went with her this evening to the Pantheon, being 
the first time I had seen it ; and though it is thought as 
magnificent a show as any in Europe, or rather, as grand and 
elegant a room, yet I have no inclination to go a second time. 
M*^ Burch and his family were with us. 

12th. — So many vessels of Lord Cornwallis' fleet have put 
back, being separated in a gale of wind, that it is said a vessel 
is gone to overtake the squadron if possible, and to order them 



Mar. 
1776. 



] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS BUTCEINSON. 25 



direct to Boston. The wind has been northerly yesterday and 
to-day, and probably the ontward bound may sail. 

13th. — In the morning at W Jenkinson's : afterwards Lord 
Hardwicke's, who read part of a letter from Sir Jos. Yorke of 
2nd March, that the Hessians were stopped in the Hanover'* 
dominions by order from Lord Suffolk, the transports not 
being ready, but were again on their march: that they were 
greatly concerned lest they should not embark ; and only one 
officer had resigned. 

M'' Ellis, and afterwards Lord Hillsborough called : The 
latter staid more than an hour : says D. of Grafton will move 
to-morrow to bring in a Bill to repeal the Act for altering 
Massachusetts Charter. 

14th. — The Duke of Grafton's motion in the House of Lords 
did not prove to be what Lord Hillsborough expected, but a 
motion that if any representation should be made by the 
Americans to the General or to Commissioners setting forth 
their claims, there might be an immediate suspension of arms, 
and that His Majesty should be assured by Lords and Commons, 
that such claims should be taken into consideration. A long 
debate ensued, but the motion was rejected by about 90 to 30.* 

15th. — A fine soft day, the wind about SW, and remarkably 
pleasant. Dairy mple says a servant of Deane,t one of the 
Congress, had been prevailed on by Tryon secretly to obtain 
or copy his master's papers, but being suspected, had fled, and 
was come to England. From his account they conjecture New 
York will be destroyed. This I suppose causes a report that 
it actually is destroyed. 

16th. — Peggy and I dined at General Gage's. M" Oliver, 
gr ^ym Pepperell, M'" Burch and wife, and M"" Sparhawk, made 
the company. 

The General is rather dissatisfied — dislikes P., and thinks 
Lord G. too set in his opinions, &c. 

To-day the wind at N., and I think the outward bound 
vessels must sail for America. The Hessian officers, several of 

* Adolplius, 2nd. Edit, v. ii. p. 325, say.s 91 to 31. 

t The second letter in the word is not clear, but the name seems to be 
Deane. 



26 DIABY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS nUTCniNSON. [f^fe! 

tliem, «!•<' in town. The report is that the troops would em- 
hark the 20"', must touch in England. This will take much 
time. 

17th.— At the Temple with Tcfr^y. 

At Court, but not in tli(> Drawing-lloom. In the evening 
n"' 8ir F. B., who caiiK^ to town yesterday, at Tyord ]\ransfield's, 
and Lord Chancellor's. The latter gives no credit to the ace*' 
of a salley made by Carleton, and his killing 200 of tiie llebels. 
Saw Lord Coventry the first time at the Chancellor's. After- 
wards at D"" Heberden's. »Sir John Cope, at wliose house in 
Hampshire, I was with M"" Ellis, was there. 

A vessel one day last week from ILilifax, brings advice that 
to the 10"' of February nothing had lui})nod at Boston re- 
markable. 

18th. — A fresh rumor of a second battle at Quebec, and that 
the Ixebels had left the Province ; but no credit given to it. 

19th. — IMet W Kivington to-day in the Park, the Printer 
lately arrived from N. York, who I had never seen before. He 
thinks that a letter which mentions some of the Canadians, 
who had left the city and gone to the Isle of Orleans, wishing 
to return after the repulse of the Eebels, and being refused by 
Carleton, is genuine and may be depended on. — The days are 
so much lengthened that we took an airing to-day after dinner, 
the first time this season. 

20th. — M^ Jackson called and let me know Gen. Conway 
had found the manuscript I sent M"" Jackson at the time of the 
Eepeal of the Stamp Act, and would let me have it.* Sir 
S. Gideon called. At M'' Knox's in the evening. 

21st. — Mons"" Gamier, lately arrived from France, called on 
me. I enquired whether all was quiet? Disputes with the 
Parliament w*^^ Garnier thought might as well not have been 
recalled. Two Edicts have given some trouble. The roads 
used to be r(^paired by statute labour. This fell out of propor- 
tion on the lower people. By a late Edict the former has been 
repealed, and it is provided that the charge shall be levied in 
proportion to estates, &c. By another Edict all the Companies 
of Metiers or Tradesmen are broke and abolished. Both these 
* No such manuscript now appears among the family papers. 



f;";] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 27 

Edicts the Parliament refused to register. The King held a 
Bed of Justice, that is, went in person to Parliament : called 
for the Edict : directed the Question to be put to each Mem- 
ber : and the Edicts are registered. The Parliament afterwards 
protest against these Edicts as unduly obtained, and therefore 
null, the Members having been under awe from the presence of 
the King. This lays a foundation for the people to refuse to 
submit, and tumults and disorders follow. 

22nd. — At the King's Levee. After the Levee the Lord 
Mayor and 0. Council d*^ [? delivered] their Address to the 
King upon the Throne, praying for an alteration of American 
measures. The King's answer was short but expressive, and 
well delivered: — That he deplored the unhappy state of his 
American subjects, into which they had brought themselves by 
a resistance to the constitutional authority of the Kingdom : 
that upon their return to their obedience, he should be ready 
to every act of mercy and lenity : that in the mean time it was 
his resolution to pursue those measures which were necessary 
to reduce them to such a state — or to this purpose. 

At the Levee Lord Barrino-ton informed me of the news of 
the loss of Sir F. Bernard's son W"", a young Lieut, in the 
troops gone to Canada. He, with one officer more, an Ensign, 
and 30 men, were on board one of the Transports or Provision 
ships, bound to Quebec, in company w*** 7 sail more off Char- 
mouth in the Channel. The ship Bernard was in took fire : he, 
and the other officer, and 5 or 6 soldiers, took to a boat w'^'' 
overset, and they were all drowned. The rest of the soldiers, and 
the ship's company were saved, and afterwards the ship blew 
up. Sir Francis is in town in poor health : was yesterday very 
anxious for this son, so as even to appear like a fressentiment. 

"We have now arrived at a date when Boston, having been kept 
in close blockade on the land side for the space of eleven months, 
though inconveniently circumscribed for nearly eighteen, and 
having sustained an intermittent bombardment for nearly a fort- 
night, was being given up and evacuated by the English troops, 
together with a considerable number of civilians who were 
hurrying on board such ships and transports as were able to find 
accommodation for them. The news of this momentous event, 



28 D J Alii' ASD LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. \J]^l\ 

which may almost bo h)okod upon as ono of tho p;reat turning 
points of the war, couhl not bo known in Engh'ind for soveral 
weeks. Meanwhile tho Members of both Houses of Parliament 
wore hotly (lobatino- now moasuroB, niolifyinp; or otherwise, that bore 
more or loss tlirootly u]i(tn tlio critical jxisition of affairs. T;ittlo that 
Avas roally new could now be brought forward ; but amongst active 
persons, tho most stirring was Edmund liurko, who attempted a 
Bill of aconciliatorj'-nature, which was either supported or resisted, 
as party fooling or party conviction suggested. "The chief 
opponent to Burke," says Adolphus, ii, 202, "whose arguments 
are preserved, was Governor Pownall." After having encouraged 
the Americans in tho early part of his life, by the favourable way 
in which he had countenanced their theories of liberty, Mr. Pownall 
at last found that, having sown the wind, he was reaping the 
whirlwind — that, like Lord Chatham, he was getting alarmed at 
the growing rebellion which he had heedlessly befriended, where- 
fore, he " veered his main sheet," and steered into the House of 
Commons at the last General Election under new^ colours, and as a 
supporter of the Tory Prime Minister against his ancient proteges, 
and the division shewed that Burke's motion was lost by 210 
against 105. The Duke of Grafton sailed in the opposite direction. 
He hauled down his old Tor}'- blue, and hoisting the yellow flag of 
the Opposition, moved for a return of the number of the land and 
sea forces, together with a variety of particulars which, if pub- 
lished, would be likely to prove injurious to the public service, 
Tipon which it was negatived by consent. Mr. Hartley made 
another attempt of a pacifying kind, but this also, being inapplic- 
able to the situation, was rejected by the large majority of 122 to 
21. But few subjects drew forth stronger language in debate than 
the project for employing foreign troops. Several divisions arising 
out of it had taken place in both Houses, with results however, in 
support of those who had argued in its favour. History shews 
that throughout the middle ages, when there were no standing 
armies available for sudden emergencies, it was the usual custom 
of the European monarchs to take Auxiliaries into their service — a 
very rough and undisciplined element ; but by the advanced period 
of George III. the feeling on this practice had somewhat changed, 
or it was convenient for the Opposition to say so. The Duke of 
Bichmond moved to arrest the march of the foreign troops before 
they should embark from the Continental ports, and alleged that it 
would cost a million and a half to hire 17,300 men. Lord Irnham 
taunted the foreign Princes who could let out their soldiers for 
such purposes. The Duke of Grafton, in opposing the motion, 



1^76.] JDJ-'iliY AND LETTEEH OE THOMAS HUTGHtNBON. 20 

declared that the nation was taxed to the utmost already, and 
could not afford more expense. Lord Effingham exaggerated the 
numbers of the population in America, and alleged that their 
resources were truly formidable : argued that the Spaniards might 
join and assist them against us, or take the favourable moment to 
assail the shores of this country ; and the French, no less awake to 
the opportunity, would fall upon Ireland. The Earl of Coventry 
foretold the separation between Great Britain and her Colonies ; 
and other members in a similar strain, varied their attacks upon 
the same lines. 

The Ministry, on the other hand, defended themselves and their 
measures with the usual arguments. Lord Temple reprobated the 
intemperance of the Opposition. Lord North, in the course of his 
reply, urged expediency as well as economy in accepting the 
services of the forces named, and assured the House that " men 
were thus obtained more easily and much cheaper than by the 
ordinary mode of recruiting;" and — "M' Cornwall corroborated 
the Minister's assertion, that the pecuniary terms of the treaties 
were more advantageous and lower than had ever before been 
obtained."* 

Thus do men contradict one another across the iloor of the House. 
Those who take delight in studying human nature, or in looking 
beneath the surface of every day men, or in scrutinising the 
motives and incentives that prompt most people to adopt the 
peculiar set of opinions which they may choose to hold, will soon 
perceive that the majority of men are more swayed by passion 
than they are by sober reason. They argue, not so much to display 
their common sense, as to please their fancy, or they will wantonly 
bend their tongues to dally with their mental vices. When I use 
the hard words mental vices, I only mean mental peculiarities — 
whims and fancies, not always either wise or correct : and these 
mental vices — if I may venture to repeat the words — are not 
confined to the unrestrained sphere of social life, or to the familiar 
domain of the domestic circle, but find free entrance into the dis- 
cussions of political strife. Mr. Speaker has a difficult task to 
perform sometimes, when he would keep the tone of political 
debate within the limits of Parliamentary decorum. 

But the Governor wrote a letter to his son Thomas on the 26th 
of February, who was now in the tenth month of his imprisonment, 
wishing to send him what scraps of information he could, that 
would cheer his spirits with the hopes of a speedy deliverance, and 

* Adolph. ii. 312. • 



30 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON, [i 



Mar. 
776. 



what Boraps of material stores he could supply him with, for they 
were reduced to short commons, and though they had unroofed 
churches, and pulled down houses and sheds for firewood, they had 
none too much to make the pot boil, or to warm their finger ends. 
The letter was entered in the Letter Book by the writer, and 
with some haste, as several of the words are considerably abbre- 
viated. I prefer retaining the abbreviations, though I know that 
opinions differ as to the expediency of so doing, 

" St. J. S., 2G Feb. 1776. 
" My Dear Son, 

" The storeship has been most unaccountably delayed, but the 
articles for y" and for y"^ sister's refreshm' w"*" I hoped would have 
been in B. before this time, are at length on board, and y' brother 
will send you a memo, of them. I hope yoiir full relief is not far 
off" : 11,000 of the Hess, and Bruns. troops had marched the 20 Feb^ 
in order to embark, and the transports are sailed with them on 
board ; the remainder are expected to embark the middle of next 
month. A delay in these foreign troops was feared, but they are 
more expeditious than was expected. A bomb ketch and one of 
the transports met with dang"^ in a gale of wind off Cape Clear, 
and are put into Plim'', but it is said will be repaired, and follow 
in a few days Sir P. Parker, to whose fleet they belonged. Recruits 
for the Kegim' in America are raised remarkably successfully both 
in Eng* and Ireland, so that there seems to be no doubt that the 
great force planned will be completed in all their parts," — and 
more on ordinary subjects, which have been repeated in other 
places. 

23rd. — An airing with Flucker and K. Clarke to Battersea 
Bridge. They and Bliss, and S. 0. dined with us. 

A southerly wind and remarkably warm day. 

24:th. — At the Old Jewry with Peggy. 

Flucker diued with us. A very warm day till towards 
evening. 

25th. — Easterly wind and cold. The Brunswickers embarked 
the 19*^, and are expected to sail to-day from Staads for 
Spithead. 

26th. — The same wind, and it is the season for a spell of it. 

27th. — D' Jefferds called — was very sanguine that some 
proposals were arrived from the Congress — was rather angry 



f^'^'] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 31 

when I made light of the report, and said he had good au- 
thority — it came from the Att. General — but Jefferds did not 
hear him say so — a IVIaster in Chancery told Jefferds the Att. 
General said so. In this way reports spread every day through 
this town. Peggy and I dined at W Ellis's : — Gen. Johnson and 
Lady Cecilia, M'' Douglas and ux., and the famous Bruce, made 
the company. 

28th. — Account of the arrival of the Brunswick troops at 
Spithead. 

29th. — At a grand rout of Lady Gage's making this evening. 
I went a little before 9, and came aw[ay] at 10. Near 700 
persons are computed to have been there of the nobility and 
gentry. No distinction of parties. Lord Mansfield and Lord 
Camden, Duke of Manchester, L^ Ashburnham, Hillsborough, 
&c., &c. 

30th. — Walked a turn or two in the Park with S"" Jeffery 
Amherst, &c. 

31st. — At the Temple Church with Peggy, where D*" Cooper 
of New York preached. . . . 

April 1st. — The wind has been two days past at west: 
prevents vessels from sailing. Gen. Burgoyne, who commands 
the Brunswickers, is gone to Portsmouth to embark. 

In the evening at M"^^ Jenyns's company, for one room only. 
L*^ Gage, Walpole, M"^ Stratford. 

2nd. — A fine soft day. Lord Hardwicke called in the 
morning : gave me the history of his being offered the Secr^ 
of State's place in L*^ Rockingham's time, which he declined, 
and that the King, which is unusual, took him as one of the 
Cabinet, which continued but six weeks, when L*^ Rockingham 
dropped, and all his Ministry w*^ him. 

D"^ Chandler and R. Clarke dined with us. 

3rd. — As warm as June. Called on M"^ Preston, and M'^ 
Mackenzy, and left cards. 

A vessel from Virginia. Gen. Clinton had been there, and 
sailed, it is supposed for Cape Fear. N. East wind. 

4th. — Burgoyne was going aboard in order to sail from 
Portsmouth yesterday at one o'clock with the Brunswickers for 
Quebec. 



32 DIARY AKD LETTERS OF THOMAS IlCTCHiySOy. [^fu. 



LX776. 



oth.— The Men-of-War and 12 Transports with 2500 Bruus- 
wickers sailed yesterday luorniug from Portsmouth for Quebec. 
It is supposed the tieet from Corke are also sailed : the whole 
force intended to Quebec beiu<;j 7000 men. 

Oth. — Lord Townshend called. . . . 

7th.— At the Old Jewry. 

No Court to-(.lay, beinjj Easter Sunday. ^Vind west again. 

8th. — Went into the city to Mauduit, and Brook Watson, 
Garlick Hill. In the Advertiser (Puhlick) of this day, there are 
some extracts from an American pamphlet Siud to be wrote by 
John Adams. These extracts are to shew open declaration 
against all plans of reconciliation ; but the book contains the 
most shocking abuses of the King — Boj/al Brute, &q. This a 
loyal subject, would not reprint. 

9th. — [The Hessitins expected.] 

10th. — Intelligence to-day of a vessel at Bristol from Phila- 
delphia with above 2000 bbls. of dour, and 15000 staves. She 
was titted out by the Congress to go to Xantes, and return with 
ammunition. The cargo is said to have been shipped by 
Bayard »!' Co. The Master was to open his orders in a certain 
latitude. He communicated them to his Mate, who consulted 
with the men, and they agreed to displace the Master, and take 
the vessel into their own hands, and bring her to England. 
The Mate is come to town. 

11th. — The town is full of yesterday's news. It is supposed 
government will endeavour that vessels be stopped in France : 
but it is reported and believed that a French Nobleman, or one 
who assumed that rank, had been in America, and was return- 
ing: in one of the vessels of this tit- et ; for 6 or 7 more came out 
bound to different ports in France. 

In the evening went with Peggy to see the Alchymist acted 
at Drury Lane. Garrick in Abel Drugger, it being the last 
time he ever intended to act in that character. 

12th. — [Party at John Pownall's.] 

13th. — . . . Lord Hardwicke sent me two tickets — one for 
the first, and one for the second day of the Duchess of 
Kingston's trial. 

1-lth. — This forenoon, at half after ten by appointment, I 



^^P/e"] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCEINSOK 33 

waited on Lord Howe, where I tarried till about twelve. M' 
D'Oyley and M"^ Strachey, Member of Par? were there. We 
had much conversation upon America : the state of the several 
governments : the terms upon which they Avere to be suffered,* 
&c. He seems much unacquainted. He complimented me by 
wishing he had my knowledge. Matters don't seem to be yet 
settled. If he goes out, I think it is not possible it should be 
otherwise. M^ Strachey goes his Secretary. M"" D'Oyley asked 
him before [he] went to Lord Howe's, jocosely, whether he did 
not intend to go to America ? He answered — He supposed he 
should go if Lord Howe goes. I don't know what to make of it. 

M"" Waldo dined with us. Lord Howe said he wondered 
there was no news of the Hessians. 

15th. — Dutchess of Kingston's trial began to-day. My 
daughter was at it from between 7 and 8 in the morning till 
6 or 7 in the evening. 

An account of the Eegimeuts from Cork sailing Monday the 
8th for Quebec. Burgoyne, the day before, is supposed to have 
left the Channel. It seems now the opinion that there has 
been a delay of the Hessians sailing because they were not all 
ready, and did not like going in two divisions. 

16th. — Wind keeps westerly yesterday and to-day, but no 
news yet from America. 

I was at the Dutchess of K.'s trial to-day from 8 till 4. 
Thurlow, Wedderburn, and Dunning took up all the time the 
Court was together, except a quarter of an hour a civilian had 
been speaking, when I came away. The Lords did not come in 
till eleven. It is strange so much time should be spent on a 
point which seems not to admit of a minute's debate, her plea 
being that in a case of jactitation of marriage, it was determined 
before her marriage to the D. of Kingston, that it did not 
appear she was the wife of Augustus Harvey. [Hervey 
rather.] Her Counsel urged that even if it should appear there 
was collusion between Hervey and her, the sentence in the 
Ecclesiastical Court would bar a criminal prosecution. It is 
said the D. sold a house for 15,000£, and it can be proved that 
money was paid to Hervey. 

* Doubtful word, hurriedly written. 
VOL. II. D 



34 DIAIiY AND LETTEliS OF THOMAS nUTCniNSON. \\^n. 

I think this assembly has an appearance so grand and 
respectable that it is scarcely to be equalled. 

17th. — I met M"" D'Oyley to-day. Pie speaks witb un- 
certainty yet of L'' Howe's going, and added — "If he goes, I 
hope you will go with him." 1 am at a loss what can be the 
meaning of this. His Lordship was coming to my house this 
morning, but seeing me abroad, was hindered. 

At Lord Hardwicko's, who informed me the Hessians were 
stopped because the full number of transports were not ready, 
but that the last post brought advice all "were embarked and 
would sail the first wind, which to-day has been at S., or to the 
E. of south. 

M'" Miller, L** Justice Clerk of Scotland, breakfasted with 
us. 

18th. — Met Lord Hardwicke in the Park, who took two or 
three turns : — says the Hessians will make no tarry after their 
arrival at Spithead. 

Wind at W. again : no arrival yet from America. 

19th. — Calhahan called, and breakfasted w*^*^ us. Lord Hard- 
wicke sent me a ticket, which I gave to E. H. who attended the 
trial to-day. In the evening we were all at Ranelagh with 
M'' Burch's family, D'" Tarpley and wife, Flucker. 

20th. — I attended the trial to-day by the help of another 
ticket from L*^ Hardwicke. It engages the attention of the 
town, and little is said of America. Wind still to the west, and 
no Hessians, nor no news from the Continent. 

There has been a report that the Regulators, to the number 
of 3000 in N. Carolina, had declared for Government, and 
D"" Chandler says to-day that Hammond, of the Eoebuck, has 
■wrote it to his friend in Ireland : but it wants confirmation. 

21st.— At the Temple Church. D^ Cooper of N. York 
preached. 

At Court. In the evening, at D"" Heberden's. 

22nd. — At the Dutchess's trial, L*^ Dartmouth having sent 
me two tickets, and Lord Hardwicke one, w**^ Elisha and Billy. 
After 5 days she was capable of no defence against the clearest 
evidence of both marriages, and unanimously pronounced 
Guilty. The Court, as a Peeress, ordered her discharge on 



nP/s.^ DIAItY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTOHINSOK 35 

paying costs, w'^out burning in the hand, tho' the Att. Gen. 
took exception.* 

23rd. — Called upon Lord Hardwicke, and thanked him for 
his tickets. Bishop of St. David's and Soame Jenyns there. 
Censure the Duke of Newcastle for saying " Guilty " errone- 
ously, but not intentionally : and [they] say he ought, as 
several other Lords did, to have withdrawn if he had not been 
satisfied, or to have pronounced her not guilty. The Bishops 
all sat until the Lords came in to deliver their opinions, and 
then they did not return to the Hall, but absented with a salvo 
jure ; ridiculous enough when it was not, nor could be, a case 
of blood. 

Flucker, Clarke, Urquhart, Chandler, and Wilkins, the last 
of N. York, dined with us. 

24th. — Called early at L'' Dartmouth's, but had a few words 
only, as he was just going out. At M"^ Ellis's and Lord 
Hillsboro'. All of them spoke in favour of the 'pamphlet, 
" Experience iweferaUe to Theory,^' in answer to D'" Price. 

Lord Hillsborough said was the falsest man that ever 

lived. He gave me some ace* of the D. of G.'s amours 
with Nancy Parsons. He was so extravagantly fond of her 

* Adolplius dismisses the beautiful but wayward Miss Chudleigh ia a 
single sentence : Hume enters more lai'gely into her case. In 1744 she was 
privately married to Lieutenant Hervey, R.N., who eventually became Earl 
of Bristol. Some time afterwards she instituted a suit in the Commons, and 
having made oath that she was not married, she obtained a sentence in the 
Ecclesiastical Court, which Court declared her free from all matrimonial 
engagements. She justified her questionable oath to her private friends by 
saying that " she could easily reconcile it to her conscience, as the ceremony 
was a scrambling, shabby business." In 1769 she accepted the hand of the 
Duke of Kingston ; but on the death of his Grace in 1773, Lady Meadows, 
his sister and heir at law, filed a Bill in Chancery against her. The Lord 
Chancellor admitted the validity of the sentence in the Ecclesiastical Court ; 
but on the other hand it was contended, that this sentence had been obtained 
by collusion of the parties. A criminal prosecution was therefore commenced ; 
a true Bill was found against her : and the case was now removed to the 
Lords in Westminster Hall. She was found Guilty, but owing to her rank 
she escaped vulgar punishment, and was dismissed on payment of the costs. 
It is said in the Diary that the Attorney General took exception to the 
sentence — presumably to the leniency of the sentence. Perhaps he would 
have contended that she was not a Peeress at all, and therefore could not 
plead her Peerage in mitigation : and if her marriage with the Duke of 
Kingston was not valid, the learned Counsel had the strong side of the argu- 
ment in his hands : but if he had pushed it to extremity, he would have been 
an ungaUant brute. Better let her go. 

D 2 



36 DIAIiY AND LETTEliS OF THOMAS HUTOniNSON. [\\^t 



that tho' she pretended to bo in bad liealth, and tliat it was 
necessary sho shoidd go to the S. of France, and lie liad con- 
sented, yet she was no sooucr gone, than he ordered his carriage 
jn order to overtake her before she left Dover, and would 
[have] exposed himself when Prime Minister to the censure of 
the whole nation, if IJradshaw had not begged on his knees 
that he would not; but all would not do, until ]>radshaw 
oftered to go himself and undertake to bring her back : and ho 
Avont and overtook her before she loft Calais, and brought her 
to London. 

The D. was so infatuated as to carry her with hira once to 
the Opera, and sat near the K. and Queen. All this time she 
disliked the Duke, and gave her company to the Duke of 
Dorset privately. 

The King told L'* Hillsborough of it, and he told Bradshaw, 
and of their meeting at a milliner's in St. James's Street. 
Bradshaw told the D. of Or. what he had heard. The D. 
disguised himself and watched one evening, when he saw her 
go in, and the D. of Dorset follow her soon after ; upon which 
the D. of G. dismissed her, and she has lived with the D. of 
Dorset ever since. 

Went with Peggy and D"" Tarpley and wife to Covent 
Garden Play house in the evening, to see The Conscious Lovers : 
the boxes not a quarter filled. Masquerades, Eanelagh, Concerts 
and many other diversions take up the town. Never was a 
time when so great a part of the people spend so great a 
portion of their time and estates in amusements and dissipation. 
Guns this morning for the Queen's delivery of a Princess. 

This -was the Princess Mary vkrho, at the age of 40, namely, in 
the year 1816, married the Duke of Gloucester. Some authorities 
say she was born on the 25th, though the 24th, as here stated, 
Keems consistent. 

This was probably one of the Princesses who occupied apartments 
in the Cloisters, Windsor Castle, in or about the year 1814, or 
l)erhaps 1815. For some years my father had owned a large house 
(now two houses) at the top of Peter's Street, Tiverton, Devon, 
with a sloping garden below the Churchyard running down to the 
river Exe, and having let these for a lime to a gentleman, he was 



n^6.'] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 37 

lodging at tlie period mentioned, in the Cloisters at Windsor, with 
my mother and three or four young children. I was five years 
old, and I used to go through the Cloisters frequently either with 
my mother or with the nursemaid, and I can still remember tho 
general appearance perfectly : but what perhaps best served to 
impress the place most strongly on my young mind was, the figure, 
either in plaster or white china, of an ugly pug or bull-dog with 
black e^'es, in one of the windows, which in my mind's eye, was a 
leaded casement ; and although it was inside the Avindow, I was 
afraid of it. This passage I think led to the 100 steps. Out of 
this walk the Princesses had a private entry into their own apart- 
ments. Their entry consisted in a covered passage a few yards 
long, at the further extremity of which was the doorway ; but as 
all these alleys were siirrounded by buildings, they were rather 
dark, and especially that one which led to the Eoyal residence. 
On passing the outer end of this entry, reserved to members of tho 
Eoyal family, and casually glancing up it, my mother fancied she 
saw festoons of cobwebs hanging from the sides and ceiling so low 
as scarcely to be clear of people's heads as they passed under. This 
idea seemed too monstrous to be entertained for a moment. Could 
it be possible that any servants should neglect their duty so much 
as to omit occasionally sweeping the walls and ceiling of a passage 
through which the Princesses passed almost daily, until the cob- 
webs should be visible to the public eye ? Eather too much to 
believe. In speaking of it my mother used the expression — 
" festoons of cobwebs " — but she must have been mistaken. A 
woman's curiosity, however, was not so easily satisfied — she wanted 
to have another look. One day she was going through the Cloisters 
alone, and glancing up and down, and observing that there was 
nobody about, she thought she would peep into the Eoyal entry. 
Wherefore, almost on tiptoe, with her nose in the air, and her eyes 
wide open, she walked up the dingy passage, and when she got 
nearly to the top, all at once the door w^as thrown open wide, and 
there stood a footman in the Eoyal livery, ready to receive her 
commands. She was so confounded at this unexpected apparition, 
that she lost her presence of mind, and uttering an " Oh ! " she 
turned about, and withdrew considerably humiliated. When she 
returned and related her adventure, my father laughed and enjoyed 
the joke amasingly. A few years after, when I was a little older, 
and better able to understand the points of the case, on hearing the 
story related again, I said— " But, Mamma, do you think they 
really were cobwebs ? " She assured me that they certainly were : 
for though the footman unexpectedly cut short her survey, she had 



oS DIARY AND LETTERS OF TIIUMAS UUTCllIXSON. fmo^ 



L1770. 



at all events seon enough to bo suro that they were " festoons of 
cob-\velxs." 

Well, where avo wo? It is hoped that the reader will forgive a 
few anecdotes that grow like offshoots out of the Diary, for if they 
serve no otlier purpose, they servo to hrcak tlio monotony of it. 

The Dr. Price alluded to above, was liichard I'rice, D.D., Scotch 
University, and F.K.S., born about 172:5, and died 1701. Ho was 
a Dissenting Minister of some Jiote — a political and a polemical 
writer, an admirer of John Wilkes, and a correspondent of Benjamin 
-Franklin. His views wore rather extreme, and his Pamphlet 
advocating the independency of America, was attracting a con- 
siderable amount of attention. Writing to Chief Justice Peter 
Oliver in Boston (Letter Book, Feb. 27), Governor Hutchinson 
says—" A Pamphlet is puldished within 2 or 3 days by D'' Price, a 

tool of F *s, w"'' makes great noise. It is calculated to do 

mischief. His principles are not properly republican, but anti- 
governmental, if you can bear that word, and would soon put down 
all the governments existing, without setting up any other in 
their stead." 

The following is an original note of Lord Ilardwicke, expressing 
a desire to see the Pamphlet : — * 

" Ap' 18th —70. 

" Lord Hardwicke wishes M' Hutchinson c'^ procure a sight of 
n pamphlet, of w'='' he saw an extract in the papers, writ expressly 
to assert the Lidejiendency of America. Thinks Gov' sh'^ have had 
the Pamphlet more speedily, as it W' revolt everybody here, without 
exception, if acted up to." 

There seems to be a play upon the Avord "revolt," which is 
underlined. 

25th. — At Lord North's Levee. The Hessians in the 
Channel. 

26th. — At M'' Jenkinson's. The Hessians, he says, by 
advices last night . . . [something apparently wanting]. I 
asked the difficulty about Lord Howe ? and he says he makes 
difficidties for want of understanding. 

M'' Jenkinson asked me if anything was done for Billy ? said 
lie had spoke to M'' Eobinson. 

At Blackburne's in Scotch Yard, lie read me a letter from 

* Original Letters, vol. i. 



n?;"] DIABY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 39 

one of the Congress Commissaries at N. York, that he was 
there with 6,000 men, and in a month would have 10,000 — 
powder, &c. in plenty. A letter full of bravery. 

The merchants in the city have rec*^ letters from their 
correspond^ at Montreal of Feb^ 7"', one of which calls the 
repulse at Quebec a total defeat, and adds that if the forces can 
be there by the middle of ]\lay, Quebec will be in no danger. 

At the Exhibition of Paintings in Pall Mall, some of which, 
especially the landskips — one of the sea near the Isle of Lundy, 
and another of Cap" Cooke's landing place in Otaheitee, were 
very flue. 

27th. — At M"" D'Oyley's, where I saw M"" Stracher, preparing 
for his voyage, everything being settled, and Lord Howe to 
embark next week. The Hessians all at Spithead. IMouat, in 
the Canso, sailed the 24th from Spithead. 

Greene and Clarke dined with us. 

Lord Howe had postponed his departure from time to time, until 
his friends, and even some of the Ministry, were at a loss to com- 
prehend the apparent mystery of his delay. Mr. Jenkinson seems 
to imply that he was desirous of understanding all the particulars 
of his duties before he entered upon them. On the other hand, 
those who consider his movements, might suspect that he would 
conduct the war upon the same principles as his brother the 
General appeared to do, and if so, the mystery hanging over hia 
prolonged preparations, might be in some degree accounted for. 

The following is another original note from Lord Hardwicke, in 
which, among other things, he shews his CTiriosity on the subject 
of Lord Howe. 

" Ap' tlie 27tli Eichm'> — 7G. 

" L'^ Hardwicke's complim' to M' Hutchinson, wdth thanks for 
his American intelligence : the accounts are so scanty and im- 
perfect that as a Political Conjurer, he cannot cast a figure ab' them. 

" He believes Quebec safe, as succour sailed from Hover in Feb^'j 
and it will get up as soon as the river is open. 

" He wishes Gen* Howe was not so sparing of bis vessels of 
intelligence, and he heartily wishes y* L'^ Cornwallis's corps C* find 
their way to Boston. As to the Hessians, all that L'^ H. knows ab* 
them is, y' as they are sailed thro' the Downs, they must by this 
time be at Spithead. 



40 DJAIiY AND LETTEliS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON, fff/c' 



Ln76. 



" "What is tho myBteiy ab' L'' IIowo ? and -when -will he go ? 
" L'' II. Avill he ill town on INIonday to Dinner, and begs his conipt* 
to Miss II'.'t(;hiuson." 

Throughout tlio winter there hud been great activity in all tho 
deiiarlnieiits, for the purpose of drawing together a large armament 
and in dispatching troops, who should be readj' to act as soon as 
tho spring weather would allow. It was apparent that something 
on a large scide was intended. In tho Letter Book, under date 
I'ebiuary lO, 177G, the Governor writes — 

" It is certain that a prodigeous arniaiuent is preparing, and will 
be very soon sailing in one large body after anothei', until the 
whole is gone for America. The destination of the several parts, 
I am not able to tell you. As the command will be in the two 
brothers, one by sea the other by land, people are less inquisitive 
than otherwise they would be. I do not think a clioicc of men 
could have been made more generally satisfactory to the kingdom, 
and under Providence, I think we may found a reasonable hope for 
a more favourable summer than the last. Vie Americans are plenty 
here, and veiy cheap. Some of us at first coming, are apt to think 
ourselves of importance, but other people do not think so, and few, 
if any of us are much consulted, or enquired after." 

In accordance with these last observations he requests his friends 
not to address him on their letters as " His Excellency." In a 
postscript to one of February 27 he says — " Pray leave oif His Excell" 
in y' directions, for everybody laughs at such things here." 

The opening of the campaign suggested many pangs of appre- 
hension in the bosoms of sympathising friends, for most people 
now felt that the season for child's play had passed. Writing to 
Mr. Winslow Jan. 30, the Governor said — " I am never free from 
anxiety' for my friends in Boston, and feel a great proportion of 
your distresses." 

Feb. 16 to Mr. Paxton — "Whenever a ship an-ives, and I don't 
hear that y"" distresses are increased, I call it good news." 

Feb. 26 to General Brattle — " I desire no earthly good so much 
as that of seeing my country and friends again in peace." 

In speaking of the change of Admirals, he observes to Mr. 
Winslow — " I am glad you are relieved from an Admiral so much 
complained of. I know his successor will give better satisfaction : 
but you will soon have a gent, w"' you, L*^ Howe, to take the 
comand of the navy, who seems to have the universal voice of all 
ranks of the people in his favor." 



S.] DIARY AKD LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 41 

Walpole writes, Feb. 15, 1776 — " We have no news but those of 
preparations against America."* 

28th.— At the Old Jewry, &o. 

29th. — At Lord G-. Germaine's to desire his favour for Syl- 
vester Oliver, who encourages me he will do something for him.f 

oOth. — Called at Sir H. Houghton's, Upper Brook Street, 
and left my name. . . . 

May 1st.— [Billy and Flucker to Bristol.] 

2nd. — Lord Hardwicke called. 

About four o'clock I came in, and to my surprise found CoP 
Browne arrived from Boston, having left it the 26 March in the 
Lord Hyde packet, and arrived at Falmouth the 31st April. 
But I was more surprized when he told me he left my son and 
daughter and their children, and Miss Sanford aboard the 
packet, and that the troops had quitted Boston, and were 
embarked, and many of them sailed with the packet to Halifax, 
and the rest to sail the next day. 

The rebels had erected a battery on Dorchester Neck — had 
been seen on Hog Island, and Gen' Howe had embarked part 
of his troops, and the transports had fell [sic] down between 
the Castle, and Dorchester Neck, intending to land at midnight : 
but a southerly storm of wind and rain came on suddenly, and 
rendered tlie landing impracticable, and the next morning he 
determined to evacuate the town : and such of the inhabitants 
as desired to remove, were directed to give in their names. 
My son and daughter and their families were favoured with 
passages to England : all the rest are gone to Halifax. They 
met with no molestation from the rebels : left all the mer- 
chandize of the town, except woollen goods, behind. This is a 
distressing affair to the inhabitants and their friends. How 
it may affect Government is more problematical. 

3rd. — I attended by order with CoP Browne last evening at 
L*^ G. Germaine's Office, where there was a Cabinet, but we 
were not called nor any inquiries made. 

4th. — Various constructions upon the retreat from Boston. 

* His Letters, Edit, of 1857. 

t Brinley Sylvester Oliver, a son of the lata Lieut. Gov, A. Oliver, and his 
second wife Mary Sanford. He Avas born Sep. 6, 1755, married Sarah Louisa 
Barton, Ob. s. p. 



42 DIAnr AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. \_^r^l 



S"" IT. Houghton thinks it will tend to discourage the friends of 
Govornnient : others say it is what they have long wished for. 

This iini>urtiuit i)iecc of news liad soon ilown far and wide. It 
liad reat-hed Walpole at his ivtrcat in the coimtry, and on this day, 
IMay 4, lio cxprosses himsolf thus- " Thoy write to mo from 
lioiidon, that tho Provincial army, liaving been reinforced, had 
prepared to stonn Boston, and had begnn to cannonade it, and that 
General Ilowe, nnahlo to maintain liis ptist, had withdrawn with 
all his forces to Halifax. I had lieard this on Thursday,* before I 
came ont of town, but did not believe it, for the Americans have 
done nothing yet that has given mo a high opinion of their 
generalship." 

It may be inferred that Governor Hutchinson was among the 
first, if not the lirst person in London, who received the news. As 
Colonel Browne came over in the same ship with the Governor's 
eldest son Thomas with his family, and his eldest daughter Sarah, 
married to Dr. I'eter Oliver, it was but natural he shoidd go to him 
with his news first. It was about four in the afternoon that the 
Colonel imparted his intelligence ; and though Lord Hardwicke 
had been to the house that very day, there is nothing to shew 
that las Lordship knew anything of the matter. 

A few quotations have already been maile from Dr. Peter Oliver's 
Diarv. After alludino- to the battles of Lexington and Bunker's 
Hill, [i. 470] he proceeds thus : 

" We remained blocked up in Boston till the beginning of March 
17 70, when we were ordered to embark. Tommy Hutchinson's 
family and mine w^ent aboard the Hyde Pacquet for England. 
(My mother died in Boston in March 25, 1775, and my cliildren 
were inocciilated for the small pox in Nov. or Dec. 1775.) 

"March 25th 1776 we set sail for England. After a tedious 
passage of 35 days -sve arrived at Falmouth the last day of April 
follow", Avhere we staid till the 6th of May, when 15 of us set out 
from Falm"' in post chaises of a Sunday morn, and got to London 
the 12th of May, of a Saturday ev^ at St. James's Street, at the 
G r's. 

" Now, as to the voyage : — The day before we set sail from 
Nantasket, Tommy's wife was delivered of a boy,f which had not 

* It was now Saturday. 

t The boy was subsequently baptised Andrew, after its motlier's father, 
I>ieut. Gov. Andrew Oliver. It lived and grew up, marriecl, left children, and 
after a life of fairly good health, died of an attack of bronchitis, Dec. 23, 1846, 
aged 70 years and nine months. He was my father. 



ktI] diary and letters of THOMAS nUTCHINSON. 43 

a drop of milk during the whole passage : was much emaciated, and 
no one thought it wou'd have lived. The lady well. As to 
myself, I was sick 21 daj's without any support : reduced almost to 
a skeleton : 7 children on board ship, and the eldest not 6 years 
old." 

The subjoined, which Avas entered in the Letter Book by the 
hand of Governor Hutchinson, shews his desire to tliank General 
Howe for many kindnesses shewn to his son at a very trying- 
time : — 

"S' Jam. Street, G May 177G. 

" Sir, — My sou, in a letter from Falmouth, has expressed in such 
strong terms his obligations to you for your care of him and his 
family in the time of their distress, that I may not omit the first 
opportunity of rendering my thankful acknowledgments, and of 
assuring you that I shall ever retain a most grateful remembrance 
of the favour shewn them. 

" I cannot but flatter myself that under the present direction of 
the affairs of government in America, the friends of government 
in general will be relieved from the tyranny they are under, for 
which event every good man must wish and pray. 

" I have the honour, &:c." 

During the week that was occupied by the Eefugees in tra^'elling 
from Falmouth to London we will recur to the Diary as before : — 

5th.— At the Old Jewry, A little wliile at Court. Saw 
Lord Dartmouth tliere. Acquainted the Duke of Northum- 
berland my son at Falmouth had letters for liim from Lord 
Percy. He said he had received none by the Packet, 

In the evening at D'' Heberden's. Soame Jenyns's book 
upon the internal evidence of the Christian Religion much 
applauded. He wrote formerly The Origm of Evil — was then 
an imbeliever. M' Maekenzy called on me after he had been 
at Court. 

6th. — At M"" Ellis's, who advised me to apply to Govern- 
ment, and did not doubt of my provision being enlarged. 

Soame Jenyns called. I told him I would leave out the 
almost, and say — thou itermadcst me to he a Christian, for I had 
read with much pleasure half his book before breakfast. He 
did not own the book, but said I did lionour to the author. 



44 DIAUT AND LETTEliS OF THOMAS IIUTCIIINSON. [^^IjI 



The wind between N. and NW., and it is tliouglit the 
Hessians would sail to-day. 

Received a letter from my son at ralmonth of the 2'"' 
Instant, who intended to take passage to Portsmouth, and 
come from thence in the stage. 

7th.— Called on W Cornwall, and left card. 

S' W. r., [PepperellJ * Sparhawk, and JJrowne, dined with us. 

The Gazette in the evening announces the sailing of Como- 
dore Ilothani with the transports from S* Helens the G, half 
after 4, and that they were out of siglit before dark. A report 
that Hopkins in the Philadelphia vessels, had possessed himself 
of New Providence, or the Bahamas, and that 7 of the trans- 
ports, going out of Nantasket were lost, but the passengers, 
&c., saved. This last is said to come in a letter of the 29 
l\Iareh, from Nanta!«ket, by way of Ireland. In every pajier 
there are more or less falsities to disturb the peace of Govern- 
ment, and it is impossible to distinguish them. 

8th. — A letter from my son at Falmouth, that he intended, 
with all his train, to set out as on Sunday last by land, tho' 
at great expense, and he drew on me for £200 for passage, &c., 
to be paid out of money he had remitted me. Cap" Loring 
called, having arrived with M" Loring last night. M'' Clarke 
with us in the evening as far as Battersea. Loring thinks the 
troops need not have left Boston ; and yet supposes a battery 
en Noddle's Island, [500 yards east of the city,] would have 
forced the ships from their anchors ; and it's generally agreed 
the rebels would have had one there. 

There is no doubt L"^ D. gave peremptory orders to quit 
Boston, vhich must arrive just before winter. As soon as L'^ 
G. G. came into oflSce he saw these orders, as he told me, and 
was surprized : went to the K., who said he took them to be 
discretionary, but \\as convinced they were not, and L'^ G. G. 
wrote immediately to lelax them and prevent the execution, 
and the measures since taken have been upon the presumption 
that the troops would remain until they should be strengthened 
from home, and be enabled to beat the Massachusetts forces 

* Sir "William Pepperell was bom Sparhawk, but his grandfather's Baronetcy 
was revived by a new grant in liini, and he assumed the name of Pepperell. 



^It^l DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 45 



1776. J 



before Boston ; but the orders never did arrive. I was sur- 
prized to see M"" P[ownall] and M"" K[nox] looking over the 
Letter Book to see by what vessels the orders went. In my 
business as a Merchant I never wrote a letter of consequence 
but I tracked the ship it went by from the hour she sailed, and 
was anxious to inquire by every opportunity after her arrival : 
but the way [here] is, to send letters from the ofSce of Secr^ of 
State of the Admiralty, to go as soon as may be. Some little 
thing or other hinders the sailing of the ship, and the Admiralty 
do not consider, or perhaps know, the importance of the Seer'' 
of State's dispatches : the ship lies five or six weeks, and the 
dispatches answer no purpose. I sent a packet this winter to 
Lord G. Ct.'s ofiice to go in Government's box, and after six weeks 
BP Knox told me it was sent back to Lon'lon, the ship not 
proceeding. This shews the want of one great director to keep 
every part of the operations of Government constantly in his 
head. 

9th.— At L* G. G.'d and L' N.'s Levees to introduce Cap" 
Loring. 

A ship arrived from Pliiladelpliia laden with flour, &c. The 
account is, that slie paid a duty to the Congress at 33} p c* 
for licence, and that others were coming. The truth is, that 
the produce is 50 p c* under the usual price, so that the 
exporter makes a good profit at any foreign market by paying 
only 33-}. But it's a strange thing to bring goods from 
declared rebels on any terms, and everybody is waiting to 
know what will be done by Ministry. The wind has been fair 
since Monday, and it's thought the fleet has a good offing. 

Letter from my son at Exeter, dated the 7**^. 

10th. — An account of the arrival of a vessel from Florida, 
and advice that Hopkins with his small squadron from Phila- 
delphia, had landed 500 men at Providence in the Bahamas, 
and possessed himself of the Fort : but it is said the powder 
was sent off in a King's scooner the night before they landed. 
This is the general report : more particulars we are to 
expect. 

Letter from my son at Salisbury, dated last night. 

11th. — M"" Vardell tells me he has a letter from M' Cruder 



46 DIAR7 AND LETTERS OF THOMAS nUTCniNSON. []'^^l 

at Bristol which gives an ace* of a vessel there from Georgia, 
with news of Hopkins's taking possession of the fortresses at 
Providence. 

jMy children, &c., came in to town before seven. I sent my 
coach in the morning to Hounslow to meet them. All are in 
tolerable good hcaltli — Beo denfnr {jratia\ My wife's sister, 
[Grizcl SanfordJ much altered in less tlinn two years. The 
distress she has been in has accelerated age. 

Ill bringing up our forces to the front, one battalion after 
another, it is now necessary to bring up a new Diary, which 
lias hitherto been held in reserve. This is the Diary of Chief 
Justice Peter Oliver, which begins at the time of his leaving Boston. 
It is comprised in seven thin volumes in red leather wrappers. 
He was the younger brother of the late Lieutenant-Governor Oliver, 
as mentioned before ; and as he had suffered much persecution and 
many wrongs, he dipped his pen in fire. He had toiled through 
life ill an honourable profession, not to his personal emolument, for 
he was yearly out of pocket by the mean and miserable acknow- 
ledgment he got for his labours, where " even the Door-keeper 
liad a larger stipend ; " [i. p. 142.] — he had been driven from the 
Bench " for receiving his salary from the King " ; his estate soon 
to be contiscated and his house burnt — his only crime being his 
fidelity to the King and to the laws he had sworn to obey. Lastly, 
he was now driven out of America, so he sought refuge in the land 
of his ancestors. 

The Title on the first page runs thus : — 

Journal of a Yoyago to England in 1776, and of a Tour through 
part of England. 

The extract must be rather long, but it is hoped that the interest 
attaching to it will plead excuses. It begins as follows : — 

"1770. 
" JOTJEXAL OF CHIEF JUSTICE PETEK OLIVER. 

" After having retired to Boston, under the protection of the 
King's troops, for the security of my person against the fury of 
the most unnatural, ungratefull, w\anton, and cruel rebellion that 
ever existed, and after having been confined to the limits of 
that town for eighteen months, the rebels, who had for many 
months surrounded the town with strong entrenchments, began 
to bombard and cannonade it on the 2"^ of March 177G, 



Si] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 47 

wliich held for three nights Buccessively, but with very little 
damage.* 

"General Howe, the Commander-in-Chief, thought proper to 
abandon the town, and gave publiek notice to the inhabitants, that 
such of them who inclined to quit the place, should have tran- 
sports provided for them. 

"March 10th. — Accordingly, on the tenth day of March I em- 
barked on board the Pacific, Indiaman, Cap* James Dun, which 
\(ij in King Road, it being a very commodious vessell, which 
General Howe was so polite as to appropriate to the accomodation 
of my friends and me. 

" 11th. — There was an hot cannonading to and from Boston and 
Dorchester Neck, as also to and from Castle William and Dor- 
chester Neck, which continued from 8 o'clock at night untill the 
next morning. 

" 12th. — Some firing at Boston in the night. 

"16th. — A hot firing at Boston ab' 11 o'clock at night, till 9 
o'clock next morning. 

" 17th. — The troops at Boston embarked, and about 20 sail fell 
down into King Eoad by 11 o'clock this morning. 

" 13th. I — The King's troops began to blow uj) the Castle 
AVilliam. 

" 19th. — I dined on board the Chatham with Admiral Shuldham. 
The south Blockhouse of the Castle was burnt at night, and some 
of the walls of it blown uj). 

" 20th. — The blowing up of the Castle "Walls continued : and 
at night all the combustible part of the Castle Avas fired. The 
conflagration was the most pleasingly dreadful that I ever 
beheld : sometimes it appeared like the eruption of Mount Etna ; 
and then a deluge of fire opened to the view ; that nothing could 
reconcile the horror to the mind, but the prevention of such a 
Fortress falling into the hands of rebels, who had already spread 
such a conflagration of diabolical fury throughout America, 
which scarce anything can quench but the — metu tremefacit 
Olympum. 

* During the night of Mar. 4, there were fired into Boston Hi shot from 
18 to 24 pounds, and 13 shells from 10 to 13 inches. On the 9rh from hoth 
sides, " More than eight hundred shot were fired during the night." " Gen- 
eral Howe's effective force, including seamen, was about 11,000 men. More 
than a thousand Refugees left Boston with the army." *' The fleet dropped 
down to Nantasket Road, were it lingered ten days." — Frothingham's Hist, of 
Siege of Boston, 298, 305, 311. 

t The figures are 13, but coming as they do beUveen 17 and 19, it should 
seem that 18 was intended. 



48 DIAIiY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS SUTOEINSON. [^^^^l 



"2l8t. — The fleet foil down from King Road into Nantaskot 
IlarlKiur, -which aflforded a grand prospect, there lieing at least 150 
sail of vessclls at anchor. 

" 22nd. — A high N.W. wind. 

" 23rd.— D-. 

" 24tli. — A high N.W. and very cold at niglit, so that the vcssell's 
bows and cables were loaded wiili ice. 

" 2oth. — The first Division siiled from Nantasket to TTallifax, [s/c] 
as also the Lord Hyde Packet, Cap" Jeffries for London, with M' 
Thomas Hutchinson and my son Peter, and their families, as 
passengers. 

" 2Gth. — I dined on board tlie Ernown, Commodore Banks. 

♦' 27th. — I sailed from Nantasket, aV 3 o'clock, afternoon, in the 
2nd and last Division of the fleet, about 70 sail, for Hallifax, under 
convoy of the Chafhnni, Admiral Shuldham, and of the Centurion, 
Cap" Braithwaite. 

" Here I took my leave of that once happy country, where peace 
and plenty reigned uncontrouled, till that infernal Hydra Rebellion, 
with its hundred Heads, had devoured its happiness, spread 
desolation over its fertile fields, and ravaged the peacefull mansions 
of its inhabitants, to whom late, very late if ever, will return that 
security and repose which once surrounded them ; and if in part 
restored, will be attended with the disagreeable recollection of the 
Bavage barbarities, and diabolical cruelties which had been per- 
petrated to support rebellion, and which were instigated by 
Leaders who were desperate in their fortunes, unbounded in their 
ambition and malice, and infernal in their dictates. Here I drop 
the filial tear into the Urn of my Country. 

" fortunatos nimium, sua si bona norint — 
Nov-Anglicanos ! 

" And here I bid A Dieu to that shore, which I never wish to tread 
again till that greatest of social blessings, a firm established British 
Government, precedes or accompanies me thither. 

" 28th. — A good wind. 

" 29th.— Ditto. Were on Cape Sable Bank. 

<' 30th. — Wind ab* N.E. A tumbling sea, supposed to bo 
occasioned by the indraught of the Bay of Fundy. 

" 31st.— Ditto. 

" April 1st. — A tumbling sea : Avind at N.E. 

" 2nd. — A southerly -wind and smooth sea. Made land, on a 
north course, about 3 o'clock afternoon, and came to anchor before 
Hallifax at \ an hour past 7 at night. 



fj%l] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 49 



" The appearance of the first sight of land was thus 



" 3rd. — Lauded at Hallifax. Edward Lyde Esq. invited me to 
his house, where I tarried till I embarqued for England. I was 
very happy in being at M"" Lyde's, as there was so great an 
addition to the inhabitants from the navy and army, and Eefugees 
from Boston, which made the lodgings for them very scarce to be 
had, and many of them, when procured, quite intolerable. Pro- 
visions were here as dear as in London. The rents of houses were 
extravagant, and the owners of them took all advantages of the 
necessity of the times, so that I knew of three rooms in one house, 
w'='' house could not cost 500£ Sterl°, let for £250* Sterl= p year. 
Thus mankind prey upon each other. Not so the brute species. f 
I pitied the misfortunes of others, but I could only pity them : for 
myself, I was happily provided for, and was the more happy, as I 
had been very sea-sick during my 6^ days' voyage, so that I could 
not enjoy to my wishes, the grand prospect of the ocean covered 
with ships in view, and some so near as to converse with our 
friends on board them. 

" Hallifax is a very agreeable situation for prospects, and for trade : 
it is situated on a rising ground fronting the Harbour and ocean. 
There are 6 or 7 streets parallel to each other on the side of the 
hill, of about 1^ or 2 miles in length, very strait, [straight] and of 
a good width. There are many others which ascend the hill, and 
intersect the long streets. On the top of the hill there is now a most 
delightful prospect of the harbour. Islands near the entrance of the 
harbor, and of the ocean, so that ,you may see vessells at a very 
great distance at sea : and when the woods are cleared off, there 
will be a most delightfull landscape, but at present there is not a 
great deal of cleared land. 

" The soil about Hallifax is very strong, so that nature seems to 
have designed it for pasturage, although there are some spots 
improved b}^ tillage to good advantage, but it was expensive to 
bring them into tilth. There are other parts of Nova Scotia, as 
Cumberland, Windsor, &c., which are formed for tillage, and which 
are well improved : but the coldness of the climate must lessen the 

* The £ is placed indifferently before or after the figures. 

t The Chief Justice was rather out of humour with human nature at that 
time ; and as for the brute species, the big appear to devour the small all the 
world over. 

VOL. II. B 



50 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. \^n^I 



Llt76. 



profits of tho farmer, as his cattlo mixst coiiBumo in the winter 
great part of his siiininer's produce. 

" Tlu' harhor of llallirax is a most oxcellout one, capable of con- 
taining the whole English navy, where they may ride landlocked 
against any storms ; at this time there are 200 sail before the town : 
and when L'' Londoun was here in the year 1757, there were above 
300 sail of vossells in the harbor. It is above a mile wide for 3 or 
4 miles, and it is deep with good ancliorage, and a bold shore. 
Above the harbor there is a Basin which empties into it ; it is 5 or 
6 miles broad, and 7 or 8 miles long ; a good shore, and in some 
places 50 fathom deep. In this Basin Diiko D'Anville retired out 
of observation in y' year 1745, and here he left one of his 70 gun 
ships, which is now at the bottom of this Basin. 

" The houses of Hallifax seem to have been sowed like mush- 
rooms in an hot-bed, and to have decayed as fast ; for although 
they have been built but a few years, yet there are scarce any of 
them habitable, and perhaps a conflagration might occasion a 
Phoenix to rise out of its ashes. 

" The air is very unpleasant and uncertain : you will feel many 
changes of it in a day : and if you would be safe in visiting your 
next neighbour, let your servant attend you with a cloak; for 
although you may set out in a cloudless sky, a hard shower may 
overtake you after a few steps. But notwithstanding of these 
sudden changes, it is agreed by all, that the place is healthy : but 
if any one chuscs to live there, he is welcome to do so, provided he 
will not compel me to live there too. There is something peculiar 
in the soil, it being composed of slate and gravel ; that although in 
one hour you may be over shoes in mud from the rains, yet the 
next hour will give you a clean street to walk in. 

" As to the inhabitants, like all others who are absorbed in trade, 
they are detached from everything but their own interest. Many 
of them were low traders from New England, and happy will it be 
for them if they may escape the lava which issues from that 
Volcano of Eebellion, but the smoke hath already enveloped many 
of them. So much for Hallifax. 

" During my stay at Hallifax, as well as during my residence in 
Boston, I was treated with y'' utmost politeness, not to say friend- 
ship, by General Howe, who offered and urged me to every 
assistance I might wish for, and assured me, now at Hallifax, of 
being provided with a good shij) for my passage to England ; but 
the Harriot Pacquet, Cap" Lee, being sent to carry home Gov"" 
Legge of Hallifax, Mr. Legge invited my niece Jenny Clarke and 
myself, to take passage with him ; not suffering us to lay in any 



?*776.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 51 

stores for ourselves, but to partake in his, of which he had made 
ample provision. 

" May 12. — We accordingly embarked in the s'^ Packet on y° 12th 
May, having as passengers in the cabin Gov'' Legge, James Monk 
Esq., Solicitor General of Hallifax, and his lady, M' Birch, Chaplain 
of a Kegiment, and Miss Clarke, and myself. 

" We embarked at 8 o'clock in the morning, and came to sail at 
3 o'clock in the afternoon. There were six sail more in company, 
convoyed by the Glasgow Man-of-War, Cap" How. 

" 13th. — Cap" Lee, having above 40 sailors on board, and 14 
carriage guns, brought to a schooner, supposed to be an American 
Privetcer, but she proved a fishing vessoU from Liverpool in Nova 
Scotia. 

" 14th.— At 12 o'clock at noon we were ab' 70 leagues from 
Hallifax, wind S.S.W., and a fine gale. Cap" Lee, thinking that 
he was of sufficient defence, left the Convoy and the other vessells. 
At night a fleet of 6 sail pass'd us from the southward, supposed 
from Antigua as storeships for Hallifax. 

" 15th. — Thick and misty weather. 

" 16th. — A fine gale : went 9 knots. 

" 17th. — Foggy and rain : wind S by E : were on the south Bank 
of NewFland. 

" 18th.— A fog on the Bank : caught 8 cod fish. Had like to have 
been sunk early in the morning by a large island of Ice, which was 
grounded in fifty fathom water. The fog was so thick that we 
were within 2 ships' length of it before it was discovered, the 
vessell going 7 knots. It was very large, and as high again as our 
mainmast. There was another very large island about a league 
off". In the afternoon we saw another, at least 200 yards long, and 
150 f* high, about 3 leagues off"; and when the sun shone upon it, 
and threw different shades upon the indents of it, it made a most 
grand and glorious appearance, that neither the eye or mind could 
ever be tired with viewing. 

" 19th. — Fair wind, but very tumbling sea.* 

"20th.— Ditto .... Ditto. 

" 21st.— Fair wind. 

" 22nd.— D°. 

" 23rd.— D". 

" 24th.— D". 

" 25th.— Tumbling sea. 

" 26th.— D°. 

* Probably " a short sea," or a " chopping sea." 

£ 2 



52 DIABY and letters of THOMAS IIUTCIIINSON. [^?^o^ 

"27th.— D". 

"28tli.-])'. 

" 2'.Uh.— ])', Tlioso tumbling;; sous are vastly trouLlesome to sick 
or well. ]!' you are Avell, they snatch tho victuals out of your 
mouth if you can got it there; hut 9 times out of 10 it will 
tantali/e you hy letting it ajjproach j-^our lijis, and then make it 
retire l)eforo it reaches them : anil if you are sick and bod-rid, and 
so prevent their sj)ito by not eating, they will come at you by 
making you exert your feebleness in holding fast to keep your- 
self from being toss'd to the opposite side of tho vessell, which 
is often the case, so that if you would be quite secure, you must, 
when the waves lash you, keep time with them, and lash yourself 
also. 

"30th. — Made soundings about 8 o'clock at night, in 50 fathom 
water. 

" 31st. — Made Scilly at 6 o'clock in the morning. 

"June 1st. — Arrived at Falmouth Harbour about midnight. Thus 
through a kind Providence which protected us from the ravages of 
Rebellion in Boston, and from storms and islands of ice on tho 
ocean, after a passage of 20}, days, though very seasick during the 
passage, wo harbored near that Island of Peace and Plenty where 
Government is, and can be supported, and where Eebellion hath 
formerly been check'd in its wanton career, and whose authority it 
is hoped, will suppress that American one, which exceeds in 
cruelty, malice, and infernal ingratitude, the united Rebellions 
recorded in history. 

" Our passage was short, our Cap" a good seaman, kind and 
obliging ; our fellow passengers agreeable ; our ship a fine sea 
boat ; our crew of ab' 45 sailors, peaceable and goodnatured ; our 
vessell defensible by 14 carriage guns; our Steward extremely 
attentive to his department ; our stores large in quantity, and 
good in quality, and of various sorts ; — but what avail are all the 
superfluities of life in possession, without the power of enjoyment ? 
Sea sickness disrelish'd all, till the view and effluvise* of the land 
restored us to the taste of those pleasures, the loss of which we 
reflected upon with regret. 

" It is worth remark that this was the 98th time that our Captain 
Lee had cross'd the Atlantick ocean since the year 1750 : happy 

* In reality the word is effluvhini, a neuter noun, the plural beiug effluvia ; 
hut some persons write effluvia in the singular, as a feminine noun, and effluvisa 
in the pluial. As time has gone on the signitication of the word has become 
much altered. In the present day we should rather use such words as scent, 
or aroma. 



1776.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 53 

for him if the old proverb — He tliat is born to be hanged will never 
be drowned — is not his protection. 

" After an agreeable repose from a disagreeable voyage, I rose at 
5 o'clock next morning. I looked abroad and found myself sur- 
rounded with great variety of the beauties of art and of nature ; a 
populous town, a fine harbour, handsome well-built keys, \_sic] 
stone and brick buildings, high and well cultivated lands all in 
verdure, and arranged like gardens with their allotments separated 
by hedges. It is impossible to convey to a mind which hath not 
already felt a similar entertainment, that most agreeable pleasure 
Avhich diffuses itself upon a sudden transition to such agreeable 
scenes, from a situation whence, for 6 months past, I had beheld 
nothing but nature in its decay, and a wild and waste ocean. 

" At G o'clock I went on shore at Falmouth, and put up at an inn 
nigh the water, Snoxall, a good house. Attended publick worship 
at church, M"^ Allen, preacher, a worthy sensible gentleman. After 
noon I viewed the town with M" Allen, and at the south part 
entered a beautiful vista of ^ mile in length of two rows of tall 
trees, which formed an alcove, the tops inhabited by rooks who, 
unmolested, enjoyed their rural pleasures. We then went to view 
Pendennis Castle, or Pen Dinas, W*" in old British signifies the End 
or Head of a city. It stands about a mile from the town of 
Falmouth, on a hill towards the English Channell : it is a regular 
strong fortification, difficult of access, and in vain did Oliver 
Cromwell attempt to storm it in the Civil Wars. Opposite to it is 
a platform of guns at S* Mawes, and these two command the 
entrance of the harbour, which is an excellent one, and capable of 
containing the navy of England. 

" Falmouth is well built, a place of great trade, the streets gener- 
ally too narrow ; the inhabitants very civil, and many of them 
very polite ; a good market, and plenty of fish. It is stipposed 
that the smuggling business is carried on here pretty freely, not- 
withstanding the great care of government to prevent it ; for it is 
usual on the heights of the opposite shore to kindle fires at night 
to give notice to the smuggling vessells in the Channel of the 
King's Cutters being in the harbor : some of those lights we saw 
as we entered the harbor. Falmouth is the rendezvoux of the 
English Pacquets. Self interest is the grand Idol of mankind, and 
smugglers are such sincere votaries, that they will murder their 
fellow creatures, and expose themselves to the halter rather than 
be hindred in paying their devotions at its shrine. It was this 
smuggling trade that laid the Foundation Stone of the American 
Eebellion." 



54 PTART AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCniNSON. [ 



May 
1T76. 



The Chief Justice and his niece Miss Jenny Clarke remained a 
few days in ralmouth, in ordor to recruit thomselves aft«r thoir 
voyage, and they i)leasantly filled np tlio interval by visiting the 
tin, load, and copper mines, and other places of interest in the 
neighbourhood, before they undertook thoir long and tedious 
journey to London. Leaving them a short time therefore, order 
and arraiigoment suggest that wo should return to the Diary of 
(.Governor Hutchinson, The end of the thread was dropped at the 
11th of May, when his son Thomas, together with a largo accom- 
paniment of relatives, arrived in London, also from Falmouth. 
From that point wo proceed : — ■ 

May 12th. — At the Temple. D"^ Thurlow preached. 

AVe have but three rooms on a floor, and my daughter and I 
take two rooms, and my 8ister[-in-law] a third. In the other 
two lodging rooms we are forced to stow my son and danglitor's 
families, consisting of 12, great and small : The maids in the 
upper storey. 

13th. — [Sir Jeflery Amherst speculates on affairs.] . . . 

I received 100 guineas of Gines & co. Gave nurse 10 
guineas: M'"*' San ford 10 guineas: M""^ Oliver 10 guineas: 
and 2 guineas to Doctor Oliver. 

14th. — In the evening with my eldest son at Northumberland 
House, where there was a very great appearance of nobility 
and gentry, upon the Dutchess's invitation, an old Lady just 
able to rise and receive the complim*'' of the company, leaning 
on her cane. Lord Hardwicke made us known to her. I have 
seen no house in London equal to this.* Its present elegance 
and grandeur are from the present Duke, who a few years ago 
was meer [sic] Sir Hugh Smithson. The answer of the Duke 
of Newcastle to him, when he desired a Blue Ribband, and 
after denial had said that he believed he was the first D. of 
Northumberland who had been denied a Garter, is in every- 
body's mouth, tho' the truth of it is doubtful. He was the first 
Sir Hugh Smithson that was made D. of Northumberland. Be 
that as it may, there are very few Commoners who would shew 
less arrogance than he does after rising to a Dukedom. 

* This splendid mansion was entirely removed recently, and the site of it 
is now occupied by Northumberland Avenue, leading to the Thames Embank- 
ment, near Hungerford Bridge, and by the buildings on each side of it. 



me.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 55 

15tli. — Advice has been received that General Burgoyne 
with the fleet, was seen on the 24th of April as far west as the 
Grand Bank ; but the fears of the surrender of Quebeck before 
he can arrive, seem to increase. The wind has been favourable 
for five or six days, which probably has given a good offing to 
the Hessians, which passed by Plymouth the lOtli. 

16th. — A raw cold easterly wind. I spent an hour at M"" 
Cornwall's, who says he does not doubt of the final success of 
government in the American cause, but the burden which it 
brings upon the kingdom lyes with more weight on his mind 
than I ever discovered before ; and he observed that though 
the reduction was not doubtful, yet there was something to 
follow which few people thought of the difficulty of maintaining 
government and order after it was reduced. It was impossible 
Connecticut and Ehode Island, he said, should remain under 
their present Charters. He wished nothing more had been 
done about the Massachusetts Charter than altering the 
Council. I told him I was in doubt of the expediency of that, 
and had wrote so to the Secretary of State. I knew the 
attachment of the people, and feared the convulsion it would 
occasion. 

Peggy dined at IM'' Knox's, and went with them to the play. 

17th. — Two persons called on me to-day — John Lee and — 
Carter, from Philadelphia, which they left the 21st of March. 
M'' Lee brought a note from Richard Smith, with whom I was 
formerly concerned in trade, desiring him to come to me, and 
let me know he should have wrote, but durst not : that he had 
been forced to leave Philadelphia, and settle at Burlington, &c. 
He brought the votes of N. Jersey Assembly, a great number 
of newspapers, two pamphlets; all which I sent to Lord G. 
Germaine. 

At M' Knox's in the evening, and there first heard that M"" 
D'Oyly was appointed under Secry to Lord G. G., and that M'' 
P[ownal] was appointed Comiss. of Excise. Had conversation 
on the state of America. All N. England is probably in 
possession of all the authority and power of government on 
shore, but deprived of all trade by sea. Tryon is at New York, 
but on board ship, without being able to do any act as Governor. 



56 DIAIiY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. [n*i 



Franklin in tliG Jersevs, lias more of the form of government, 
nnd hold his Assembly in Docombor, vith whioh he did not 
incline to differ.* IVnn at riiihulelphia, sits altogether still, 
and aoqniesces in all that his own Assembly, as well as the 
Congress tliink |>rop(M-. I^Farylanil, of late, has been more 
quirt than usual. L'' Dnnmoie keeps on board ship in 
^'irginia; as does IMartin at N. Carolina, and L'' W" Campbell 
in 8. Carolina. Sir J. Wri}*ht was leaving Georgia to go to 
Boston. East and West Florida are yet in possession of Gov., 
as well as Nova Scotia, but Canada is doubtful. Insurances 
are made on property in Quebec at 20 p c'' in London. 
r>urgoyne may possibly arrive, as on the 10"' of May, but it's 
uncertain as it is, whether before that, it Avill not surrender. 

18th. — Called in the morning to give M"" D'Oyly joy on his 
appointment. He does not seem over pleased, and I believe 
he aimed at as good an income, attended with less trouble. 
He and she are fond of the country in summer, and M"^ Knox's 
health obliges him to be in the country; but in the present 
state of America, there must be one of the Secretaries in town. 
M'' Ellis not at home. 

19th.— At the Old Jewry. 

At Court. The King passed me without sj caking to me, 
which he had never done before, but there were several other 
gentlemen in the same circumstances, and he went round the 
circle much quick<n' than usual. The christening of the Princess 
was at 7 o'clock, and the company was in the Ante-Chamber, 
the Drawing-Room being kept shut on acc*^ of the Christening. 

In the evening at D'' Heberden's. The wind still at NE. 

20th. — Report of an English vessel taken by Portuguese, 
and carried into Lisbon : — calculated to lower Stocks, &c. 

21st. — Another report to-day, that Sir P. Parker and his 
fleet were cerfainly arrived at New York, and that letters were 
in town giving an account of it — that Stocks were fallen, &c., 
— all without grounds. 

I met Col. Leland in St. James's Park, who is fully of 
opinion that if any Government letters reached Howe before he 
left Nantasket, the troops are not gone to Halifax. It's now 
* This was William Franklin, son of Dr. Franklin, and a loyal man. 



May 
1776 



.] BIART AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 57 



ten days since the Hessians left the Channel, and the wind has 
been to l^orth, and Eastward of North, and still continues. 

22nd. — M'' Ellis and W Jenkinson called : the latter sets 
out to-morrow for France to spend the summer on the 
Continent. M"" Stanley goes with him. Mentioning to M"' 
Ellis my thoughts of living in the country to save charge, he 
advises against it, and says — " Remain in oculis civium if you 
have anything to hope, for yourself or family. You will be 
forgot in the country." 

In the evening with M'' Mauduit at Eanelagh. Lord 
Townsliend joined us. Speaking of the Licences to export to 
America, he called it a shabby business. Mauduit says one 
Merry, a broken Vintner, applied to Cooper and Robinson for 
leave to carry beef from Africa, where it was said to be 
extreme cheap, to America; but alleged, it was necessary to 
export goods to purchase it, and that he was not able to 
advance the money. Leave was granted, and Cooper gave him 
some sort of Certificate that the Treasury would be responsible. 
This Merry shewed, to gain credit ; but instead of 5 or 6,0 00£ 
in one ship only, £30,000 was insured. This alarmed the 
Merchants, as there was no doubt the goods were to go from 
Africa. Before the ships proceeded, the King of that part of 
Africa where they were to go, forbad the exportation of cattle, 
and one ship went with goods to America — others were stopped 
by the clamour of the Merchants. Mauduit says it looks as if 

C and R were sharers in the licences, and calls it a 

very exceptional affair, and it looks as if it would be taken up 
again next session. 

23rd. — I called at Lord Lucas's, Lord — late M"" — Onslow, 
and Lord Harrowby's, new created, and left my name. At 
Lord North's Levee, to introduce my son. Afterwards desired 
Lord Gower, and he took him into the House of Lords to hear 
the King's Speech at the Prorogation. 

As cold this evening as in ]\ larch. 

24th. — At Sir George Hay's, to obtain administration for 
Gen' Winslow's wages, on the request of P. Winslow to my son 
Elisha, who treated me very politely ; and after settling the 
business I went upon, he entred upon American afiairs. I 



58 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. [i^\"/ 

said to him that I did not approve of the Stamp Act; but I 
never had seen an opportunity since ^the repeal of it wlien 
riov{>niment could have (^jucimUhI to tlio clninis of America, 
witliout achnittinp; tlieir principle of total independence. He 
seemed to join with mo, but not to be satisfied with measures ; 
and ho said yi^ Conway made an oxcollent Sj)00ch, and in it 
observed tliat ho had received from me in tlio time of the 
Stamp Act, such reasons against the passing of it as were 
irresistible. I told 8ir George I ever tliought the taxing 
America by rarliamcnt not advisable, but as a servant of the 
Crown, I thought myself bomid to discountenance the violent 
opposition made to the Act, as it led to the denial of its 
authority in all cases whatsoever, and in fact, had brought on 
the Kebclliou. 

Tlicso remarks arc nioro to tlie purpose, and, fur a short sentence, 
aim more dii'octly at the origin of the struggle, and account for his 
reasons in resisting it, than any single paragrajili that might bo 
l)ointcd OTit anywhere in the Diary or Letters. Though he sided 
with the Americans in disapproving of the Stamp Act, he resisted 
their riotous proceedings, simply because riot was against law. 
As long as lie was a servant of the Crown, it was imperative that 
he should uphold its authority, be his i)rivate opinions what they 
might. If all the officials of an Empire were to act according to 
their various individual sentiments, regardless of their instructions 
from headquarters, the result may be imagined — -or perhaps the 
result woidd be beyond the reach of imagination. The last sentence 
of the exti-act which we have made from the Diary of Chief Justice 
Oliver is not so near the mark. He says — " It was this smuggling 
trade that laid the foundation stone of the American Rebellion." 
Less direct, but related in a kindred degree, as an ingredient of the 
general lawlessness, the smuggling trade had its influence. 

25th. — [Hessians supposed to have sailed.] 

26th.— At the Temple. D' Thurlow. I met M'' Brooks, 
the Chaplain at Quebec, and afterwards S'^ Tho. Mills. They 
both seemed very sanguine that the place would not surrender. 
Court mourning for the Grand Dutchess of Kussia. 

27th. — [Lord Cranley called. Hot day. Hessians.] 

28th. — Everybody seems anxious for news from America. 



JJre.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 59 

For two or three clays the winds have been favorable : at 
south most of this day. We are not sure that Howe went to 
Halifax, and the fate of Quebec is doubtful. Thirteen New 
Englanders, of which I was one, met by accident to-day in St. 
James's Park, Two or three more were in the Park at a 
distance. 

29th. — M*" Blackburne of the Marshalsea called. He says 
there is a total change to-day in the Prince's flimily. L'^ 
Bruce instead of L"^ Holderness ; Bp. of Litchfield [sic] (Hurd), 
instead of Chester, (Markham) ; and the sub - preceptors 
changed. „ , 

At the King's Levee. He asked if I did not think the 
weather very pleasing after so much raw disagreeable weather? 
I said I was glad of the raw weather, as it was the effect of a 
fair wind. But, he said — " you like a little mixture ? " " Not 
whilst so important a service depended on a fair wind." " That 
was generous," he said, " but now you wish to have a little 
news." 

I promised M' IM^'kenzie at the Levee to write to him in 
Scotland. 

[Dined at the King's Head, &c.] 

30th. — Lord Dartmouth called, &c. 

31st. — Dined to-day with Sir H. Houghton in Upper Brook 
Street. Mauduit, D"* Finch, (a Rector in the city), M'" 
Raymond, who married Lady Houghton's sister, and my son 
E. were the company. Sir H. says that when L'^ Holderness 
returned from the Continent, where he went for his health, he 
perceived a difference in the Prince's behaviour, w'"^' he 
attributed to ill impressions made by people about the Prince ; 
and that he has ever since been wishing to retire, and at length 
the King consented, but found difficulty to prevail on Lord 
Bruce to be his successor, until a letter wrote by the King, 
which is said to be a very good one, had the effect. In the 
letter Lord Bruce's expectation of the Earldom of Aylesbury is 
hinted at very genteelly, but Lord Bruce made a point of 
having the Bp. of Litchfield for Preceptor. It is said a dif- 
ference between Lord Holderness and 3P Jackson, Sub-pre- 
ceptor, accelerated this change, and caused just at this time 



rJiine 



CO I) I Any AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCniNSON. l^\Z 



whixt has been long preparing, but kept private. I saw the Bp. 
of Chester, the late Precej»tor, at the King's Levee on Wednes- 
day last, with all the ajipcaranco (if being niucli Imrt, tho' it is 
said ho has tlio promise of tlie first of the rich Bishopricks 
which falls. He may fall first. Upon the whole, tliis atlair is 
not pleasing. Tlio K. has been observed to be very pensive 
some time past. IMisiinderstandings between tho K. and the 
Prince* are to be dreaded. They have been inore frequent, 
not to say general, in the English than any other history. 

South wind but no arrival. 

June 1st. — A rainy day. ... 

2nd. — At the Old Jewry. A sensible young m;in preached, 
whose name I could not learn. Lord ]lum(i and Lord 
Harrowby, two of the new Lords, called as they went to 
Court. 

3rd. — Went into the Borough to Battlebridge with my sons. 
On my return found news from N. York by express from 
Tryon, which came out the 28th of April — that Quebec had 
been a second time attacked by Worster [?] and Arnold, who 
were repulsed with the loss of 1500 men — that more ' troops 
were on their way from N. England, &c. to Quebec, but the 
Lakes began to break up — that Lee was taken prisoner by 
Clinton in N. Carolina with 170 of Rifle-men who were a guard 
to Lee, as he was going to take the eoilland of the southern 
rebels — that Hopkins and his fleet from Philad. were blocked 
up in New London harbour — that Washinjiton had left hi-^ 
army, and was returned to the Congress — that Putnam and 
Schuyler commanded at N. York — and that many of the 
inhabitants there, were ready to take up arms. This is the 
only good news for some time, and everybody on the side of 
Government is in high spirits. Lord Cranley, in his phaeton, 
stopped me in Piccadilly, and seemed in an extasy.[s?c] Wind 
E., but exceeding hot for this country all day. 

4th.— At Court. The King's Birthday. Took M'" Jo. Greene 

* Prince George, aftorw.ards George IV., was bom Aug. 12, 17G2. He was 
now therefore within three months of fourteen, and beginning to discover that 
he had a will of his own. Some people find this out very early. And young 
Princes, who have large prospects before them, and too many flatterers around 
them, are brought up in a pleasant, but in a very dnngerous school. 



June' 

1776 



'] D I Alt Y AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTGHINSON. 61 



and Sparliawk in my coach. A vessel arrived from Halifax 
with letters from Gen. Howe, IMay 12th. One of the transports 
taken -by the rebel privateers, said to have the merchandize 
which was taken from Boston. Howe had received all the 
dispatches from Gov. which could be arrived. The private 
letters not yet come up, and we know nothing yet of our friends 
at Halifax. He had sent a detachment from his army to 
Quebec, but had heard nothing from thence. My three 
daughters at the Ball in the Chamberlain's box. 

5th. — We hear that two or three other vessels came out of 
Halifax with the vessel arrived at Falmouth, and that L* Gov. 
Oliver and divers other passengers are ou board. At M"^ 
Robinson's, &c. . . . 

Gth. — Called upon the B^ of Oxford, and left my name. 
Afterwards upon the Abp. at Lambeth. D'" Chandler with me. 
Rec** a letter from Judge Oliver at Halifax, dated xlp. 17. He 
arrived w"^ the last division of 70 sail, April 3rd. Mentions 
the death of Ch. Just. Belcher. 

I called on M"^ Knox at the Office, and took a list of the 
persons and families w'^" removed from Boston, which I make 
to be 938 souls. 

Judge Oliver writes Col. Browne that Billy Jackson, (who 
has been a steady asserter of Gov'), was taken by the rebels, 
and carried in (I think) to Newbury ; ill treated, insulted, 
and haltered about the neck, and from thence carried to 
Boston. 

7th. — I .met Col. Ewing in Pall Mall coming to 8'' James's 
Street, and turned back with him. He arrived in town last 
night from Halifax with his family. In the same ship (Hall) 
came his brother George and family, Royall Treasurer Gray, 
his son Lewis and family. Col. Hatch and family, and Col. 
Murray and wife. The L' Gov., Col. Vassall, M'' Lechmere and 
families, and Peter Johannot, are arrived at Dartmouth. The 
Chief Justice in the packet w'*^ Gov. Legge at Falmouth. Cap. 
Gore, Paddock, Joy, Laughton, &c., in another vessel at Dover, 
^ytu j^e(j Lyde, Pelham, T. Brinley, &c. They had heard nothing 
at Halifax from Quebec ; nor had they any circumstantial 
account of afifairs at Boston. A newspaper of 8 of April has a 



62 niABY AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. [l^:^l 

pompous Address from the Select-men of Boston to his 
Excellency General Washington, and his Answer. There was a 
report that a number of vessels from England were seen in the 
CJulph of S*^ liawronco the 16 of April. A Ivegiment for Quebec 
sailed from llulifax the 22"'* of April. The Glasyotv arrived 
also with S'^ James Wright from Halifax, Gov. of Georgia. It 
was reported at Halifax tliat the Centurion, which sailed from 
thence to the southward about the 15th of April, had destroyed 
Newport in Rhode Island ; but it was by vessels spoke with at 
sea. The Muss. Newspapers say the vessel Jackson was taken 
in, was worth 35,000£ steri. 

Several of the Masters of transports w*^'' had been t'lken, 
obtained leave to go from Salem to London. Stopping at 
Halifax, a letter was found from D"^ Eliot to young M"^ Smith, 
which the General and officers were very angry at. Smith had 
wrote to his friends in such a manner as gave him great credit 
with General Howe, who opened all letters. I think it probable 
that this came to the knowledge of the heads of the people, 
and that Doctor Eliot, to whom one of the letters I suppose to 
be wrote, tho't it necessary to write such an answer as should 
shew he disapproved Smith's principles. It is said that the 
letter was sent open from Boston to Salem. 

8th. — Waiting for more news concerning Quebec. M'' Lyde 
called in the evening. Mauduit took his leave of us for a 
month to go to Hampshire, Joshua Ironmonger's near Andover. 
Wherwell. 

9tb.— At the Temple— Dr. Thurlow. 

Dined at Vanburgh Fields with Soame Jenyns, S"^ Tho. Mills, 
and their ladies, besides M"^ Pownall's family, and Peggy. Find 
from M"^ P. that Howe only awaited the arrival of the W. India 
Victuallers to proceed to New York, and that the Hessians are 
ordered direct to the scene of action, not improbably to Delaware, 
or it may be to join Howe at New York. It was also said that 
Sir P. Parker and about 30 sail were spoke with near the coast 
of America, but Sir T. M., who had it from Cunningham, of 
Lord G.'s family, could not ascertain the day. 

Treasurer Gray, George Erviug, Murray, J. Hatch, and their 
families, came ashore at Deptford to-day. 



mTl DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 63 



lt76.J 



Naturally enough, the movements of General Howe at this 
juncture were watched by all orders of men, as the summer cam- 
paign had now opened, and great expectations were entertained 
in England that something of a very decisive nature would soon 
be effected. The large amount of forces going out favoured these 
expectations, and the appointment of Lord Howe to the fleet con- 
firmed them. The name of Howe was popular with the Americans, 
for an elder brother of these two commanders fought side by side 
with Americans, against the French in the reduction of Canada, 
and was there killed ; and the Americans, out of a kindly feeling, 
subsequently erected a monument to his memory. Bearing these 
things in mind, it was thought to be a stroke of supremo wisdom 
to send out the two surviving brothers on the present occasion. 
Never was there a greater mistake ! If they had been sent out 
with an Olive Branch, instead of shot and powder, to settle an 
amicable arrangement, then the choice would have been judicious 
enough ; but to send friends out to shoot friends, was about the 
silliest thing that ever was done — and so I shall be able to shew 
further on. 

Mr, Hutchinson's remarks on some of these points, when writing 
to Lieutenant-Governor Thomas Oliver, on the 17th of February, 
1776, are the following :— 

" I hope you will hold out until reinforced. The vast armam* 
must bring infinite distress on America this summer unless there 
shall be a submission to Gov*. L** H. com^ by sea, and Gen. H. by 
land. This, I am assured, is agree' to the K.'s priv. as well as 
publ. inclinat% and it is at the same time the most popular meas. 
w'^'' could be taken, and I hope Amer. will erect statues to the two 
younger broth", as it has done a monum' to the elder. I know of no 
service w'^'' deserves a statue more than restoring a country from a 
state of anarchy and confus" to a state of gov. and order." 

As to those who deserve statues, we must rather judge after the 
current of events, and not before. There is an original Note, 
written at this time by the hand of Lord Hardwicke — not the 
easiest of hands to read — which betrays hunger for news, and 
which may reasonably find a place here : — • 

« June 9th —76. 

"L^ Hardwicke is much obliged to Gov"" Hutchinson for the 

extract of the N. York Letter w'^'' he hopes will soon be confirmed. 

It is very amazing that the American office has not vouchsafed to 

inform the public with so much as that Gen' Howe and his troops 



64 mARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS nUTCHlNSON. [S^ 

were arrived at IluUifax : lio])cs Avlmt tlio papers have asserted is 
lutt true, — that the Army <^ot there iu a sickly state. Wishes M' 
lluti'liiuson w' ask some of liis Friends wlio are hitely come, why, 
during the AVinter, wlien the liebels had but a small Force before 
Boston, nothing was done by way of attack on their Lines, or 
rather, by way of Diversion for support? Tliose who were up in 
Long Island from IMaster Todd's Adrcrtisemcnt, one sh'' sa])pose that 
tJov' imagined, they sli' be Masters soon of N. York. L'' ][. has 
seen a very curious Braggadochio Letter from M' Hutchinson's 
old Friend D' Franklin. It is dated from N. York 29th of 
March. He says y" Colonists are prepared for every Thing y' 
can happen ; the Avholo Continent in arms, and at N. Y'^ork, 
Young and Old, Kich and Poor, Males and Females, at work ou 
the Fortifications. 

" L'' 11. desires Miss IL may be asked how she sh'^ like to carry 
a Basket with earth, or a Bundle of Fascines ? — probably with, and 
for a Friend, very well." 

The question asked by his Lordshijj above, has been asked by 
others ; and although General Howe might doubt whether he was 
strong enough with his twenty Kegiments to make a sortie iu force 
from the city, for the purpose of dislodging from ten to seventeen 
thousand Provincials from a series of fortifi.ed positions subtending 
a front of nearly ten miles, and at the same time to leave troops 
sufficient behind him to ensure the security of his base, yet, the 
knovVn weakness of AVashington's army, the rawness of his soldiers, 
and his want of ammunition, might have justified the English 
( Jeneral in making the attempt. In his Histori/ of the Siege of Boston, 
p. 269, Mr. Frothinghani writes — " AVashiugton could account 
lor the inactivity of the enemy only by supposing that he was 
meditating some important enterprise." And he quotes the 
American Commander-in-Chief, who wrote, November 28 — " Our 
situation is truly alarming ; and of this General Howe is well 
apprized," &c. Adolphus ii. 340, says — " The whole force under 
AVashington, did not, at the close of the year, [1775] amount to 
ten thousand, but was shortly afterwards augmented to about 
seventeen thousand, by drafts from the militia." And again — " It 
afforded much reasonable ground of surprize, that Howe should 
remain pent up in Boston, and make no military effort to relieve the 
miseries of his own troops, and crush the hopes of the Americans. 
He was not ignorant of AVashington's alarming distresses ; and this 
want of enterprize enabled his opponent to boast of his own exertions 
and situation, as unparalleled in the annals of* history : he had 



iZ?^ DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 65 

maintained his post for six months without powder ; and at the 
same time had disbanded one army and recruited another, within 
musket shot of more than twenty British Eegiments." Lord 
Ilardwicke's question seems not without reason. 
To resume — 



10th. — At length the Governm* is relieved from its anxiety 
about Quebec. An Express arrived this morning with letters 
from Gen. Carleton, advising the arrival of the Isis, and one or 
two other vessels the 6th of May ; and that, as soon as 20 men 
were lauded, he marched out of the town : that the rebels re- 
treated with such precipitation, as to leave their cannon and 
other stores behind : that before the date of this letter, he had 
heard of their arrival at M'real, which they were preparing to 
abandon also, and gave out they would make a stand at Sorel 
and Chamblee : that the whole of the 29th Reg*, and also the 
47th Eeg. from Halifax, arrived soon after : that there had 
been no action after the repulse the 31 Dec, in which Carleton 
says the rebels lost 700 men, killed, wounded, and taken : that 
the garrison had only ab* of Navy,* and 4 men killed, and 13 
wounded during the whole siege : that by batteries from Point 
Levi, they had made some attempt upon the ships, but to no 
purpose. In coming down the river the Express met Burgoyne's 
forces about 100 leagues from the city. She sailed the 16. of 
May. Burgoyne carried the frames of two vessels for the 
Lakes, and ironwork, &c. for batteaux, but not timber and 
plank frames, as was reported. I fear it will take much time 
to prepare for such an army to pass the Lakes, and if Quebec 
could have been preserved without, this force had better gone 
to other parts, but that could not be foreseen. Indeed, it's 
probable the rebel army had advice of a great force expected, 
or they would not so precipitately have retreated. 

I wrote to M"^ Mackenzie in Scotland, to acquaint him with 
the news. 

11th. — The Isis sailed the 11th of March from Portsmouth ; 
made the island of S* Peter's the 11th of April ; sailed 50 or 
60 leagues thro' large fields of thick ice until the 21st, when 

* Sometliiug wanting. 
VOL. II. F 



Gfi PLIRY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS nUTCTIINSON. [' 



Jitno 
1776. 



plic WHS oloar of it ; made tho island of Anticosty, and entered 
the river S' Laurence on tlie 30th ; anchored in a snow storm 
near Pilgrim's Islands ; observed smoaks [sie] from Capo to Capo 
towards Quebec ; May 3 arrived near Coudre, where she was 
joined by the Surj^rize and Martin sloop, both which sailed tho 
20 ^larch from IMymouth. Douglas, of tho Isis, ordered the 
Surprize up to Quebec on tho 5th, and tlie Gth in the morning 
she was in view of the town, and found her private signals 
answered. 

]\L'' Knox tells me D'' Franklin, with his Komish priests, was 
at Montreal just time enough to hear of the arrival of the 
troops, and to scamper back. One Miller, a Custom Ilonso 
Oflicer, and — Thomson, obtained leave to come with a vessel 
from Newbury to England. They say they were in Boston tlio 
4 of IMay ; that some of the people left there were laid under 
some restraint ; tliat Inventories were taken of all tho house- 
hold furniture and other goods, of those who had left the town ; 
and that it was intended to retaliate upon the owners the loss 
any of the rebels had sustained, by the seizure of their goods. 

Col° ^Murray and Judge Browne dined witli us. 

12th.— L* Gov. Oliver, CoP Hatch, and George Erving, M"^ 
Chipman, &c., called upon me : all from Halifax. Col° Jn" 
Yassall, Tho. Brinley and wife, Peter Johannot, came to town 
yesterday, and a day or two before. All depend upon Gov* to 
support them. Advertisement in a Watertown paper, notify- 
ing the sale of Tlio. Oliver, JunV* Sewall's, and other estates 
in Cambridge, at the house of Jn° Vassall ; and if no pur- 
chasers for the fee, then to lease the estates to the highest 

* This may be a son of the second Lieut.-Governor of the name of Oliver. 
The name Thomas, of the date here sj^oken of, does not synchronize with the 
names in the pedigree of Lieut.-Gov. Andrew Oliver. Frotliingham, p. 194, 
says — "The house of Governor Oliver in Cambridge, known as the Gerry 
estate, was occupied as a hospital. Many of the soldiers who died of their 
wounds were buried in a field in front of this house." Also quoted vol. i. 
p. 496. 

In the Pedigree of L.-Guv. Andrew Oliver, of his two grandsons by his 
second wife, the eldest eventually married my father's sister, but the younger 
one came to an untimely end. It is stated thus in the Pedigree — "A sou, 
whose death in infancy vras caused by the rebels in Poston." What act of 
violence killed this child is not recorded. It was probably only an instance 
of Edmund Burke's superlative degree of Liberty, or " extreme of Liberty," 
as he called it. 



June' 
1776 



:] DIARY AND LETTER B OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 67 



bidders. Tbis is tyranny beyond any instance in time of the 
Eebellion in England. 

Paid Housekeeper to 1st of Jinie. 

13tb. — Went with L* Gov. Oliver to Lord Dartmouth's : not 
at home : the Treasury, M"" Knox, and the Admiralty. . . . 

Judge Oliver with Jenny Clarke came to town in the 
evening. Lodgings in Jermyn Street. 

At this point we must take another glance into the Diary of the 
Judge, and make a note of a few remarks of his, suggested by the 
circumstances of his journey. We left him and his niece recruiting 
themselves after a trying voyage ; but at the end of four days they 
commenced the still more trying undertaking in the long and 
wearisome carriage drive to London, which was not accomplished 
under nine days, though the same is now achieved in a less number 
of hours. They passed through Truro, Liskeard, Plymouth, 
Ashburton, Chudleigh, Exeter, Honiton, Axminster, Bridport, 
Dorchester, Blandford, Salisbury, Amcsbury, Andover, Basingstoke, 
Staines, and lastly London. Only such parts can be extracted as 
seem to claim notice for some particular reason. 

" June 5th. — I sot [s/c] out from Falmouth this morning in a 
Postchaise : pass'd through Penryn, &c. 

"We viewed the church [at Truro] which was built anno 1517. 
On each side of the altar window was a fine piece of painting — 
Moses and Aaron, which seemed quite animated. They were taken 
from a church in Vigo, when Vigo was taken many years since : 
they were most excellent paintings. 

" 6th. — Sot out towards Plymouth. . . . 

" 7th. — This morning visited Lord Edgcumbe's scat. . . . We 
then descended the walks around the sea shore, which were varied 
with taste, and yet seemed formed on the plan of nature, with seats 
to rest on, and with hermitages ; promontories on one side, and 
the sea opening through trees on the other, — filled the mind with 
pleasure. But I was in one walk deprived of pleasure for a mo- 
ment, it being so like a serpentine walk of mine on the banks of 
the river Xamasket, which so lately had been wrenched from me 
by the Ilarpy claws of Piebellion, that I was snatched from w^hero 
I now was to the loss of where I had so late been in the arms of 
contentment. . . . 

" 9th.— Sot out from Plymouth. . . . 

" 10th. — Sot out from Exeter to Honiton. . . . We then sot off 

F 2 



68 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. \l 



June 
770. 



for Dorchester. . . . The Downs wore covered with sheep, 
atteiuloil with sheplierds and their dogs. The sliecp wore drove 
into hurdk^s at night, where they were confined till morn, and 
where tliey enriched the land which they had lain on, paying the 
owner of it large interest by their manure, for the use of his lodging 
them. The hnrdles are made of slender sticks interwove, about 3^ 
foot high, in so})arato lengths, so that after the sheep had sufficiently 
manured the space which one hurdle enclosed, it was soon removed 
for the same purpose. It was pleasing to see the behaviour of 
the dogs in collecting the stragglers of the flock : for as there are 
no inclosiires on the downs where the sheep feed, some of them 
will bo at a distance from the flock : the shepherd then tells 
the dog to gather them : the dog understands his master, and the 
sheep know what the dog is coming for, and then resort to the 
flock. To see the amazing number of sheep within a few miles 
of this place, made me almost look down with contempt on the 
Americans, who boast of clothing themselves with the produce of 
their own wool ; whereas all the American Colonies have not wool 
enough of their own to furnish themselves with cloathing for their 
hands and feet ; and within a few miles of this place there are 
more sheep feeding than there are in all the American Colonies. 
]»esides, the American wool, even in the northern parts of the 
Continent, is of a coarse staple; but in the southern parts, it 
degenerates almost to hair, and is unserviceable for human clothing, 
unless for the Eomish Mendicant Priests' shirts to do penance in, 
and to make whii)S for them to scourge their bodies for the good 
of their souls. Another consideration prevents their wool from 

being of very great advantage, which is That in the northern 

parts of America, where the wool can be of any service, the winter 
climate is generally so severe that the sheep must be foddered 
with ha}^ at that season, which makes the profit of sheep small, 
whereas in England, the sheep keep abroad in the winter, the 
verdure being pretty constant. . . . 

"Dorchester is a very pretty town ... It is said that taking 
this town in the centre, and six miles around it every way, that 
600,000 sheep are fed. . . . 

"13th. — Sot out from Basingstoke. . . . 

"Dined at Staines, and rode over Houuslow Heath, ab' 10^ miles 
from London. This Heath is also as infamous for robbers and as 
famous for roads, as Bagshot, and is ab' 3 miles over; and 
here our eyes were saluted with 3 or 4 Gibbets, the insignia of 
Highwaymen's exploits. They may possibly serve in terrorem, 
but they are disagreeable to travellers. 



ivTe"] DIARY AND LETTERS OF TlIOMAS HUTCHlNSON. 69 

" Before I entered London, the first man whom I met, that I knew 
in England, was his Majesty riding to Kew with his Guards. Soou 
after I arrived in London, and took lodgings at M'' Wheland's, a 
Sadler in Jermyn Street, where I had 3 rooms well furnished 
at 1^ guinea p week. . . . 

" 14th. — Dined at Governor Hutchinson's where I was regaled 
as usual with meeting many of my old friends." 

Now we have landed the Chief Justice in London, it may be 
remarked that in future there will be but few occasions for quoting 
his Diary. Whilst he remained there, and was continually coming 
in contact with Eefugee^s like himself, he made a few passing 
lemarks on political events, but the greater portions of these seven 
memorandum books, are taken up with descriptions of some of the 
places of resort or amusement in the metropolis which he visited : 
with country joxirneys into the manufacturing districts, for the 
puri^ose of inspecting mills, factories, workshops, or foundries, 
having a great desire apparently to make himself better acquainted 
with the uses and cflSciency of machinery : and with pleasure trips 
into different parts of Wales, where he took delight in the scenery. 
The Governor's Diary proceeds thus — 

14th. — With Judge Oliver to wait on Lord George : left bis 
name. . . . 

IStli. — Breakfasted at M''^ Howe's the General's lady, in 
Queen Street May Fair, with Judge Oliver, upon invitation. 
We went afterwards to visit General Legge at N*' 4 Great 
Marlborough Street, and from thence to the Queen's Palace * 
to see the apartments, &c. 

Account of many, if not all, the last division of Hessians for 
America at Spithead. It's tlionght strange there should be no 
certain accounts yet of Sir P. Parker, and the troops under 
Lord Cornwallis, tho' they sailed the 13th of February. 

16th.— At the Temple Church— M^« Oliver [his daughter] 
with me. Doctor Morill preached from Solomon's Song — The 
singing of birds is come, &c.t A florid description of the 
beauties of the spring, observing that the perfection of Art was 
its approach to nature, the imitation of which was necessary ; 
and among other instances, mentioned the foliage in capitals of 
pillars — the festoons — without which they appeared naked; 

* Buckingham Palace, vol. i. pp» 425, 449. f Ch. II. v. 12. 



70 DIARY AND LETTEIiS OF THOMAS nUTCIUNSON. {j^^l 

and the beauties of the roof over his head were owing to its 
lescmbhiuco of [to ?J the braiiclies of the trees of the forest ; 
and he descended to the milkmaids, who woukl make no shew 
without a Garland. Less of religion could not well be in a 
Sermon, the touches upon the wisdom of the Creator being 
slight. 

17tli. — Called upon M' Knox w*'' J[udge] Oliver. He says 
the Highlanders, 3200, were spoke with the 21 of May, within 
six days sail of Boston : they left Cork the 28th of April, the 
Hessians 10 days after. Tlie Glasgow from Halifax spoke with 
the Greyhound, and 4 sail of victuallers from Cork. The 
Experiment had been at Nantasket, and was S])oke with going 
to Halifax. She ought to have 19 sail of provision vessels 
with her. The Hessians were ordered to Newport. S"" James 
^^'right, who arrived in the Glasrjo, [sic] was on board the 
Scarhoro' when at Newport. He says the Eh. Islanders sent 
an Express to Hopkins at New London to come to take the 
Scarhoro\ and that he sent word he could not be ready in less 
than 48 hours, and thereupon the passengers on board were 
invited ashoar, and offer was made to send hostages aboard ; but 
the wind coming fair, the Scarhorough came to sail, but was 
saluted from a battery on a point, of three-pound shot, only 
one of which struck one of the Scarhoro's masts. 

The state of America is now very critical and very interest- 
ing. Such of us as are in England are in great susjiense and 
uncertainty. Some hope that this summer may produce a 
restoration of Gov* ; others think the war may continue several 
years, and some that the kingdom will be wearied out. The 
repulse at Quebec affords a more favourable prospect than 
many expected, and probably that the Canadians and Indians 
will engage with the King's troops, and join in invading the 
frontiers of N. York and N. England. Carleton is supposed to 
have 8,000 men in Canada; Howe at least 9,000 at Haliftix, 
including those which were there before they left Boston; 
Cornwallis had 3,500 gone to Carolina ; near 8,000 Hessians, 
and 1000 of the Guards sailed the beginning of May from 
Spithead ; and 3200 Highlanders a few days before from Cork ; 
5,000 Hessians and 1,500 Brunswickers are now embarked, and 



June 
1776 



] DIABY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 71 



part arrived at Spithead ; and it is thought there are about 
3,000 recruits raised and raising to complete the Eeg*^ in 
America. 

This makes an army of 42,000 men, besides the Marines in 
the fleet, which may be hxnded on any extraordinary occasion, 
and exceeds what the Leaders in America thought in the 
power of the kingdom to raise and transport. 

18th. — At M"" Lane's to visit M' Lechmere * and family, and 
M"" Symes's, to Cul. Yassall and family. At Lloyd's there is 
an ace* of two Jamaica ships chased off Bermudas ; one arrived, 
the other they are afraid is taken by one of the American 
cruizers. A Jamaica ship spoke with one of the men-of-war 
which convoyed the Hessians, and was in comj^any with 80 odd 
sail the 22nd May off the Western Islands. 

My son [Thomas] being obliged to take a woman and her 
child for the sake of nursing his youngest child [Andrew] for a 
day or two, my family now consists of 25, besides my coachman 
at board wages. Happy that I can support them, when many 
Americans are in distress, who have only their own })ersons to 
take care of. 

I went to-day to M^ Blackburne's in Scotch Yard, Bush 
Lane, to accommodate an affair between Captain Loring and 
M"^ Flucker, who owes Loring 900£ sterl., besides large sums 
to others, and has no way of discharging them but by his 
American lands. 

* I presume tliis is an ancestor of Sir Edmund Antliony Harley Leclimere, 
Bart., M.P. Three or four dimes of years ago the father of the present 
Baronet, Sir Anthony by name, with his young son, a saucy aud mischievous 
lad, whom I both remember well, lived for a time in a house in the Fort 
Field Terrace, at the town of Sidmouth in Devonshire, One of the other 
houses in the same row was occupied by Admiral and Mrs. White. The 
Admiral was a dapper little sailor, of rather diminutive build, and with short 
legs to a short body ; and as Sir Anthony Lechmere had a tall thin figure— I 
see him now in my mind's eye — the contrast between the two was sufticieutly 
striking. On the outside of the Terrace road there was a grass slope, which 
Admiral White had a pride in seeing kept neat, whilst the boy, who I think 
was an only child, and pretty well indulged, was always running up and down 
it, digging in his toes, and making holes, to the grief of the old sailor. One 
day the latter ventured to admonish young Lechmere on the impropriety of 
injuring the grass, when the boy, nothing abashed, cried out — " And what's 
that to you. Little Short-legs ! " My father either witnessed this or had it 
from Sir Anthony, whom he knew well. I heard him tell it when he came 
home. 



72 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCniNSON. [fiTe" 



lihh. — Called upon 8ir James Wriiijlit, Governor of Georgia. 
Afterwards at the Iving's lievee. ►Several Hanoverian officers 
and gentlemen jnst arrived. A letter received by Gov' yester- 
day from Lord Cornwallis 3G0 lengncs distant from Carolina, 
dated 18tli April ; 25 sail only, out of 40 — the rest dispersed. 

In the evening at IM"" Knox's — Sir James AVriglit and family 
there. All bnt Elisha and l)*" Oliver went to llanelagh. 

20th.— A vessel from Halifax w'" letters to the 25"'. The 
Gmjhonnd, the Donation, sliip, and several victnallers arrived, 
bnt not the West India fleet. Howe had rec'' advice of the 
reinforcement, bnt not of its destination to R. Island, and 
intended to wait for it at Halifax. There is a great appearance 
that the snmmer will be near spent before anything important 
is done. 

At Lord Hardwicke's — complains, and comes to town to the 
Doctor. Neither wealth nor title can add much to human 
happiness. 

21st. — Letter at the Admiralty from Commod[ore] Hothani, 
with 84 sail in Lat. 44.57, Long. 30, from the Lizard, the 5"' 
June : had j^arted with one brig only the 26 May in a gale of 
wind. He was sorry the winds being westerly. 

Sir James Wright called : — Cap. Newton from Halifax. 
In the evening with Doct. Chandler to Fulhani : drank tea at 
the^Bishop's, who read a letter from D"" Caner, in great distress 
at Halifax. 

22nd. — Doctor Caner, pa-senger in the Adamant from Halifax, 
came to town to-day, and I called on him at his lodgings in the 
Haymarket. The soldiers set to guard his house, plundered it 
of his books, furniture, <fec., and so they did M'' Troutbeck's. 

►Sir F. Bernard, his son and daughter, with Treas. Gray, and 
M"" Jo. Green, dined with us. 

I wrote to Mauduit, and M'' Mackenzie at Belmont Castle, by 
Edinburgh. 

23rd. — At the Old Jewry with ]\['"' Oliver and Peggy, and 
three grandchildren. A stranger preached. In the evening 
I took D'' Caner in my carriage to the Bp. of London's at 
Fulham. 

24th. — An Express from Quebec came away the 25"' of May. 



n^y DIARY AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 73 

No more troops had then got up, the winds having been 
contrary: but the officer who came Express says the Irish 
Kegiments arrived the 26, and Burgoyne, who was at Coudre 
two or three days after : that Burgoyne had gone up the river 
towards Montreal with the 29^*^ and 47"' Reg^ and left orders 
for the rest to follow as they arrived, witTiout disembarkation : 
that the rebels had retreated to Sorel : that a detachment of 
the 8"', which was posted at Detroit, under Cap. Foster, with 
some Canadians and Indians, had taken a Fort on St Lawrence, 
near La Calotte [?] called The Ccdres, with 360 of the rebels, 
prisoners : and that the wliole body of the Western Indians 
were on their march to join the King's troops : and that 
Carleton might command 10,000 of the Canadians into service 
if he wished it. 

At T>^ Tarpley's in the evening. He had seen a letter from 
M'' Alsop at Quebec w*^^ mentions the fireship prepared by the 
rebels, as discovered by him from the ramparts, and fired upon 
with a 24-pounder from the Fort, which caused fire to be set to 
the train sooner than otherwise, and defeated their scheme : and 
he adds, that if the ships had taken fire, and the town been 
stormed at the same time, they must have perished. "When 
Montgomery was killed they had a masked battery, the guns 
loaded with grape-shot, [so] that, when the rebels entered, the 
battery was opened, and Montgomery being at the head of his 
men, he was tore to pieces w*^ the shot. 

25th. — The wind has been towards the west a week past, and 
the Hessians, &c. remain at Spithead. I wrote to my brother 
at Halifax, to go in a packet from [the] Admiralty, to be made 
up to night. The letters from Halifax mention a ship missing, 
with 1500 bbls. of powder, arms, &c., which it is feared has fell 
into the hands of the rebels. 

Lord Hardwicke having sent me a side of fine venison, 
L* Gov., Jud. Oliver, Flucker, Vassall, Lechmere, Hatch, two 
E wings, and Paul Wentworth dined with me on the haunch. 

26th. — The Hessians, &c., remain wind-bound at Spithead. 
In the evening I went to view houses in High Street for my 
son and dau2:hter. 

27th. — The wind this mornino- at NB, 



74 DIARY AND LETTEliS OF TIWMAti HUTCHINSON. [{Vt'c! 

]M' Ellis cftllctl, from Twickcnliam. I ueiit Avith Doctor 
Caner to Lambctli, to introthice liiiu to tbo Archbishop, Avho 
was very gracious to him, and gavo him an order for One 
Hundred Pounds on the Treasurer of tlio moneys received for 
the Clergy in America. 

28th. — An account of Sir 1'. Parker's arrival at Capo Fear, 
the ?>"^ May, and all his fleet, including those which put hack, 
except one man-of-war and three transports. This comes from 
CJeorgia. It was not known at Cape Pear the G. of May wliero 
the forces would act. 

The Prunswickers sailed yesterday for Quebec. 
Wrote to IMauduit. 

29th. — In the city at the Navy Office, on business of Arthur 
Savage. 

Wind has been cast three days, but changed to-day to west : 
fear the ships will return. Cap. Wood, ]\laster of one of the 
transports, taken and carried into Cape Ann, which he left the 
13 May, called, and gave an account of the state of affairs. He 
Wiis at Poston the 7*'' of May : says all was 'quiet, but no trade 
going on. 

Sewall and Clarke dined with us. 

30th.— At the Temple Church. Doctor Witts [?] of 
Chiswick, Turnham Green, preached. Called upon D"^ Caner. 
Chandler, Lyde, and Jenny Clarke dined. 
July 1st. — An account to-day that all the troops were sailed 
from Portsm*'', but the wind is contrary, and their passage 
probably will be long. 

In the afternoon went over to Fulham with M" Sauford and 
my three daughters* to the Pishop's gardens to eat cherri^'S, 
strawberries, &c. 

2nd. — Showery, and westerly wind still. 
Dined at M"" Ellis's at Twickenham. Carried L* Gov. and 
Ch. Justice, and D'^ Caner in the Coach with me, who were 
highly entertained. 

3rd. — To Oxford through Uxbridge with Judge Oliver. We 

* He had not got three daughters living. Presumably he meant his 
daughters Sarah and Margaret, or Peggy, and the wife of his son Thomas, 
heretofore Sarah Oliver. 



f"'^.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 75 

arrived about 5, and went to the Oratorio witli D^ Jefferds, and 
after it was over made a visit to the Vice Chancellor D'' 
Fothergill, who had received a letter from Lord Hardwicke 
acquainting him with my intention to make visit there. He 
complimented us with the offer of a Doctor's degree.* We 
took lodgings at the Angel Inn. 

4th. — Upon a message from the Vice Chancellor we attended 
at the publick schools at 11, and after putting on the Doctor's 
scarlet gown, band, and cap, were introduced by the Beadles 
into the Theatre, and received by Professor Vansittart who, 
after a Latin speech complimentary, presented separately to the 
Vice Chancellor, who conferred the Degree of Doctor, in Jure 
Civili, Jwiioris causa, and thereupon were placed in the Doctor's 
seats at the side of the Vice Chancellor ; after Avhich a Latin 
speech in verse was delivered by one of the Students in praise 
of the Spring: another in prose, elegant and much applauded, 
by M'' Lowth, son to the Bishop of Oxford, upon Architecture : 
and then a long Latin coiiiemoration of Benefactors by M"" 
Bandinelle, [?] in a low voice and lifeless, being his first 
performance as University Orator. The whole ceremony was 
not over until two. A gentleman by the name of Paradis, born 
in Thessalonia, who had studied many years at Oxford, was 
admitted at the same time, and one other gentleman whose 
name I have forgot, to Doctors' degrees. We dined with Doctor 
Jefferds, and spent the evening at the Queen's College with 
the Fellows. AVent through several of the Colleges in the 
leisure intervals of the day. 

5th. — In the morning went to the Observatory by invitation 
from D'' Ormesby, Professor of Astronomy, and from thence to 
the Anatomy room in Christ Church College, by invitation 
from D'' Parson, Anatomical Professor. At both places [we] 
were accompanied by a Persian lately arrived in an East 
India ship, who is a professed Physician, Mr. Eliot, son to Sir 

* Judge Oliver, in his Diary, speaks of the Degree as " Doctor of Laws," 
(/nasi LL.D., but the Degree was D.C.L. There is a catalogue of Oxfonl 
Graduates from Oct. 10, 1659, to Dec. 10, 1850, from which Mr. Basil H. 
Soulsby of C.C.C. has sent me the following extract : — " Hutchinson, (Tho., 
Esq., Governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, in America) cr. D.C.L. , 
July 3, 1776." 



7(5 DIARY AND LETfEliS OF THOMAS irUTCIIINSON. [1^7$ 

Gilbert, being his interpreter. Went tliro' most of the other 
Colleges. Jesus College, where I dined and spent one or more 
evenings in 1711, was quite familiar to me. ^Ye dined with 
the V. Chancellor in Queen's College, and spent the evening 
with the Fellows. The Dean of Gloucester was of the 
company. 

0th. — The morning being rainy prevented a visit to Blenheim 
House, as we intended. We dined with the Dean of Christ 
Church, (P)ishop of Chester). W Jackson, late 8nb-Prcceptor 
to the Princes, was of the Company. After the K. and Q. the 
Bishop drank the Prince of Wales and Prince Frederick 
together. He looked like a man hurt, and ]\P Jackson seems 
to be of his family, and closely attached ; and if ever the 
Prince should, as all that have preceded have done, be in a 
separate interest from the King, I think he will be of the 
Prince's party.* 

We saw a Spartan at Oxford who seems to be above sixty 
and quite gray, — went from his parents when a boy, and served 
two campaigns as one of Kouli Chan's Life Guards, but not 
liking the service, with 50 more deserted — fled to the Caspian 
Sea, and tho' pursued by great part of the army, gat to Ptussia, 
and from thence, after some time, this Spartan came to 
England and 'listed into the Guards here for a short time, but 
for a number of years — I think 18 or 20, has been a fencing 
master at Oxford, and acquired esteem by his prudent de- 
meanour. 

We went in the evening to Thame, where we missed post 
hcrses, and were obliged to go on with the hired ones we took 
at Oxford, and did not reach Aylesbury until near ten. 

7th. — After church we made a visit to Sir W"* Lee at 
Hartwell. Sir F. Bernard was taken about 5 in the morning 
with one of his epileptick fits, so that we did not see him until 
the evening, and then he was not conversible, but fancied it to 
be morning, and as it grew dark supposed there was an Eclipse 
— called for breakfast, &c. 

* This was not a desirable prospect. The Prince of Walep, eventually 
George IV., was now thirteen years old and eleven months; and Prince 
Frederick, Duke of York, was twelve and nearly eleven months. 



i",!] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 77 

8th. — We set out from Aylesbury soon after 7, breakfasted 
at Missenden, and arrived in S* James's Street about one. 

[Gen. Howe reported to have left Halifax for New York 
with 6000 men. A vessel taken by a Massachusetts privateer 
with 1500 brls. of flour in her.] 

It woukl be hardly fair to omit Judge Oliver's account of the 
visit to Oxford as it appears in his Diary, since the degree of 
D.C.L. was also conferred upon him. It stands as follows : — 

"July 3rd. — Sot out for Oxford with Gov^ Hutchinson, and 
arrived in the afternoon. 

" 4th. — This being the day for the Encainia at Oxford, M'' 
Hutchinson and I were invited to accept of Degrees, as Doctors of 
Laws. Such an honor from the first University in England could 
not be refused. We were accordingly, after being habited in 
scarlet gowns, introduced into the Theatre by one of the Proctors 
Avho, in an elegant Latin speech, offered us to the Vice-Chancellor, 
D'' Fothergill, as candidates for Degrees; after which the Vice- 
Chancellor, who was seated 4 or 5 steps above us, admitted us to a 
Degree, and invited us to take our seats near to him. The Theatre 
was crowded with above 2000 spectators, the Ladies seated by 
themselves in brilliant order : y^ Theatre is a most noble building, 
the ceiling painted in elegance, exhibiting the Arts and Sciences, 
and supported geometrically : the galleries are supported by pillars 
painted : in one part of the Theatre was an Orchestra for vocal and 
instrumental music. Three Orations were delivered, two in Latin, 
and one in English : the latter Orator was M" Lowth, the Bishop 
of Oxford's son, whose subject was Architecture ; and the propriety 
of his action, the elegance of his diction, and the justness of his 
sentiments, drew the attention and met with the applause of the 
audience. After the Orations, a fine piece of music closed the 
ceremony. The Theatre, (Avhich for elegance and convenience, fur 
the use for which it is designed, is not exceeded by any buildings 
in the kingdom), this day's performance in it, together w"* the 
crowd of respectable spectators, afibrded a most agreeable entertain- 
ment. 

" After the Encsenia was over, we dined with D"" Jefi'ries,* Canon 
of Christ Church College, who was very polite in shewing us what 
curiosities the time would admit of. 

" 5th. — Viewed the Colleges. D" Myles Cooper, President of New 

* Jefferds iu tlie other Diary, 



78 DIARY AND LETTEIiS OF THOMAS UUTCniNSON. [n" 



nto. 



York Cullcgo, waitlnp; upon ns witli groat politcnoRs, Wo 
dined with tlio Vicc-Chancellor, a most agrccaMo gooilnatnrcd 
gentleman. 

" 0th. — "Wo (Uncil -with P' IMarkham, the Bishop of Chester, who 
is Dean of Christ Church College, and has apartments in it : ho 
•was very obliging in shewing us the Tjihrary, paintings, and ancient 
medals and coins in that College." 

His further remarks arc but cursory, and as they offer no fact or 
Bcntimont that may be called new, they can be dispensed with, 
lie returned to London with the Governor, to whoso Diary wo 
again revert. 

9th. — [Unfounded reports.] 

10th. — Yesterday's report from Corkc is not confirmed, and 
is not credited in the city. Dined with M"^ John Lane, Judge 
Oliver, and my sons T. and E. IMet Lord Amherst in the Park, 
lie laments the capture of the Ordnance vessel : says her cargo 
amounted to 10,500£. The Board is censured for not putting 
such stores in a vessel of greater force. 

11. — [The Hessians wind bound at Plymouth.] In the 
evening I went w^^ L* Gov. Oliver, and several of the Council, 
to see Breslaw's deceptions, Avhich, though surprising, I think 
too low an amusement ever to attend again, and this is tho 
only thing of the sort I have seen since my being in England.* 

12th. — At Lord Hardwieke's. From want of better em- 
ployment, I spend some time in continuing my History of 
Mass^ Bay, having the advantage of the books of the General 
Court from the Secretary's office. . . . 

At tho foot of the Title page of tho first volume of his History 
are tho words — " BOSTON, NEW ENGLAND. Printed by 
Thomas and John Fleet, at tho Heart and Crown in Cornhill. 
MDCCLXIV." Tho second volume, three years afterwards, was 
also issued from the press in America, as thus declared — " BOSTON, 
NEW ENGLAND. Printed by Thoimas and John Fleet, in 
Cornhill, and sold in Union- Street, oi)posite to the Cornfield. 
MDCCLXYII." The third volume, on which he was now 

* Judcfic Oliver "«'as also there. If we may form an opinion of the conjuring 
tricks with cards, &c., as recorded in his Diary, he seems to have enjoyed the 
entertainment amazingly. 



f?in DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS nUTCHINSON. 79 



17i6.J 



engaged, remained in MS. at his death, and for 48 years afterwards ; 
but it was then edited and published by the Ecv. J, Hutchinson, 
Canon of Lichfiekl, only surviving child of Elisha, as thus 
announced — " LONDON, JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE 
STREET. MDCCCXXVIIL" 

In July 1776, the date at which wo have now anived in his 
Diary, he wrote a letter to some friend whose name unfortunately 
is not recorded, in which he touches upon two or three j^oints of 
his government in Massachusetts that are worth transcribing. 
The letter has apparently been entered in his Letter Book by the 
hand of his second son Elisha. Ho says — • 

" I was appointed to the government of Massachusetts Bay when 
Lord Hillsborough was Secretary of State, and his Lordship has, 
I believe for that reason, taken more notice of me than otherwise 
he would have done. He advised me to mention to you the 
circumstances of my appointment, and said he would confirm thoin 
when he should see you. I had for many years been L* Governor, 
when Sir F. Bernard was recalled and the command devolved on 
me. It was easy to forsoe the troubles in which a Governor must 
be involved. My private fortune was sufficient to support me 
genteely in America : three of my children were settled and able 
to support themselves and families, and I wished to spend the 
remainder of my life in ease and quiet. When the intention of 
appointing me Governor was intimated to me, soon after Gov'' 
Bernard left the Province, I desired to be excused, and to resign 
my place of L' Gov'' also, and I fully expected another Governor 
and L' Governor would be appointed; but my L'^ Hillsborouo-h 
advised me to consider further, and wrote to me that he Avould 
keep the place of Governor untill [sic] my further answer. This 
mark of confidence with so much condescension, j)ut it out of my 
power to hesitate. 

" The loss of my "own and my children's fortunes, is certainly 
owing to my acceptance of the Government ; for I stood so well 
with the people, that I am very sure I could have lived quietly 
upon one or other of my estates in the country, without engagin o- 
on the side of Rebellion, and perhaps might have interfered so far 
as to stop or retard the progress of it. For the first three years of 
my administration it certainly lost ground, and if it had not been 
for the plot laid by Franklin and others here in England, and tlie 
sending over my private letters, and the false representation made 
of them, I doubt whether there would have been a Rebellion to 
this day. 



80 DIARY AND LETTEIiS OF THOMAS nUTCHINSON. ^S 

" It was thought expedient to appoint another Governor in my 
stead upon my desiring leave of sliort absence. I had no intention 
then to resign my government, hut I acquiesced in the King's 
pleasure, depending upon the assurances given me, that I sh"' ho 
no sufferer by the discontinuance of the King's Commission, and 
tliat some distinguishing marlc sh"' bo shewn of His Majesty's 
apprc)batiou of my conduct. The former part I gratefully 
acknowledge has been com})lied with — the latter remains. 

" If I could obtain this favor for my youngest son, it would free 
me from the allowance I am obliged to make him, and with frugality 
woiild enable mo to spend a few weeks abroad without involve- 
ment, and perhaps may confirm my health. If I was more a 
stranger to you than I am, I should hope for your interest from 
3'our benevolent disposition. — I have the honor to be, &c." 

Upon this letter it may bo remarked that he makes one or two 
observations which, to modern students of the origin of the war, 
will probably be deemed erroneous. It may be true that his 
acceptance of the post of Governor cost him his fortune and the 
fortunes of his children, simply because he thereby held an office 
that was obnoxious to the Republican party, and as they prevailed 
his estates were seized. Some Americans in recent times, have 
cast blame upon him for having accepted it at all. It is hard to 
say upon what grounds that blame can rest. His refusal of it 
certainly could not have prevented the catastrophe, nor settled the 
dispute, nor closed the breach between the two countries, that was 
every day widening more and more, apart from any small amount 
of influence he could have exercised one way or the other : and 
indeed, it might on the other hand be argued, that his refusal of 
the Governorship in 1771, might have produced quite the contrary 
effect, and have brought out General Gage and his troops to 
Boston so much the sooner : and as regarded himself personally! 
his refusal of the post would have thrown him open to a charge of 
cowardice, as of a man running away from his duty at a very 
critical time. Such are the considerations that now suggest 
themselves from a retrospect of the past. 

And he flatters himself that if he had chosen it, he could have 
retired into private life, and have lived in quiet on one or other of 
his estates, whilst the storm was blowing over his head, and even 
have interfered to stop or retard the progress of it. The 
experience of Lieutenant Moody shews how fallacious such 
arguments were. Nobody was allowed to be neutral, if violence 
or insult could drive him to join in the frenzy of the day. James 



i^]Q DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTOEINSON. 81 



Moody, as he says in his Narrative, page 2, was " a happy farmer 
without a wish or an idea of any other enjoyment than that of 
making happy, and being happy with, a beloved wife and three 
promising chiklren. He loved his neighbours, and hopes they were 
not wholly without regard for him. Clear of debt and at ease in 
his professions, he had seldom thought much of political. or state 
questions ; but he felt and knew he had every possible reason to be 
greatful for, and attached to, that glorious Constitution to which 
he owed his security. . . . 

"He thinks it incumbent on him to declare that it [the 
Eebellion] did not originate with the people of America, properly 
so called. They felt no real grievances, and therefore could have 
no real inducement to risk substantial advantages in the pui'suit of 
such as were only imaginary. In making this declaration he is 
confident he speaks the sentiments of a great majority of the 
jDcasantry of America. But in every country there are multitudes 
who, with little property, and perhaps still less principle, are 
always disposed, and always eager for a change. . . 

" The general cry was, Join or die ! . . . 

" It was in vain that he [Moody] took every possible precaution, 
consistent with good conscience, not to give offence. . . . He was 
perpetually harrassed by these Committees ; and a party employed 
by them once actually assaulted his person, having first flourished 
their tomahawks over his head." 

Soon after this he had to fly for his life. Perceiving an armed 
party approaching his house, he endeavoured to withdraw, but 
three shots were fired after him, happily without taking aifect. 
Through many hardships and difficulties he at last was able to 
take shelter behind the British lines. He adds that 73 of his 
neighbours, equally averse to join in the Eebellion, efiected their 
escape about the same time. This shews how hard it was for the 
peaceable to remain neutral. 

It is amusing to see that the Governor puts Dr. Franklin's 
agency in sending out his letters in a very prominent place, so 
much so, as to impute to that act the chief, if not the sole cause of 
the Eebellion. 

As regards the distinguishing mark of His Majesty's favour, held 
in reserve for him, he seems to have been labouring under a false 
impression. It was not the provision for any member of his family, 
as a compensation for losses that was contemplated, but a title for 
himself. This is plain in Lord Dartmouth's letter to him of the 
9th of April, 1774, and printed at the end of the Preface to the 
Third volume of his History. To resume — 

VOL. II. a 



82 niART AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTQHINSON. [Se! 



13th.— Called upon D' Caner, Dudley, Rome, &c. M"" 
Robinson, from Bristol called : says the Muster of the vessel 
arrived there from Bostou, afiirms that D'" Lyde and many- 
others are imprisoned for refusing to swear tliey will take up 
arms in defenoe of their new i:j;overnment. This seems hardly 
credible.* Flucker dined with us : depends on the truth of the 
report of his family's being arrived in Ireland : has 300£ 
allowed by Treasury : last [?] of the Council 200£. 

14th.— At the Old Jewry: M"" White. Called at Hatton 
Garden on W Greene, as we returned home. 

Westerly wind : every day for some time j)ast more or less 
showers. 

15th. — In the city to ascertain M*" Winslow's money in 
Gines's hands — 560„6„6. Expected arrivals from America, 
but find none. 

16th. — My son T. received 200£, deducting .'")£, fess at the 
Treasury, as one of the Council of Mass" Bay. 

W Flucker, last evening, received a letter from his wife at 
Corke, advising her arrival with her daughter, in 22 days from 
Halifax. 

Called upon M' Jackson, Southampton Buildings, and spent 
an hour. 

Wind S. ; troops not sailed from Plymouth. 
D"" Oliver and his family moved to a house taken by Judge 
Oliver in High Street, Marybone Parish, having been between 
9 and 10 weeks in my house. 

17th. — Gave M*" Richard Clarke an order on Gines and 
Atkinson for 560„6„6, the balance of M' Isaac Winslow's 
money in their hands placed by me, for which transfer I 
have M'" Winslow's letter to M'' Clarke, and in a letter to 
me M"" Winslow refers to a former letter by Capt. Gardner, 
in which he had given directions ; but this letter was not 
delivered. 

18th. — At Court. The King said more to me upon America 
than ever before, it not being his custom to say anything of 
public affairs at Court. I mentioned to the Abp. the case of 
jy Caner, which he rec'^ favourably. 

* Incredible though it be, it corroborates what Lieut, Moody says above. 



i^^l'] BIARY AND LETTEB8 OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 83 

A vessel from Halifax, left it the 22"'^ or 2^"^ of June. 
Fleet sailed the 11*^ for Sandy Hook : the last part of the 
Highlanders did not arrive at Halifax till the 18*^: expected 
to sail after taking in water the 23''^ to follow the fleet, which, 
by the winds at Halifax, it was supposed might arrive in 5 or 
G days. 

In the evening at M' Knox's, and after at M"^ Cornwall's 
until near 10. 

19th. — ^At Lord Loudoun's, who goes into Scotland in 3 or 4 
days. Wrote to M"" Mackenzie, and D"" Murray. 

Account of the vessel from Halifax, that the Comissioners 
and their under officers had taken a vessel, and were to sail 
from Halifax by the 1^' of July. 

20th. — With my two sons T. and E. and daughter to 
Highgate, to call upon the Americans T. Erving, Loring, 
Boylstone, Paddock, Gore, Joy. Judge Oliver and family dined 
with us. Wrote to Mauduit at Uppark by Midhurst, Sussex — 
Lady Fetherstone's. 

Wind west, and the Hessians, &c., still lie at Plimouth. 

21st.— At the Old Jewry— M"^ White. 

Lieutenant Gov. 0. called to acquaint me with his intention 
to apply to Lord North for his salary. It seems, as I had it 
from W Knox, that when Gen. Gage was superceded in the 
command of the army, he was promised, the whole of his salary 
as Governor should be continued ; otherwise I should have 
thought the L* Gov. might have stood a cljance for half, but 
now he can have no more than his 300£ as L. G. 

Eain forenoon, and again towards evening. Wind eastward 
of south. 

22°''. — A letter to Government yesterday from Lord Howe 
off Halifax the 2'S'^ June: joined the 2'^'^ Division of the 
Highlanders from [the] Clyde two days before ; so that the 
account of their arrival the 18*^ could not be true. When 
Lord Howe sailed there was no advice of the General's sailing 
from Nantasket, and hearing nothing on the passage, Lord 
Howe thought it best to steer for Halifax for advice. He 
designed to follow his brother without delay. 

23''''. — Went out with my two sons and daughter to 

G 2 



84 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. Li„;- 



rJuly 



Twiekeuliam, iutouding to ictnru before dinner, and proposed 
tlirough Kichniond, but wore ])resscd to stay and dine : S"" 
liioli"' Worsley and Lady, and M" and W D'Oyley. 

There's a letter from Gen' Clinton of 13 May from Cape 
Fear. He had not lieard from Gen* Howe. It's said there's 
no prospect of anything to purpose at N. Carolina. M^ Paine 
has wrote of the 15"' and says a regiment was landed on 
Ball [?] Island. 

24th. — Called upon Lord Hardwicke at St. James's Square. 
In the evening to drink tea at High Street — all the families 
together. When I came home, heard the news of M'' Lillie's 
death at Halifax. Wliat numbers have been brought to 
poverty, sidcuess, and death by refusing to concur with the 
present measures of America ! 

25th, — In the forenoon at L'' Hillsborough's. He promises 
to speak to liobinson on behalf of my son, and advises me to 
write to him, and to make use of his (L'' Hillsboro's) name. I 
asked him if there was anything in the report of his going L*^ 
Lieuten* to Ireland ? He said he had heard it mentioned, and 
seen it in the papers; and one day he asked Lord North 
whether he had ever heard his name mentioned? He answered, 
that he had mentioned him himself to the King. 

" Why, then," says L' Hillsborough, " I must be the man." 

" That I don't know," says Lord North ; " objections have 
been made, but they don't appear to me sufficient." 

Lord Hillsborough says his estate in Ireland is the objection. 

M' D Oyley says there are letters from Clinton as late as 
the 16**^. Nothing worth mentioning ; but there seems some- 
thing more than he chooses to speak of. The report is in the 
city that it is not agreeable. 

26. — Went into the city. They have an account from 
Providence of 4 Jam** ships — one with 30 thous'* doll" besides 
her cargo, taken by a S. Carolina privateer, and 2 small 
vessels. 

The Hessians were met by a vessel arrived at Liverpool in 
Long 59, Lat. 43, the 2"^ of July.* 

* This must have been the first division, for some of them were at Plj'mouth 
so late as July 20. 



ivil.] DIATIY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS IIXJTCIIINSON. 85 

M' Ben. Gridley, Dan. Oliver, M" Hutchinson* and 
daughters, John Powell and daughters, Col. Chandler, Abel 
"VVillard and wife, and young M' Johannot, passengers from 
Halifax. 

27tli. — Advice from Quebec that 350 of the rebels with 
Thomas their General, were made prisoners : had burnt the 
forts at St. John, and Chamblee, and fled to Isle aux Noix, and 
not like [likely] to stay there. The rebels took one of the 
transports with 150 Highlanders. One of the Hessians arrived 
at Halifax, having lost tlie fleet : carried two prizes in with 
her. 

Went to Wimbledon to-day — the hottest day this year. 

28th, — At the Temple Church: a Clergyman preached the 
doctrine, in the manner, and with the air and delivery, of a 
country minister in New England. I could not learn his 
name. 

We begin now to expect something of importance from New 
York. I wrote last night to Mauduit, and to M' Mackenzie. 

29th. — Daniel Oliver came to town, and brings me letters 
from my brother, M"^ Walter, and Putnam. 

My Prout and two of his sons had escaped from Boston. M"^ 
Walter writes that my goods, and my sons', which had come to 
the hands of the rebels. Mere divided between D'" Cooper and 
M'^ Lothrop, and tliat Lothrop lived in my house : that the 
Highland vessel beat off two or three privateers, and ran into 
Boston, and there was stop'd. 

30th. — At the Admiralty. M' Jackson read me a letter 
from Plymouth, giving the ace*" of the arrival of a brig, 
Spencer, Master, taken by the Cerherus, laden with oil, which 
spoke with Admiral Shuldham's fleet the 26*'' of June, about 
17 miles E of Block Island, with a fair wind for N. York — 

* She was Eliakim's widow, and a daughter of Governor Shirley. Governor 
H. petitioned tlie Government for relief for her, as he did indeed for several 
others, and applied to the Archbishop of Canterbury for Dr. Caner. She lived 
on to the year 1825, and was buried at Croydon, I presume she is the person 
alluded to in the followino; inscription, which I copied from a flag-stone in the 
floor : — -" Also of Mrs. Frances Hutcl'.inson, died 19 July, 1825, aged 84 years." 
She was buried nine days after her death, as the following entry shews, which 
I copied the same day from the Parish Register : — " Frances Hutchinson, 
GloMccstcr Pla. Tortman Square, St. Marv Ic Pone. ,Tulv 28,84." 



86 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS IIUTCIUNSON. \f^^^. 



Line. 



spoke witli the Greyhound, Gen. Howe on board the day 
before. 

A great eclipse of the moon from 10 to 12, almost total : 
very clear line evening. Wind N. 

The Thomas, prisoner at Quebec, is said to be Thompson, of 
the Province of Pensilvania — a trader turned into a General, 
and Thomas is said to die of the small pox. 

31st. — Yesterday and to-day the weather has been hot, the 
air stagnated, mucli like the Dog-days weather in America. I 
took notice of the thermometer yesterday at the Admiralty, in 
the house, when it was about 70. In the sun abroad it would 
have been mucli higher: if the sun had been clouded over 
head for a few minutes, it would have been lower. I have 
observed, ever since I have been in England, that the changes 
from simshine to cloudy are not only more frequent, but the 
degrees of heat and cold vary more than I ever observed in 
America, and in going up and down the Park, you Avill have 
blasts of hot or cold air, just as the sun haj3pens to be abroad 
or not, tho' you are not under the shine of it, but in the shade. 

I dined in High Street at Judge Oliver's, in comp^ with Gov. 
Legg, and L* Gov. Oliver. I think, tho' the complaints 
against Legg have not been supported, it looks, by his dis- 
course, as if he had no expectations of going out Governor 
again. He has rank of Major only in the army, and Lord 
George, while there are so many superior, and General officers 
from time to time in his Province, will hardly send him to it 
again. 

August 1st. — Called upon M'" Knox. I find six brigantines, 
flat bottoms, intended to carry 12 guns each, are sent to Quebec 
— one was arrived — and are intended to be buoyed and dra'wn 
over the shoals and rapids in the river Sorel, into Lake Cham- 
plain. The first scheme was to send out frames only, and to 
build them, which I believe would have taken up as little time. 

A small privateer of 9 carriage guns, called the Yankee, is 
brought into Dover. After she had taken a sugar ship, and a 
vessel laden with rum, and sent them in to America with what 
hands could be spared, the prisoners on board the Yankee rose 
upon the crew, and stood for the Channel, and arrived in 24 days. 



mf:l DIARY AND LETTERB OF THOMAS EUTGDINSON. 87 



1776.J 



Hot day again, and faint air. • 

Treasury adjourned for 3 Aveeks. 

2nd. — The weather still hotter. It's thought the glasses in 
the shade must be above 80. Col. John Cliandler, a fresh 
exile, dined with uie, together with D"^ Chandler. 

General Haldiman has a letter from Quebec, several days 
after Carleton's, which says, besides the killed and wounded in 
the late action, great numbers lost their way and perished 
in the woods, and it's thought the rebels in the whole lost 6 or 
700. 

3rd. — It seems, Henry Johnson, a person who served his 
time w*^ Epes Sargent of Glo'cester, is Captain, and a Doctor 
Downing, who has been a very troublesome person at Brook- 
lyne, Surgeon of the Yankee, privateer. M"^ Lyde was aboard 
to-day, and Lewis Gray yesterday. The vessel left Boston the 
4'*^ of June. The Master and Surgeon seem to be under no 
concern — depend upon security from the prisoners in the hands 
of the Congress. The Ministers are at a loss what to do with 
them. 

I called at the Admiralty, and was told the mercury there 
was yesterday, in a close but warm room, at 85. I saw it there 
to-day when it was not so hot — about 75. 

M"" Simpson, Amory, Gridley, and Danforth, dined with me. 

4th.— At the Old Jewry— Mr. White. 

Called on M"^ Greene, Hatton Street. Judge Browne, and 
Lyde dined with us. The prisoners taken in the rebel vessel, 
sent aboard a Guard ship at Sheerness. 

5th. — In the city at Blackburne's, Bush Lane, and afterwards 
at Lord George's office. 

There are letters from L'^ Dunmore, who is upon Gwin 
Island, and Knox says in a bad situation the 26 of June. Has 
a regiment of Blacks, very sickly. Hammond was there in the 
BoebucTi — knew nothing of Clinton ; from whence it is con- 
claded he went from Cape Fear direct to N. York. Some 
think he may be gone to burn Charlestown. 

6th. — Governor Eden of Maryland had left Annapolis in an 
armed vessel, and was at Gwin Island with Lord Dunmore, or 
on board the Boehuck, Cap'' Hammond. A journal of his is 



88 DIAliY AND LETTERS OF TJJUMAS nUTCniNSON. [n"^; 

shown as late as l^'' of July, and tliere is much talk to-day of 
dissatisfaction ainon<:^ tlio town people of the lower counties 
of Tensilvania, and the .lersies, but they arc loose accounts. 

7th. — At the Levee to-day : carried Judge Oliver to kiss the 
King's hand. 

At Lord George's ollice. IM'' D'Oyly has a story from tlie 
city — that Salem and IMarblehead were burnt, and he seems 
to credit it ; but I believe nothing until I know how it 
conies. 

8th. — A long letter published in the Morning Post, said to 
be from Halifax, dated July 5"', giving a circumstantial account 
of the defeat of General Howe on the first. Though there are 
many palpable absurdities or impossibilities in this letter, yet it 
gave alarm to many people. The law against spreading false 
news, even in such important or interesting cases, seems to have 
lost all force. 

Wrote to M"" Mackenzie to tell him there were no accounts 
from America. 

9th. — Dined at the Bishop of London's at Fulhara : D' Caner, 
Chandler, and T. H. with me in the coach. A very raw cold 
day for the season, with rain. Attended evening service in 
the Chapel with the family. 

10th. — L* Col. Blunt arrived this forenoon from Gen. Howe, 
who landed on Staten Island with the army the 3'"'^ [of July]. 
No opposition. All the Island — about 400 — came in and took 
the oaths. [Neither] L*^ Howe nor the Hessians arrived. Gov. 
[William] Franklin carried to Connecticut. The Mayor of N. 
York tried and sentenced to dye for corresponding w^^^ Try on, 
but not executed. Sixty of the rebel army came over from 
Jerseys with their arms. The rebels very numerous on Long 
Island, and the main [army] should wait for the Hessians or 
Clinton, unless something extra. 

A newspaper says Clinton was at Charlestown, S. Carolina. 
A 50-gun ship, several men-of-war, and 30 transports over the 
bar : one 50-gun ship lost, (it's said here tliere was but one) — 
had summoned the town — resolved to defend. Between 4 and 
500 of the Highlanders prisoners at Boston. 

Wrote to L'^ Hardwicke, Mackenzie, and Burch. 



ml"! DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 89 



1776.J 



M"" Maiiduit called this evening : returned the S^""^ from the 
country. 

11th.— At the Temple : D'" Morrill. 

The Gazette of last night, or rather this morning, gives 
extracts from Howe's, Tryon's, and Shuldham's letters. Howe 
mentions Gov. Franklin as a prisoner in Connecticut, and that 
the Mayor of N. York was sentenced to death for his corre- 
spondence with Tryon ; — says the enemy have a hundred cannon 
mounted ; — shall attempt nothing until the Hessians or Clinton 
arrives, unless something new to occasion it. A 40 and 20 gun 
ship preparing to go up the North [or Hudson] Eiver. Be- 
tween 4 and 500 of the Highlanders prisoners at Boston, Mass. 
Menzies, &c., killed. 

12th. — A vessel to-day from Quebec with an account of the 
arrival of the Tartar and her convoy, which had materials for 
the navigation. The letter dated July 7"^. This was late, the 
troops having been six weeks there. 

13th. — Col. Bruce, of the 65'^'^ came to town from Halifax — 
sailed the 18'^' Jnly. The Commiss" of the Customs sailed 
with them, but they lost company to the east of Isle of Sables, 
and it's thought not free from danger of the rebel vessels. 
Hotham had been at Halifax : his squadron off the harbour : 
all sailed by the 6"' of July. They will be late at N. York. 

Wrote to L'' Hardwicke, Mackenzie, and Cornwall. 

14tb. — News of the arrival of the Aston Sail, Parker, at 
Dover, from Halifax, with the Coihiss" of the Customs, &c. 
Wrote M' Burcli the news. 

General Haldiman has a letter of the 10"^ from Staten 
Island, which says the N. Hampshire Delegates had left the 
Congress, on account of their declaring for Independency. 

15th. — Spent great part of this day in looking for a house to 
remove to, the adjoining houses to that where I dwell in St. 
James's Street are pulling down, which makes mine to be 
scarcely habitable. 

M'' Morris, coihiss^" of the Customs, called and hinted the 
irregularity of the American Board in coming to England. I 
thought they had suffered so much, that if this step had not 
been perfectly according to rule, it might well be passed over. 



90 DIAEY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON, [f^^f; 



Received a note from M"" Jackson containing tlio snbstanco 
of what General Conway said in my favoui- in the House of 
Commons last Session.* 

IGtli. — ^V D'Oylcy tells mo tlioy liavc now a certain ficconnt 
of Hotham's fleet ; that a part sailed from Halifax the 2"'^ July, 
and tlie rest the 7'\ 

jM"^ CofHu called, and afterwards M"^ Hutton: both arrived 
with the Board of Coihiss". I took from Coffin's memorandum 
these minutes — 

" The HigWandcrs sailed the ?>'" of July for N. York— 17 
sail. 

12 Hessians came in to Halifax the 5"* : went out again 
the 6'\ 

Hotham being off the harbour. 

The horse did not sail till the 12^^ or 13'^" 

17th. — A fair but cool day, not unlike the middle of Sep- 
tember in America. Col. Leonard appears to-day. Paxton 
and Halloway not come to town. The Board came away with- 
out orders, but think the necessity of the thing will justify it. 

18th.— At the Temple,— Doctor Morrill. 

Halloway and his wife came to town to-day : called upon 
them in Suffolk Street. A message from Paxton at Clapham, 
where Col. Hatch lodges. 

19th. — Waiting for news from America. M"^ Mather arrived 
last night in town from Halifax, and called on me this morning.f 

20th. — Paxton came to town, and called on me with letters 
from M^ J. Wiuslow. M"^ Ben. Faneuil and wife, S. Waterhouse 
and family, Arth. Savage, &c., &c., so that Americans continue 
to thicken. 

21st. — M"^ Reeves, Secretary to General Clinton, arrived to- 
day with despatches from S. Carolina, w'^*^ he left the 15 July, 
the ships having been repulsed w**^ loss at Sullivan's Island, 
and the army intending to sail in 2 or 3 days for N. York. 

Wrote to L*^ H., M'^ Mackenzie, and M"^ Cornwall. 

22nd. — Removed to a house in New Bond Street, No. 147, 

^ * This note containing a report of what Gen. Conway said, is not forth- 
coming. 

t The Rev. Samuel Mather married Hannah, a sister of Gov. Hutchiusuu, 



f,7l:] DIABY AND LETTER B OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 91 

being so much annoyed by pulling down houses, as to render 
my house in St. James's Street scarcely habitable. 

23rd. — Keceived from M"" Paine a letter of 11 July, d*^ 
[delivered?] by IVF Keeves, with a circumstantial ace* of the 
action at Cape Fear, the Experiment and Bristol having lost 
above 100 men each, killed and wounded, and Caj). Morris of 
the Bristol dead of his wounds. 

21th. — Change of habitation is not pleasing, and T pine after 
my old lodgings ; and besides, have a house less roomy and 
coihodious, but hope to be reconciled to it. 

Button, Paxton, Eobinson, D'^ Caner, and young Simpson 
dined. 

25th. — At Princes Street — Jy Kippis. 

A show of Americans : — Treasurer Gray, Flucker, Clarke, 
WUlard, Danforth, &c. 

26th. — Mauduit called upon me. He had seen the Gazette, 
but had heard nothing further. From that he collects that 
there must have been a misunderstanding and difference 
between the land and sea Commanders at Carolina, which has 
been the cause of that unsuccessful attempt. 

27th.— Went with S. and P. to Clapham to visit M"^ W. 
Vassall, and Hatch, and George Erving. 

A cool day, like the autumn weather in N. England. Wind 
NE., but not high. 

28th. — M' D'Oyly does not suppose there is any breach 
between Clinton and Sir P. Parker, but supposes both engaged 
in this expedition because they had the chief command here, 
and hoped to obtain a Laurel before they went to serve under 
Lord Howe and Gen. Howe. 

29th. — A rainy night and morning, after a great deal of fair 
and fine Aveather most of the month, tho' rather cold for a New 
England man. Afternoon fine soft weather. 

Met General Harvey, who thinks we may hear very soon 
from New York, but it's more probable not these ten days. 

Called upon Tommy and his wife and children, and with 
Peggy, took an airing to Chelsea. 

30th. — In the city : called upon M'" Blackburne, Bush Lane. 
No arrivals. Settled with Gines and Atkinson, Bankers, 



92 DIAUr AND LETTEIiS OF THOMAS JJUTCUINSON. [^Z 



Ln76. 



Jiulgo Oliver niul M' Lyde returned from a tour of 16 or 18 
days, to J>irniinp:liani, Pudloy, "Woodstock, &c. 

31st. — At AViinblcdon, ^L"" ^[orriss, with E. and P., at dinner. 
Hon"". Garnicr and another Frencliman there, Fronde, with 
Hooton tlie American Inspector, and an old Dowager, M" 
Fowler. AVent over Battersea Bridge, and tlirough Wands- 
worth : came home thro' Fulham. 

September 1st. — At the Old Jewry. The weather cool to-day, 
like the last of the month in Boston. In the evening at High 
Street. 

2nd. — Called upon M"^ Reeve, who gave me a particular 
account of the Carolina business. Clinton had wrote the 23 of 
IMay to Lord G. G. that he intended to embark at Cape Fear 
and go to the northw'', but on the 16"^ a frigate and small 
vissel had been sent the 16"' [sic] to reconnoitre the bar and 
harbour of Cliiirlcstown. They returned the 26, and brought 
such an account that determined the sea and land commanders 
to go to the southward. Troops it seems were landed on Long 
Island, without the bar. The island is about a mile and half 
from Sullivan's Island, but the space between, at low water, is 
dry sands, except that next Sullivan's Island, which is 7 feet 
deep. They had been informed they were all fordable. He 
says Clinton knew nothing of the Forts being silenced, but 
supposed the contrary. Parker, with his ships, was over the 
bar, and the fort attacked was at a distant part of Sullivan's 
Island, and no coinunication between the General and Admiral 
but by sailing 4 or 5 leagues, and Parker had no reason to 
expect aid from Clinton, for he knew the creek was not fordable, 
and they could not land in boats at once, more than 500 men. 
It looks as if Parker thought his ships sufficient to take the 
fort without the army, not considering, or not knowing, that he 
could not bring his ships within 900 yards of it. The men-of- 
war had not got back over the bar. It is said to be much 
easier to go in than [to] go out. The troops w^ere not re- 
embarked, so that we are in painful expectation, &e. 

Sir Egerton Leigh seems to fear whether the 50 gun ships 
will get over the bar. 

3rd. — Eainy great part of the dny by showers. Mauduit in 



Sep. 
1776. 



] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTOHINSON. 93 



the evening: — laments liis loss of money by Woolridge, the 
new Alderman and Sheriff, who has stopped payment, having 
spent his creditors' money in Elections, his principal recom- 
mendation being, that he is a busy man against Government. 
He was in America, and at my house in IMilton while I was 
Governor. 

4th. — Col. Maclean to-day comes to town from Quebec, and 
Gov. Eden from Virginia. Nothing very remarkable from either 
place. They did not expect to get down the Lake (from 
Quebec) till the middle of this month. L*^ Dunmore was 
obliged to quit the shore, and retire to his ship. His conduct, 
upon the whole, is not much approved. 

5th. — It is said to-day that L'' Dunmore had sent to Clinton 
to urge him to stop with the army in Virginia, and that the 
officer had returned with advice that the fleet and army left 
Carolina the 21 July, bound to New York ; but it is added that 
one frigate remained behind, not being able to get over the 
bar, or for some other reason which does not yet transpire. 

Eainy again all day by showers. 

6th. — At the King's Levee : the smallest attendance I ever 
saw there, everybody being out of town. Saw Gov. Eden 
there. He says an officer which left Clinton's fleet about the 
27th of July, came in to Virginia. The frigate supposed to be 
left, was the Glasgow transport with a company of CoP 
Maclean's Highlanders, which ran aground, and could, not be 
got off. Saw Maclean also at the Levee, and Gov. O'Hara, and 
tlie new General of the Leeward Islands : Monk also, Sollicitor 
General of Quebec, and Sir Clifford. Willingham, who it seems 
is his patron. Lord George. 

7th. — In the city, and paid Excise 5£ for my coach, com- 
mencing 10 of July last. Paid off Public Advertiser 2„7/-. 

Chandler and son, Waterhouse, Doblois, Laughton, T. Greene, 
and M"^ Boucher, a Clergyman Eefugee from Maryland, dined 
with us. M'^ Boucher tells me that when I made my speech to 
the Assembly, which brought on their long Answer, they sent 
to M'" Dulany of Maryland, to desire him to answer it. I think 
it must be a mistake, and that it could be only a desire to 
answer it in print. 



94 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS IIUTCIIINSON. [^70. 

8th.— At Prince's Street— D"" Kippi^. 

In the evening drunk tea at Ilif^li Street. Mauduit went 
yesterday to Wliorwell, [?] Andover, for tlie remainder of the 
montli. 

0th. — W Vassall and family, Hutton, Paxton, Ilallowell, 
Powell and daughters, all called upon me. Two vessels from 
Quebeok — returned transports. Nothing transpires. 

10th. — The finest day since the month began. Three more 
vessels from Quebeck. IVP Knox says the brigantines are taken 
down to the timbers ends, so that it must be long before they 
are over the Lake. 

11th. — D'' Nath. Perkins* called upon me. He has been 
about ten days in town : endeavoured, before he left Boston, to 
prevail on the Select-men to enquire, by a Flag which was 
going out, to the besiegers whether, if he would remain quiet, 
and mind nothing but the business of his profession, he might 
be secure from insult ? but they declined doing it ; and he was 
told they did not believe any gentleman would ill-treat him, 
but they could not answer for the low people. This was enough 
to determine him to remove, tho' with a most tender constitu- 
tion : and after all the hardship of Halifax, he has been from 
thence to Ireland in company with Fitch, and from thence to 
Bristol, and so to London, having left even his plate in Boston. 

12th. — In the afternoon with Peggy, my son T. and wife, and 
two children, went to Fulham, and spent some time upon the 
banks of the river, and returned before dinner. 

We are now every moment expecting important news, which 
keeps me from taking a tour in the country, where I must be 
anxious more than in town, because reports are propagated 
there, of w hicli it will be more difficult to form a judgment. 

13th. — A fine soft and pleasant day. Judge Browne drank 
tea and spent the evening with us. 

14th. — Still the weather liolds moderate, and rather warm, 
without showers. I walked into the city below the Bridge, and 

* Sabine informs us that Dr. Nathaniel Perkins was a Physician of Boston. 
He graduated at Harvard in 1734 : he treated for smalli^ox by inoculation in 
1764 when hospitals were established in Boston Harbour: went with the 
army to Halifax in 1776, on the evacuation of Boston : was proscribed and 
banished in 1778 : and died in 1799. 



1^^:] DIARY AND LETTERS OF TROMAS HUTCHINSON. 95 

back — near 7 miles from N. Bond Street. Called on W^ 
Blackburne. He cannot account for Carletou's dismissing the 
Indians from Quebec until he should call upon them. It is 
said the Congress refused to comj)ly Avith the exchange of 
prisoners, for those taken at Les Cedres, and that Carleton 
would send home the ofiScers who remained, as hostages for the 
security of performance. 

Browne and son, Powell, Hallowell, and Boylston, Perkins, 
Faneuil, and D'^ Cooper, dined with us. Eeport of an express 
from Howe comes to nothing. 

15th. — At the Temple — D' Morrill. Saw the Connecticut 
Colonel Hall, who gave me an account after service of news 
which M'' Eindge told him came by way of France, of a repulse 
at New York. I called upon M"^ Rindge, who a week ago 
mentioned to him a report from Marseilles, to which he gave 
no credit. The anxiety for news raises reports of expresses and 
intelligence by other means every day, which die away before 
the next day, and make room for successors. 

A cold rain this afternoon. 

Royall, at Brighthelmstone, grows worse, and Doctor Perkins 
is gone down to him again to-day. 

16th. — I don't remember ever to have seen the town so thin 
of people since I have been in London. My own anxiety, from 
the state of my country, keeps me in town. The two last days 
the wind has been at east, so that we hardly expect an arrival 
until it has blown two or three days at west again, which 
quarter it is in to-day. My children from Brompton Eow, 
[Thomas's], dined with me to-day, and the High Street family, 
\iy p. Oliver's], came to drink tea. This is some alleviation — to 
have my children and grand-children ; but we are atl in a state 
of exile from a country, which of all others is most dear to me, 
notwithstanding the unjust cruel treatment I have received 
from it. 

17th. — A great deal of rain falls to-day. M'" Hallowell and 
Eeeve call upon me. Eeeve brings his Journal and Plan of the 
S. Carolina Expedition. A strange fatality attends this affair 
in every stage oi it. The forces were intended to be there early 
in February, and by one cause of delay after another, did not 



96 DIAIiY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS nUTCIIINSON. [^Z 



Ll776 



arrive till May. Orders were sent after them not to go upon 
action there without some cxtraonlinary circumstances should 
induce, but to join Howe. The Banger slooj) with those orders 
did not arrive till they sailed from Cape Fear. Duplicates of 
these orders were sent to Howe, and he sent after Clinton, but 
his letters were prevented by the engagement the Glasgow had 
with Hawkins's squadron, so that Clinton had gone on with his 
first orders, until he had sailed from Cape Fear. Even while 
under the first orders, he had determined to join Howe, until 
the vessels 8ir P. Parker sent to reconnoitre, brought such en- 
couragement as caused him to change his mind. 

My son E. set out for Brighthclmstonc and France. 

18th. — Dined with my daughter P. at M"" Vassall's at Clapham. 
Paxton and Hatch and his wife. A cold northerly wind, but 
clear sky. It's now 70 days since tlie last letters from New 
York, and people make conjectures. Many are ready to 
suppose the British troops have met with discouragement, but 
there really is no probability that all the force which was 
intended, could be at New York before the 4th or 5th of August, 
and we may allow ten days after that to prepare for an action 
of any importance. 

19th. — As cool this morning with a N. wind, as the middle 
of October in America. A letter last night from my sou W. at 
Brighthelmstone, says Eoyall was given over by his Physicians. 
I called upon Hallowell. M"^ Simpson and his nephew called 
on me, and Lechmere, Paddock, &c. Rain before noon. 

M"" Geyer, who married Duncan Ingram's daughter, rec*^ a 
letter from Ingram at Nantucket dated June 25, by way of 
Holland, to acquaint him, that feeling things [were] growing 
worse and^orse at Boston, and that if he remained he should 
be obliged to take an active part, he was going to Surinam to 
spend 12 or 18 months : that he should have 6 or 7 vessels con- 
signed him : and that several gentlemen were going passengers 
w ith him. This I have from ]\P Lyde, to whom Geyer read the 
letter. They could not have heard of General Howe at York, 
nor of Lord Howe and the Hessians, what their destination was. 

20th. — Paid my Coachman's board wages, &c., to the 14*'' 
Instant. 



nfe.] DIAEY AND LETTEnS OF THOMAS BUTCHIXSON. 97 

At Lord George Geriuaine's. He says Lord Stormont wrote, 
that the people arrived from Philadelphia at Dunkirk, say that 
on the 8. of August, Avheii they sailed, there was no account of 
any action at New York, and they speak of no important news. 
On the other hand, fishing vessels at Dartmouth and Plymouth, 
both say they spoke Avith vessels at sea which reported that 
Howe was in possession of New York the same day the 8. of 
August.* 

1 stated the case of the Council and Putnan at Halifax, and 
he promised his aid in recornending it to Lord North — or 
rather, he said, J\P Robinson. 

In the afternoon an account is rec'^ at Lloyd's Coffee House 
of the arrival of a vessel from Virginia at Glasgow — spoke the 
Boreas man-of-war Aug. 16, off Delaware, and was informed 
that Lord Howe and all the troops were arrived at New York ; 
and the S*'' or 9^^ he left New York. 

]\P Green, Mather and wife, Clarke, and Lyde, dines with us. 

21st. — Dined at Croydon at M"" Apthorpe's : — Judge Oliver, 
Sally and Peggy, and Miss Fanny Hutchinson, all in the coach. 
A young gentleman — Ives, now Trecothick, and heir to Alder- 
man Trecothick, dined there also. A very pleasant day, but 
still cool for the season, and east wind. M'^ Apthorpe is mucii 
altered in his principles since the Declaration of Independence, 
and says now America must be subdued before there can be any 
concessions made. 

22nd.— At the Old Jewry— M'^ White. 

In the evening drank tea at M'' D'Oyly's— Peggy with me. 
General Howe's lady, M"" and M''^ Agar. It has been reported 
some days past that Johnson, the Chaplain of the privateer 
bro't into Dover, had made his escape from the Guard-ship at 
Sheerness, and was gone to France, but M'' D'Oyly knows 
nothing of it, and does not believe a word of it. M''^ Howe 
discovers great anxiety, which is not to be wondered at. 

23rd. — M'''' Howe received this forenoon, by a transport 
returned from Staten Island to Cork, a letter from General 
Howe, dated the 30th of July, which being by a precarious 

* The battle on Long Island took place on tlie 2Tth of August, and Geu. 
Howe took possession of New York on the 21st of September. 

VOL. II. n 



98 DIAnr AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON, [m^*. 

conveyance, ho only writes that L'' llowc arrived the 12*^^'; 
that the TTlLrhhiiulers, the T.ii2;ht Tlorso, and part of the Guards 
and Hessians mxto arrived : the rest within two days' sail. But 
the Agent for the Yietualling Contractor writes that the 
transport sailed the 12"' of August, before wliich time tlie rest 
of the Guards and Hessians, and all Clinton's army were 
arrived, and that they expected an attempt upon N. York in 
2 or 3 days: that Washington was at Kingsbridge,* and 
Putnam commanded in New York : that Howe was 35000 
strong, but this cannot be, unless he has been joined by more 
Provincials than there is any reason to expect. No letters yet 
to Government, but it is thought there must be, and that the 
Agent's Express has made more haste than the Government's 
[Express]. The Court and public officers are in great anxiet3% 

A privateer of New England, Simon Forester, has taken six 
prizes off Cape St. Vincent. I wrote to Lord Hardwicke, 
M' Cornwall, Mauduit, and Burch. 

24th. — The wind shifts to the westward, and we may soon 
expect vessels. Billy returned yesterday from Briglithelmstone : 
says his brother E. sailed for Dieppe with a good wind 
AYednesday evening the ISth from Brighthclmstoue.t 

25th. — The papers to-day have Lord Howe's Declaration 
as a Coihissioner, dated 20th June, off Massachusets Bay, in 
which he offers pardon to all who return to their allegiance. 
After he arrived at N. York it was sent to Washington, but 
refused because directed to " George Washington Esq.," and 
not in his publick character. The Congress approved this 
refusal. They have also the settlement of a new Government 
in Virginia. Patrick Henry Jun'" their Governor, with 
Senators, &c. 

Many people seem much struck with this progress in settling- 
Governments in so many Colonies; but it is become necessary, 
there being no retreat without a total destruction of the power 
which the Congress have assumed ; they must therefore push 
on, that being their only chance. 

* At tlie north end of Mauliatteu Island ; tlie city of New York being at 
the sontli end. 

■\ It ^vas now Tuesday. 



Oct. 

1116 



] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 99 



26tli, — [No news yet. The French and Dutch suspected of 
favouriug the Americans.] 

27th. — A fine warm day : S.W. wind. Report to-day that 
7000 Provincials had joined Howe's army. 

28th. — [A letter saying that the Hessians and Guards 
arrived at Staten Island the 12th of August.] 

29th.— At the Temple w"^ Judge Oliver. A D"" Weekes 
preached a Michaelmas Day sermon — "Are they not all 
ministering spirits ? " &c.* 

An Express arrived last night from Staten Island : six weeks 
passage : all the forces arrived except the Highlanders carried 
into Boston, and one company to Virginia. . . . 

oOth. — [Sir P. Parker had arrived with Lord Dimmure and 
Lord Wm. Campbell.] In the Fiiblich Ledger some mischievous 
person had published a card as from Mauditicus to Gov. 
Pownall, advising him not to brush fight w"^ ]\P Hutchinson, 
but to enter into an oj)en contest, &c. In the evening he sent 
a person with a letter, to let me know he had never published 
any anonymous letter or paper concerning me, much less 
against me. If I was the author of that paper, he was ready 
to enter into any personal or publick contest with me. Pe- 
diculous as this was, I thought it best to take no other notice 
than to tell him I was glad he had given me an opportunity of 
assuring him that I never directly nor indirectly was concerned 
in any publication respecting him, nor did I know or suspect 
the authors of them, but believed they were malevolent 
persons, friends neither to him nor me, but probably equally 
inimical to both of us; that I had never seen the card he 
refer'd to until I opened his letter, and I verily believed 
M"* Mauduit knew no more of it than I did. — Fresh east wind. 
October 1st. — A vessel yesterday from Halifax. . . . 
2nd. — [Provincial army said to ^^•ant clothes. He liad two 
teeth drawn by Dumergue.] 

3rd. — [A young man returned from America brings general 
news.] 

4th. — W Putnam writes to Judge Sewall from Halifax,- 
Aug. 9, that upon rec* of the Declaration of Independence, it 

* Paul to the Heb. i. 14. 

H 2 



100 DIAnY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. [S'^e. 



was proclaimed from the balcouy of the Council Chamber 
to a vast concourse of people with great rejoicings ; and that 
every sign with a Crown in or upon it, was demolished. Quai 
vox dementia coepit. The wind west. . . . 

5th. — John Malcolm came to me some time ago, and 
acquainted me he would prefer a Petition to the Treasury 
against W Waldo, Collector at ralmouth, Casco Bay, for 
irregularly clearing a vessel which, Malcolm being a Preventive 
Officer, had afterwards seized, and w*"'' had been condemned. 
I asked what induced him, or he informed me, it was because 
Waldo did not pay his salary. I asked him what need he do 
more than complain of that ? He said Waldo had hurt him, 
and he would have the whole story told. I advised him to 
apply to the Coiniss'', but he resolved to petition, and said he 
must appeal to me in his Petition. I discouraged him still, 
and he said I refused to do him justice. I told him 1 should 
be ready when called upon to answer any questions asked me. 
After repeatedly troubling me I saw M"" Flucker, and told him 
of Malcolm's design, and that it was pity to have any stir, and 
that Malcolm had mentioned my name in his Petition, but I 
knew nothing of Waldo's proceedings except in general. I 
had a remembrance he was charged with some irregularity. 
Flucker to-day told Malcolm I said I knew nothing of the 
affair, which bro't Malcolm to my house to enquire whether I 
had said so? I told him I might say so, but did not remember 
the words, for I knew nothiug but by common fame, which was 
knowing nothing to his purpose, for I should not be allowed to 
mention it. He abused me for refusing to say what he knew, 
and charged me with refusing to do him justice when in 
my power. I told him he was a very ignorant and very 
abusive man, and I should give myself no trouble about him. 
In the evening he sent me an abusive letter saying that he put 
my name in his Petition by my express order, and if I did not 
let him know by Monday* what 1 intended to say, he would 
make the world as ^Ye]l acquainted with my real character as he 
is himself. — AVest wind. 

6th.— At the Old Jewry. . . . 

* It was uow Saturdaj^ 



^^le.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTCEINSOK 101 

7tb. — I Avrote to Malcolm that a letter had been left at my 
house signed with his name, for the letter was not of his hand 
writing-, nor is he capable of writing a letter which can be 
understood : that I should take no more notice of it at present 
[underlined] than to let him know I had always advised him 
not to petition the Treasury, but he persisted in it, and said 
he should appeal to me, and he hoped I would not refuse to do 
liim justice : that I told him I should not refuse to answer any 
questions their Lordships thought proper to ask me : that I 
had told him I knew notliing but by report, and that their 
Lordships would not think hearsay to be evidence. 

This man, John Malcolm, had been shamefully treated in 
America. lie is incidentally mentioned in some of the Diaries 
and Letters ; but however much he may have unjustly suffered 
persecution, or merited sympathy, the Governor does not now 
appear to be desirous of giving him encouragement. Judge 
Oliver, in his " Origin and Progress of the American Eebellion to 
the year 1776," speaks thus of Malcolm's case : — " In the winter of 
this year [17721 the ruling Powers seized upon a Custom House 
officer for execution : they stripped him, tarred, feathered, and 
haltered him ; carried him to the Gallows, and whipped him 
with great barbarity in the presence of thousands, and some of 
them members of the General Court. Like the Negro drivers in 
the West Indies, if you grumbled at so wholesome of discipline, 
you had iniquity added lo trans^gression, and lash succeeded lash; 
and there was but one w^ay of escaping, which was, to feign your- 
self dead, if you was not already so ; for in that case, you would be 
left to yourself to come to life again as well as you could, they 
being afraid of such dead men, lest they theirselves should die 
after them, sooner or later : — one Custom-House ofScer they left 
for dead, but some persons of humanity stepped in to his relief and 
saved him." 

8th. — An airing as far as Brentford, &c. 

9th. — Lent Wilmot a guinea : all before repaid. Account 
published to-day of Gen^ Howe's defeat at N. York, w*"^ the 
loss of two General officers and COOO men, taken from the 
Amsterdam and Utrecht Gazettes; said to be on 16 of August.* 
The last packet left the Hook the 20^^' of August, and brought 
letters of the 17th from Staten Island. 

* It is needless to say that there was no foundation for this statement. 



102 DIABY AXD LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. [^'^^l\ 

lOtb. — M"" D'Oyly sent me a note this morning, and soon 
after called. An express arrived with letters from Cen^ Howe, 
advising that ho landed the 22nd of August, under cover of 
Commodore Hotham's guns, with the British troops and some 
of the Hessians, at New Utrecht on Long Island, with little 
opposition from a few flying parties: that it took until the 2<3^'' 
to form and advance with proper precaution to that part where 
the enemy was intrenched : that on the 27'^ he stormed their 
works, and possessed himself of the first intrenchments, with 
the loss of 53 men killed, and about 200 wounded. Among the 

first, L* Col" Grant, Capt^ Logan and Nelson, and Lieut* : 

among the wounded CoP IMonckton, shot thro' the body, but 
may recover — in general lightly wounded : that, of the rebels, 
about 3300 killed and taken prisoners — about 1000 prisoners — 
among them their Major General Sullivan, the lawyer. Lord 
Sterling, so called, and Udell, of whom I never heard before : 
that the Long Island people came in and were ready to take 
the oath. 

The express says they were in a most distressed state at 
N. York, 4000 sick, and it was thought there would be no great 
difficulty in reducing it. It was doubtful what was become of 
the army that was in the second intrenchment, which Howe 
had prepared to storm, and made advances, but on the 30"' in 
the morning, they were evacuated, and Howe took possession 
of them, and his posts were against the city. They left their 
cannon and other stores. 

This first and crude account of the important Battle of Brooklyn 
on Long Island, ^wliich led to the capture of New York, tallies 
however in its salient points with the more perfect narrative as 
given in the sixth Chapter of Stedman's History, assisted as it 
there is with a plan of the country and disposition of the troops. 
It is there stated that 15,000 Americans crossed the East Eiver 
from New York to Brooklyn, and posted themselves behind several 
redoubts connected by curtains extending from Wallabout Bay on 
their left, to some marshy inlets on their right : that Putnam was 
put forward with 10,000 men to occupy the ridges of a curved line 
of hills extending in a half moon four or five miles in front of 
them towards the south, from which direction the English were 
expected. Washington was present and directed these arrange- 



i°76.] BIABY AND LETTERS OF TEOMAS HUTCHINSON. 103 

ments. On advancing from the Redoubts, and taking post on i\\^ 
hills, the American right was commandod by Lord Sterling " so 
called," the centre by General Sullivan, and the left was not ex- 
tended far enough, as the event proved. On the south or English 
side, Sir William Howe had 9,000 men, but the opportune arrival 
of his brother Lord Howe with additional forces, raised the grand 
total, according to some, to near 30,000. Stedman however, uses 
the expression " near twenty thousand." In speaking of the dis- 
position of the two armies now opposite each other, he says, page 
197 — "In their [the American] front, was an encampment of near 
twenty thousand men." On the side of the English, CTcneral 
Grant was opposed to Lord Sterling ; General De Ileister with his 
Hessians, to General Sullivan in the centre; and Sir Henry 
Clinton, and Sir William Erskine, having reconnoitred and reported 
the unprotected state of the enemy's left wing, General Howe 
directed those ofiicers, with Lord Percy, to make a circuit to the 
east and out-flank them. Upon this they executed a movement 
in that direction, and penetrating the defiles, crossed the ridge, and 
began the attack with vigour. After some hard fighting, the 
Americans were thrown into confusion, and retired precipitately 
upon their base at New York. Stedman further adds — " The loss 
of the Americans was great. Two thousand were either killed on 
the field, drowned [in crossing a morass,] or taken prisoners : and 
among the latter. Generals Sullivan, Udell, and Lord Sterling." 
And he observes further down — " The loss on the part of the 
English did not exceed three hundred in killed and wounded, of 
which number between sixty and seventy were killed. Among the 
killed was Lieutenant-Colonel Grant, of the fortieth Eegiment ; 
among the wounded, Lieutenant-Colonel Monkton." 

General Washington soon found Kew York to be untenable, and 
thereupon he made preparations to evacuate the city. 

It was a little before this time that the leaden statue of George 
III., which had stood in New York, but which had been pulled 
down and cast into bullets, was returned to the British by the 
American soldiers, as mentioned, Vol. i. p. 520. 

The Diary, on the 11th of October, proceeds to say— 

11th. — M'^ Jackson of the Admiralty, read to me part of a 
letter from Sir George Collier, Cap. of the Bainhoio at sea, on 
his passage from K York to Halifax,— that he left N. York the 
8 Sept., and the packet w'^ sailed with him, being a heavy 
sailer, it was possible the ship he wrote by might get to 



lOi DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS nUTQHINSON. ^fe. 

Euglaud before her, and advised of the defeat of the rebels the 
27'"' Aug., — that some preparations had been making for 
handing the troops from the East River, some ships having 
gone up to cover them, and 80 flat bottomed boats, — that uhcn 
ho was comiug out on the 8*'' ho heard caiionadiug from 

o'clock to 11, when ho had lost the sound of the cannon by 
the distance he had run. He adds, that this must be a very 
important action, on which much depends — that there were so 
many sick in New York as to induce hiin to think, from 
humanity to them, the city would not bo fired, as was intended, 
it being not practicable to remove them. It seems by a letter 
said to be intercepted from Washington to Sullivan, that great 
dependance was put on annoying and defeating the King's 
troops by attacking them from the woods in their march ; but 
this dependance failed. Their General Woodall was taken 
under a hay rick. He is a New York Representative. Sullivan 
(one of the Congress), was in a house, and it is said was 
surprised to see Rogers with the King's troops, supposing he 
was in the Rebel service. Lord Sterling, so called, was taken 
alone, and is prisoner on board a ship, where he was loth to go ; 
but it was intimated to him that he would be in danger from 
the soldiers, who were much enraged from a repoit that he was 
the man who cut off the head of the King's statue at New Y'ork. 

Perkins and Flucker, and their families, dined [with us.] 

12th. — Paxton brought me a letter he has received from 
Lord Percy, dated 1 September, from Newtown, Long Island, 
which is 3 or 4 miles up the river, opposite the N. York shore. 
Among other things he says — "Take my word for it, they never 
w ill dare to stand before us again. Our men have found out the 
use of their bayonets, and I promise you they gave the rebels 
enough of them on the 27th., for the moment the rebels fired 
they rushed on them, and never gave them time to load again." 

AYrote to Auchmuty, M'' Ellis, Mackenzie, and Lord Hard- 
wicke. 

13th. — At the Temple : Doctor Morrill. Captain Dunn, of 
one of the transports, has wrote of the 8*^ of Sept., the day the 
packet sailed. We are not yet in possession of New York, but 

1 hope we shall be before night. 



?^y VIABY AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 105 

It is not necessary to amplify "by giving details here, whicli may 
be found in the pages of most of our historians. SufSco it to say 
that the English crossed the East Kiver on the loth of September, 
and as Washington withdrew his troops from New York, the city 
was taken possession of at once. Several actions succeeded one 
another within a few weeks from this time, in all which the 
English were victorious, — as at White Plains, Fort AVashington, 
Fort Lee, &c., but as on Long Island the Americans were allowed 
to retreat without molestation, so in these cases no pursuit was 
allowed ; and when Washington was making his way to get beyond 
the Delaware river, after his forces had precipitately abandoned 
Fort Lee, followed by the English, he was allowed a fair start in 
every day's march, arriving at Princetown, and then twelve miles 
further to the river, unovertaken, at Trenton. Then came the 
English on his heels. " Yet the British troops," says McCormic's 
Continuation of Hume, " were detained for seventeen hours at 
Princetown, and marching thence at nine o'clock next morning, 
got to Trenton at four in the afternoon, just when the last boat of 
Washington's embarkation crossed the river, as if General Howe 
had calculated with the nicest accuracy, the exact time necessary 
for his enemy to make his escape." As this sort of thing had 
happened more than once, it began to attract attention, and it is 
duly commented on to Sir Willian\ Howe's prejudice by most of 
those who have written on the subject of this war. 

At this place several pages of the Diary can be advantageously 
omitted. On the 14th of October Mr. Hutchinson left London for 
a fortnight's tour, during which time America is scarcely alluded 
to except in one place, where he expresses a desire to go to the 
town of Boston in Lincolnshire. He says — " M}' chief inducement 
to turn aside to Boston, was from its having been the mother 
of American Boston." He was accompanied by his daughter 
Margaret or Peggy, Judge Oliver, and his niece Miss Clarke, and 
Mr. Paxton, with his servant. They proceeded via AValtham Cross, 
to Cambridge, then through a small village called Milton, on 
which he writes — "thro' Milton, a small parish of thatched, but 
pretty good houses, not so pleasing as my own Milton would have 
been," and so on to Ely and Wisbeach by the Ouse, of which liver 
he says — "not wider than Milton river in N.E., the country 
settled in the N.E. way, not in villages, but farm houses a little 
distant," and thence to Spalding and Boston. Of this latter he 
writes — 

"21st. — Called upon the Vicar of Boston Mr or Dr Calthorpe, 
who received us with great civility, he being an acquaintance of 



106 DIAIiY AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON, [i^^f^. 



S' F. Bernanl, who had spoke of mo in Lis hearing, much in my 
favour. Took a A'iow of the churcli, -which exceeded my expecta- 
tion, both for the magnificence and elegance, and also for the 
extreme good condition in which it is kept. He shewed me the 
Parish Register : observed the marriage of John Cotton, Clarke,* to 
Sarah Story, in 1032 : saw a very elegant mouiiuient of one of my 
family, Samuel Hutchinson, a wine merchant in IGOG: went to 
visit his son's widow, an old lady of 85, in perfect health with all 
her teeth and her intellectual powers, with her daughter, an old 
maiden : found her husband had often mentioned his relations 
going to Ireland, and Mrs. Jenyns being of the family. She is 
widow to a clergyman, and lives in a very decent house. Some of 
their famil}-, sbe said, lived at Alford, where a M"" Walker at 
present has the living,'and I purpose to write to him to make some 
extracts from the Register," &c. 

It appears to me, (the Editor), somewhat strange that he did not 
go on a short matter of twenty-three miles to Alford, the place 
where his ancestor AVilliam was born in August 158G, and examine 
the Register for himself. From Boston he turned away to Sleaford 
and Grantham, but as he was accompanied by friends, perhaps he 
was not master of his own movements. There is nothing like 
being entirely alone when there is work to be done. In 1857 I 
went into Lincolnshire for these purposes, and I was wise enough 
to go alone. No member of the family had been to Alford since 
they Avent to America, and when I arrived there it was after an 
absence of 223 years. I first stopped at Boston, and from the 
Register of that place I copied everything relating to the names of 
Hutchinson and of Coddington, from October 28, 1566, to June 30, 
1629. I enquired for the tablet or monument of Samuel Hutchin 
son, and found it in fragments on the floor of the room over the 
south porch. It w^as of white marble, and had been a slab of 
about three feet long by two wide, and three inches thick, bearing 
an inscription referring to the said Samuel, twice Mayor, and to 
some of his children. It had formerly been fixed against the south 
wall inside, and a little to the east of the sonth door; and with 
the usual principles of church restorers, I gathered that by some 
carelessness it got detached and broken at the time the church was 
renovated about 1850. The A^erger, who shewed it to me, did not 
think that any descendant of the defunct was then living in 
Boston. Proceeding to Alford and the parish Register there, I 

* That is, Clerk in Holy Orders. 



i^fe.] DIAMY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTOHINSON. 107 

extracted everything relating to the names of Hutchinson and 
Sanforde, beginning with William, who with his wife Anne went 
to America, who was baptised August 14, 1586, and coming down 
to February 4, 1G41, and these lists have been useful in family 
genealogy. 

The Chief Justice, being one of the party, enriched his Diary 
with many racy entries, and a few sly hits at the Americans, 
which last it is to be hoped will now bo forgiven. At Cambridge 
he writes — 

" The farmers raise great quantities of wheat and other grain, 
and send to market vast quantities of butter, Cambridgeshire butter 
being of a good quality and taste. Here I cannot but remark the 
method in their Inns, of serving their butter at table in small rolls 
of ab* an inch in diameter, so that it may bo said, that butter is 
sold here by the inch, foot, or yard, as in Quebec in America, they 
really, in the winter season, sell their milk by the pound, and send 
it to market in bags." 

They went to Cressingham in Norfolk, where, he says — 

" We arrived safe, and were most cordially received by my old 
New England worthy friend Wm Burch Esq., and his agreeable 
family. 

" To meet with a valuable friend, of so worthy a character, who 
had been persecuted by a wanton rebellion for seven years 
successively, and who after having escaped its harpy claws, to see 
him and his family sot down in quiet, free from the tyranny of 
anarchy, and under the umbrage of domestic happiness, gave me 
great pleasure, and I enjoyed his satisfaction without envy, as 
being conscious that the joy which I received from this participa- 
tion, did not lessen, but rather added to his stock." 

When travelling over the Lincolnshire Fens, he becomes too 
severe — 

" The lands seemed to be covered with sheep as far as the eye 
could reach over the Fens : and here I could not help reflecting on 
the proud boasts of the northern Americans, who amused them- 
selves with raising wool for their own manufactures, whereas they 
did not possess sheep enough to make their own stockings ; and 
here I am persuaded that at one view I saw more sheep feeding 
than the whole Province of the Massachusetts Bay, the most sheepish 
of all the Colonies, is stocked with. On these roads they raise 
amazing quantities of turnips for the use of their cattle, and I have 
seen double the quantities of land sowed with turnips, than I ever saw 



108 niATiV AXD LKTTEnS OF THOMAS nUTCTIINSON. [n:*«. 

sowed witt any sort of grain in America. An American farmer 
wlio is swelled witli his own importance, would be surprised to see 
the progress of agriculture in England, with the other improve- 
ments of the land, and would shrink even out of his own sight." 

The Chief Justice had not yet recovered his equanimity, and in 
drawing his comparisons, it must bo borne in mind that America 
was a young country. Since then she has astonished the world by 
her progress. Of Boston ho writes — 

" Before we reached Boston we rode over a long and wide 
causway, which was thrown up out of the Fen, in order to make 
a turnpike, and the approach to the town had some resemblance 
to the entrance of Boston in America, viz. — over this neck of 
land, in view of a Gibbet, and of a windmill : may it never 
resemble it in its disaffection to government, and its fondness for 
anarchy. 

" We put up at tlie White Hart Inn at Boston, a good house. 

" Boston is a seaport : the tide flows to the town, and meets the 
river Witham. . . M' John Cotton, who was y'' first Minister of 
Boston in Massachusets Bay, was A^icar of this church, and from 
him the American Boston derived its name." 

The party proceeded by way of Nottingham, Derby, Lichfield, 
Birmingham, Stratford-on-Avon, Woodstock, and so returned to 
London, where they arrived on the 28th of October. The 29th was 
rainy, but on the 30th the Diary continues thus — 

oOth. — At the King's Levee : as full as I remember to have 
seen it at any time. 

31st. — At the House of Lords to hear the King's Speech. 
Litroduced by Lord Pol worth, and Judge Oliver with me ; but 
I had no desire to go through the fatigue of standing 5 or 6 
hours to hear the debates. The Opposition were 2G to 92, 
which is less in the Lords than formerly ; but in the Commons 
it was much the same — 242 of the majority, against 87.* It is 
pretty certain that the disproportion would have been much 
less if the subject of debate had been meerly [sic] a controversy 
between Court and Country parties, the independent country 
gentleman being generally against the Americans. 

* These numbers tally with those given by Adolphus and the Continuator 
of Hume. 



inc.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS IIUTCIIIXSON. 109 

The account given by Judge Oliver, as written in his Diary, can 
scarcely be omitted. It runs as follows : — 

"31st. — This day I went to the House of Lords to hear the 
King deliver his speech to the Parliament. The procession was 
grand, his Majesty being in the elegant state coach, which is glazed 
all around, and the body elegantly gilt, with a gilt crown on the top, 
with other decorations, drawn by 8 dun horses, the finest I ever 
saw, and kept in such order that their skin and hair appeared like a 
rich velvet. The amazing string of coaches, and the vast crowd of 
spectators in the streets and in the windows of the houses, of ladies 
richly dressed, and the groupe of figures from the first gentleman 
to the lowest link-boy was very picturesque, and was a true 
representation of the chequered state of mankind : but the whole, 
united with the apparent joy of countenances, exhibited an idea of 
the grandeur and importance of a British Monarch. 

" I entered the House of Lords under the umbrage* of Lord 
Polworth. Without the Bar of the House it was much crowded, 
but within was a grand appearance of the nobility, and of ladies 
richly dressed. His Majesty was seated on his throne in the robes 
of royalty, with his rich crown upon his head. He then directed 
the attendance of the House of Commons, some of whom came, 
preceded by their Speaker, who also was preceded by his Mace 
Bearer, and followed by his Train Bearer : he was richly dressed 
in his gold-laced robes, and made a magnificent appearance. His 
Majesty then delivered his Speech, and Mith that dignity, 
propriety of accent and pronunciation, w'^'' commanded attention 
and created esteem. 

" The passages to the House of Lords are a perfect labyrinth, 
and when a stranger, whose expectation hath formed an idea of the 
grandeur of an apartment for so august a body of senators, enters 
it, his ideas sink at the approach of so much inelegance ; but it is 
a general observation, that even the Palace of the greatest Monarch 
is derogatory to the dignity of a petty prince : and the remark is 
too general, that the horse stables of the French Monarque are more 
elegant than the Palace of a British King. It seems to be a 
paradox, that a nation which riots in luxury, and whose coifers are 
bursting with riches, whose elegance of taste in architecture, and 
in every polite science, whose seats, both of nobility and gentr}-, 
vie with Asiatick pomp, aud some of whose nobility, and even 

* Umbra, a sliadoAv; under tlie shadow of his wing. Compare tlie signifi- 
cation of the word 100 years ago with what it is now. If all words are 
liable to the same changes as this one, what becomes of the stability of the 
English language ? 



llO DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. [f-Xl; 



commonalty, can puicliaso 2 or 3 Gorman Principalities, — I say, 
tliat it Kccms a ]iaradox that tlicir Sovereign slioTild 1)0 suffered to 
wear more slender insignia of Ivoyalty than many other rrinces 
whom even his own private estate could purchase their whole 
dominions. I can assign no other principle for it Imt the national 
cnlhusiastick fondness for Lil)crty, which over aims to reduce all 
to a level, and which overjiowcrs the national principle of pride. 

" His Majest}', after delivering his Speech, returned to his palace 
in grand procession, the populace hanging upon his chariot wheels, 
and filling the air with their acclimations. And here, one could 
scarce refrain from pitj'ing the versatility of human nature, wlien 
they reflected upon the diiferentbchaviour of this populace not long 
since, to this most amiable of Princes, whom they almost cursed to 
his face, whilst at the same time they Hosanna'd a man who was 
knowai to be infamous in all vices, unharnassing the liorses of his 
cariiagc, and dragging it with their own strength, this mock 
patriot sitting in it in triumph, pluming himself with pleasure, in 
seeing his triumphal car drawn in imitation of some eastern Monarch 
byAssos, rather [than] the more noble animal an horse. Sic mutat 
gloria mimdi." * 

Mr. Hutchinson's Diary contiiaucs as follows : — 

November 1st. — In tlio city : called upon Blackbiivue : no 
arrivals, the wind having been towards east for 8 or 10 days. 
Lord Gage called. Doctor Cooper, nho brought copy of the 
Master of the Gralatsea's letter, with the account of Gen. Howe's 
landing the 15th, and of an action the 16th, with the slaughter 
of 7 or 8,000 Provincials, but this copy made no mention of the 
lors on the part of the King's troops. 

2nd.— Cap" Balfour arrived in the evening from New York. 
He is Aide-du-camp to Gen. Howe. Lord Townshend sent me 
copy of a letter he had rec'' from Cap. Montresor w'^^^^ Mas 
brought me after 11 o'clock, just as I was going to bed, dated 
Sep^ 26. The troops made good their landing the 15th at 
Keps Bay, being expected at another place, met with no 

*' These allusions are doubtless addressed to the case of John Wilkes in 
1768, who was committed to prison, when the mob waylaid the vehicle in 
which he was being carried, and taking out the horses, drew him away in 
another direction. To turn round and hurl low abuse at the person of His 
Majesty, was only to be consistent. In the History of this period by 
Adolphus, these stirring events are detailed in Chapter XV. 



f.,%\ I DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. Ill 

opposition, but took 200 prisoners who were flying from the 
town. The 16th at the heights of Harlem, had a skirmish 
between some of the light infantry, and about 3,000 of the 
enemy, 300 of whom killed and wounded, and 14 only of the 
King's army killed, and [blank] wounded. The 21st some 
concealed rebels set fire in the night to X. York, and about \ 
of the town destroyed, St. Paul's and Trinity churches being 
part. Six of the incendiaries were killed by the soldiers, 14 
taken and to be tried. The 23rd the ships drove the enemy 
from the Battery at Powles Hook, and the King's troops took 
possession. The 25th General Prescot exchanged for the 
General Sullivan. It is said that Washington has about 
30,000 men at King's-Bridge, &c., and that there is a flying 
camp of 10,000 in the Jerseys. 

3rd.— At the Temple. 

4th. — A vessel from Boston bought by Captains who had 
been taken, and obtained leave to come to England. Fenton's 
wife and family, and a son of CoP Hatch, passengers. The 
rest seem to be people who had been taken : said to be 70 in 
all. ... 

5th. — M} Jonathan Down, son to ]\P" Jos. Down of Salem 
arrived in the Boston vessel, came and dined with us, and gave 
a more particular account of affairs than we have had for some 
time. He says no business goes on but privateering. He 
thinks there are 100 from the several parts of the continent. 
The Assembly have 112 at the publick charge. He says 
Indian corn is 5/- p bushel in paper money, which is near 
double what it used to be in silver and gold ; so that their 
bills are sunk near ^. He saw Dr. Pemberton, and does not 
remember any of note lately dead. 

Gth. — Dined with Peggy at M** Ellis's. A sudden motion in 
the House of Commons made by Lord Jn" Cavendish, to 
address the King to revise instruction, &e., agreeable to Lord 
Howe's, and General Howe's declaration, kept part of our 
company, and W Ellis himself, in the House of Commons, and 
I dined with only three or four ladies without them. Burke 
spoke an hour, and among other things said the proclamation 
for a fast was little better than a blasphemy. Lord North sent 



112 DIAIiY AND LETTEIiS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSOK fmB 



\_1116. 



out for all Lis troops, Lut mustered only 109 ; the minority 
were 47. 

In the evening the Bishops of London and Chester, and 
hidies, Lord J>uckinghamsh[ire's] Lady, Lord Harrowby, Sir 
Grey C'oopcr, jM'' Jeukinson, ^l"" Cornwall, IM"" Hunter, &c., with 
several hidic. I roc'' two letters from M"^ Jon. Clarke at 
Montreal, the last 15 Sept. which I sent to Lord George. 

7th. — At Lord North's Lev6e, who, among other things said 
he had rec'' a very good Pamphlet under a cover which he took 
to be my hand writing. Asked if I wrote it, &c. . . . 

8th. — This and the three last days have been remarkably 
foggy. ... 

9th. — Lord Mayor's I3ay, which the Americans say, is not 
equal to our Election or Commencement Parades. . . . 

10th.— At the Temple church. . . . 

11th. — [Eemarks about the change of Lord Mayors.] 

12th. — Two or three transports arriving from New York 
caused a report that there was fresh news. . . . 

Nobody seems to doubt that the fleet and army with 
Carleton and Burgoyne embarked on the Lakes the 2*^ and 
third of October. The fleet consists of a 20-gun ship, a Rideau 
or floating battery of six 12-pounders, and six 24-pound'' ; a 
gondola of 10 guns ; 2 scooners 16 guns each, and a great 
number of boats with a cannon in each : so that, though the 
rebels have more in number, the King's force seems to exceed 
in weight. . . . 

13th. — Called upon M'" Ellis. By his advice I wrote the 
following, to accompany the letter to a noble Lord, &c. 

" Governor Hutchinson, being prompted by zeal for your 
Majesty's service, and a desire to expose, and as far as may be 
to frustrate, the very criminal designs of the leaders of your 
Majesty's deluded unhappy American subjects, has wrote, and 
caused to be piinted a small Pamphlet, which he begs leave to 
lay at your Majesty's feet, humbly entreating your Majesty's 
forgiveness of this presumption." 

14th. — I sent the letter, &c. under cover, with direction, To 
the King, by a servant out of livery, to the Queen's Palace, to 
be delivered to the porter, with my desire that he would give 



JJ^ei] BIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTCHINSON. 113 

it to the Page in waiting. The porter asked the servant if he 
was to wait for an answer ? and upon being told he was not to 
wait, promised immediately to deliver it.* 

A large fleet from Jamaica, above 100 sail, came out under 
convoy of two men-of-war, which saw them thro' the Gulf, and 
then one returned to Jamaica : the other, the Pallas, soon after 
left the fleet, or the fleet left her, and it is said, carried one 
ship only into Newfoundland. One of the fleet arrived to-day, 
above 13 weeks out, and gives an account of many vessels taken 
by the American privateers. It is said that one half the fleet 
are missing. One Jamaica house had 3 ships taken, and have 
stop'd payment for 400,000£, as the report is. My broker tells 
me to-day, several more must go, and many will suffer greatly 
by this great failure. The West India merchants, Jamaica 
especially, have encouraged the American revolt, and pay very 
dearly for it. 

15th. — [More captures by the privateers. M"" Geo. Apthorpe 
in England receives a letter from America, sent by E. Temple. 
Details of no moment.] 

16th. — [Letter from New York of Oct. 10, saying the last 
division of the Hessians had arrived out.] 

17th.— At the Old Jewry. . . . 

18tb. — M" Murray, &c., Robinson and wife, Dudley and 
Rome, dined with us. . . . The papers say Cap. Cornwallis in 
the Pallas, is arrived at Portsm'\ His conduct as Convoy to the 
Jamaica fleet is censured, but he has not been heard. . . . 

19th. — A very dark foggy drizzling forenoon again. . . , 
Lord Hardwicke called. . . . Lord Oxford . . . who, Lord H. 
says, is a very worthy good man. . . . 

20th. — The wind shifted to west. . . . Peggy and I dined at 
M' Robinson's . . . Navy Bills. . . . 

21st. — At Court : a very full Drawing Room, Ladies 
especially. The old Dutchess of Bedford I had not seen before, 
since my being this time in England. The Duke of Montagu 
— I never observed so much of his person and demeanor. A 
Russian lady was there with a Red Ribband, which she wore 

* This pamphlet seems to have been put forth without the author's name. 
Ko such pamphlet is found among the family papers, and it is unknown to 
the Editor. 

VOL. II. I 



114 DTAJiY AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS IIUTCniNSON. [mo. 

over her shoulder, as the Knt^ of the Bath do theirs ; had her 
son with her, a very pretty boy about tlio age of the Prince of 
Wales [Fourteen.] She was the chief adviser and actress in 
the late revolution — brought the Czarina the Badge of the 
Order which the Czar wore, with the news of his death, when 
the Czarina delivered her the Badge which slie had on herself. 
It is said that this Lady gave the Czar the doze [dose] which 
put him asleep. It's thought the present Czarina encourages 
her travelling, being rather troublesome, if not dangerous, at 
home. She has been in England before. She now desired to 
see the Queen, not in publick and at Court, but it was not 
thought proper, and submitted to come to the King to-day. I 
think she is called the Princess Deskau.* 

The Queen never spoke with more freedom and condescension 
at any time of my being at Court ; lamented the burning of 
the city of New York, &e. 

Lord Talbot was very polite ; said he hoped Ministry con- 
sulted me, but it is certain they do not. Saw Admiral Montagu 
at Court, the first time since his return from Newfoundland, 
Dined at W Jenkinson's, &c. 

Lord Buckinghamshire's appointment to be L'' L* of L-eland 
made publick, and to-morrow he is to kiss the King's hand, 
L'^^ Hillsborough, Eochfort, and Dartmouth, all talked of. 
From L*^ H.'s conversation with me, he does not like being 
passed over. L*^ D. I doubt not might have gone if he would. 
Now the JJ^^ Lieut, are obliged to reside for 4 or 5 years, the 
post is not so much coveted as it used to be. It is worth 
16,000£ a year, and 3,000£ is allowed to fix out, but the 
expense of living is great. Lord Harcourt I never saw. His 
two predecessors L*^ Townshend and 1/ Hertford do not seem 
to have been appointed from anything very shining in their 

* The Czarina Catherine II., was the daughter of Christian Augustus of 
Anhalt-Zerbst. At the age of fourteen she was married to the Duke of 
Holstein, afterwards Peter III. He was dethroned by a rapid course of 
events, in which the Empress was the principal mover, and she assumed the 
government alone June 28, O.S. 17G2. He died a prisoner a few days after- 
wards, " by an hemorrhoidal accident," as the manifesto of July 7, issued by 
the Empress, made it known to the world. She was then 33, of a fine person, 
.and great vigour of mind. The Princess who is said to have given the sleep- 
ing dose, was the talk of all Europe. 



f^ve'.] DI^RY ^ND LETTERS OF THOMAS nUTGIIINSON. 115 

characters. It is said much depends on their Secretaries. 
The two last, Maccartney and Blaquiere, wore made Ent" of the 
Bath upon their return.* The latter seems hut a moderate 
genius, and the former not much superior. He is son-in-law 
to L*^ Bute, and lately made an Irish peer. 

22nd. — Two vessells from Quebec, which they left the 25th 
of October. M"^ Mauduit has a letter of the 17th from M' 
Clarke at Montreal, and a postsc'' I think of the 20th, with 
advice of the defeat of all the rebel force on the Lake, the 
13th, 14th, and 15th of the mouth, and the King's troops 
landing at Crown Point, w^" had been set on fire and deserted, 
and proceeding to Ticouderoga, but no account of the state of 
that place. Other accounts say that Carleton had dismissed 
and sent home all the prisoners, which nobody here attempts 
to account for. One of the gun-boats with one of the 
King's officers and a number of men, was blown up in the 
action. Carleton had a prodigious force. Some blame him 
for taking up so much time in preparing it, while others think 
it was right to make success as sure as human skill can do. 
Dined at D-^ Huck's. . . . 

The letter mentioned above, as having been sent by Mr. Clarke 
from Montreal, has not been preserved ; but there is an original 
letter of Lord George Germain, in which he thanks Mr. Hutchin- 
son for having given him a sight of it, or what was apparently 
the same, though there is some little looseness in handling the 
dates. It runs as follows, in a large hand, not very clear, and 
somewhat blotted, having been folded whilst it was wet : — 

"Lord George Germain returns Governor Hutchinson many 
thanks for communicating to him the enclos'd letters : that from 
M'' Clarke of the 27th of Septemb'' gives a more unfavourable 
account of our preparations for passing the Lakes than any that 
has been yet received. Lord George begins to doubt whether the 
season will not be too far advanced for making any progress this 
campaign. 

"Pall Mall, Nov [date obscure] 1776." 

23rd. — I find nothing to-day of blowing up the gunboat, and 
it may be a mistake. Lieut* Dacres arrived with letters from 
General Carleton and Cap" Douglass. 

* Mentioned at p. 204, vol. i. 

I 2 



116 DIABY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS nUTCHINSOK [^.7^ 



Line. 



24th. — At the Temple. . . . The Gazette gives Carlton's 
letter : short, and as it is generally said, wrote as if ho was out 
of hnniour. ... In the evening went with Dr Douglass to Lord 
JMansfiold's, and Lord Chancellor's couchees, where were Lord 
Cassilis, the new Scotch Peer in Parliament, L*^ Barrington, 
S"" Charles Whitworth, Soame Jenyns, JM"" Norton, Ord, Neville, 
Day, going to Bengal Advocate General, Gilbert, Wilmot, 
Bishop of Litchfield, Sit* Sampson Gideon, &c. 

Coming home Doctor ])ouglass mentioned Doctor Franklin's 
charging Dean Tucker with saying he had applied for the 
place of Stamp Master, as a falsehood. It's true, says the 
Doctor, he did not apply for the Stamp ]\Iaster's place, but he 
applied to the Commissioners of the Stamp Office that he 
might have the stamping of all the paper, which would have 
been more profitable to him than the place of Stamp Master. 
This, the I^octor added, was told me by [blank] but he was 
living then, and I had no authority from him to make public 
Avhat he told me. 

25th. — The news from New York of an action, which has 
been rumoured for two or three days, seems to gain a degree of 
belief to-day. Mauduit shewed me copy of a letter one of his 
friends has rec'^ from Whitehaven, dated the 19th Inst., — that 
two vessels were come in from Corke, with intelligence that six 
transports which sailed from N. York the 18th of October were 
arrived at Corke: that on the 15th, 16th, and 17th, the King's 
forces attacked the rebels at King'sbridge, &c., dislodged 
Washington, killed, wounded and made prisoners 7,000, with 
the loss of 14 or 1500 of the King's forces. 

Lord Townshend sent me a letter he had received from Cap° 
Blomefield, dated Crown Point, 16th October; the account of 
the action on the Lake much the same w**^ the Gazette, only he 
says Arnold fought bravely, and that if they had all done 
as well, they would have overpowered the gunboats, and 
Carleton's scooner, before the other vessels could have joined 
them ; but the rest of the rebel vessels thought of nothing but 
an escape.* 

* Serjeant Lamb, ia his Journal of the American War, speaks in high 
terms of the bravery of Arnold on this occasion, page 111. Gen. Carleton 



Nov 
1776 



:] DIARY AND LETTERS OF TEOMA8 HtlTCEINSOK 117 



He says Carlton Lad received such intelligence of the naval 
force on the Lake, that he thought it a risque to take the army 
with him in batteaux until that force was subdued, which part 
of his conduct is much approved of in England : but then 
Blomefield disapproves of the intention to take post at Crown 
Point, and says they have a moral certainty of success at 
Ticonderoga, where they were expected, the army there lying 
every night upon their arms. A small part only of the 
army was ordered to Crown Point when Blomefield's letter was 
dated. 

Carleton is spoke of as a man of strong resentment,* as 
prejudiced against Lord George, and dissatisfied at not having a 
general command, Howe being his junior in the army ; and 
some suppose he will not do any more than keep his own 
government clear of the rebels. It is also generally known 
that Burgoyne and he do not agree. Burgoyne, it is said, is 
comiug home. 

Dined at Master Holford's. . . . 

26th. — At Lord Hardwicke's. . . . L'' H. made me a present 
of his collection of Sir D. Carleton's Letters, in Quarto.t . . . 
At Lord Gage's, where I saw the General, and Parson Mitchel 
of Brighthelmstone. L'^ G. says L'^ Derby told him he had a 
letter from Burgoyne Oct. 16'^ at Crown Put. 

27th. — Further reports by other transports, &c. [Only 
reports.] Dined with Peggy at M"" Ellis's : — M'" Dunbar, who 
]VP Ellis calls his brother-in-law, M"" Harris of Salisbury, M' 
Hooper of the Customs, W Halsell, Clerk of the H. of Commons, 
and Paxton. I have seldom dined where there has been a 



was on board the Maria, Cap. Pringle. The English fleet chased the 
Americans, Avho were making for Crown Point, and after seven hours the 
Maria -with two otheis came up with them and began the action. The 
Washington galley struck ; Arnold in the Congress galley, and five gondolas, 
ran on shore and blew up the vessels. " The killed and wounded in our 
fleet did not amount to forty." Out of fifteen American armed vessels wh'ch 
engaged our fleet in the morning, only three escaped. Upon this the 
Americans burnt all the buildings at Crown Point, and then retired to 
Ticonderoga, when Carleton landed at Crown Point, and was there joined by 
the English army. 

* Carleton was good at bottom. Anburey, i. 72, speaks of him as having 
" a good-natured, affable disposition." 

t These are not forthcoming now. 



118 nTAllY AM) LETTEnS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. [ 



Dec. 
1776. 



more sensible conversatiou. A fact mentioned by Halsell I 
never lieard before — that Burke, when he was at tlie Temple 
and about 22, wrote a then famous pamphlet to shew that a 
state of nature was to be preferred to a state of society, — a well 
wrote piece to imitate Lord Boliubroke, and whicli I remember 
was believed in America to be wrote by him, but was after- 
wards said to be the performance of a Templar. 

A cold day. At Kensington before dinner, M'* Heald's, and 
at Brompton. 

28th. — In the city. . . . Dined with Gen. Gage. , . . 

29th. — [Rumours unconfirmed.] 

30th. — In Parliament Street I met Lord Amherst. [Talk 
about Carleton.] 

M'' Strahan, and afterwards Soamc Jenyns called upon me. 
Strahan says he has under Franklin's hand, extract of his 
letter which he wrote to Boston, to accompany the letters to 
"Whately, which Franklin sent there, and Strahan promises to 
send it to me. 

December 1st. — At the Old Jewry. . . , 

2nd.— Called upon M'' Ellis. ... 

3rd. — M' Nicolis, Lieutenant in the navy, who says he 
dined several times with me at Boston, called, being lately 
returned from the West Indies. ... At Hardwicke's. . . . 

4th. — In the coach with M"" Greene to Highgate. . . . 

5th. — Reports . . . groundless. At Lord Huntingdon's. . . . 

6th. — At the King's Levee. Court in mourning one week for 
a German Princess. . . . 

Just as I was going to bed a soUicitor brought me a letter 
from M'' Robinson of the Treasury, desiring I would assist the 
sollicitor in procuring evidence to facts to be proved in a cause 
against some printers of the account of the affair at Lexington, 
w"^^ is to be had at 9 o'clock to-morrow morning. The sollicitor 
wanted one to swear that Lexington and Concord are in 
Mass^ Bay. I wrote to Flucker to desire him to attend, and 
gave the letter to a servant, with a charge to go to Flucker's 
and call him up before 8 o'clock, which in these dark foggy 
days is as soon as anybody inclines to rise. 

7th. — The printers found guilty after a vei-y short trial. . . 



Dec. 

1776. 



] DIARY AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 119 



8th. — At the Temple. In the evening I hear it said that 
an express is come from Portsmouth with an account of a fire 
in the Dock-yard there. 

9 th. — Ne\YS of the fire at Portsmouth proves too true. It 
began in the Store-house for hemp and cordage, which house 
is said to be wholly burnt, being a very long building ; but 
what value of stores is consumed is not mentioned. 
, An account in the papers taken from tlie Philadelphia 
papers, of the proceedings of the Howes through Lord 
Drummond, and afterwards through Sullivan, with the Con- 
ference held with the Howes and Franklin, John Adams, and 
Eutledge from the Congress, all printed by the Congress, 
causes great speculation. Lord TowDshend called in a perfect 
rage, and hints that they may make what agreement they will, 
but Parliament must finally approve it. I supposed it to be 
true that there has been such a Conference, but doubt not Lord 
Howe will deny some part of what the Congress publish. 

Met M"" Fitch, King's Advocate for IMassachusets Bay, who 
arrived Saturday evening from Ireland. L* Governor Oliver 
called. Called upon Sir Eobert Eden in Queen Street — from 
home. 

10th. — k. Man-of-War from Quebec, sailed about a week 
in November.* General Burgoyne and his Aide-du-carap 
come in her : left Carleton at Crown Point, but expected soon 
at Quebec. Burgoyne, it is said, went out with a resolution to 
return before winter. . . . 

11th. — M' W. Palmer, son of my old friend Eliakim Palmer, 
long since deceased, dined with me. Col. Phips, Vassall, L* 
Gov., and Paxton. In the evening at Lord Hardwicke's, 
where was Sir Francis Gierke, Aide-du-camp to Burgoyne. . . . 

Under this same date the following entry is found in the Diary 
of Judge Oliver — 

" December 11. — This day 1 attended the Levee of Lord George 
Germain, his Majesty's Secretary of State for America, where, 
in private audience, his Lordship treated me with great politeness, 
affability, and friendship. His character in private life is amiable, 

* AnLurey, writing from Quebec, Oct. 30, says, — "General Carleton arid 
General Burgoyne are both here, the latter of whom sails for England in a 
few daySi" 



i20 DIARY AND LETTERS OP THOMAS IIUTCIIINSON. {^^^l 

his good souse qualifies him from his department, and his firmness 
of mind renders him equal to the suhdual of an American 
Eebcllion." 

12th.— At W Jenkinson's. . . . 

13th. — A Fast on account of the American war, observed 
with strictness and great external devotion, the churches 
crowded more than ever known on Sundays,* and shops 
everywhere shut, and few people to be seen in the streets. . . . 

14th. — In the city. . . . 

15th.— At the Old Jewry.— M"" White. Dined with Peggy 
at Lord Ilardwicke's. W Crinsley [?] from Quebec called. 
He says ho saw an oflicor there who left Crown Point Nov. 2ud 
in the morning, and Carieton with the last of the forces, was 
to leave in the afternoon. Carleton's nephew, with a party of 
Indians, bro't off 100 head of cattle from within a mile of 
Ticonderoga. . . . 

16th. — At Brompton llow.f . . . 

17th. — A letter to the Admiralty. [Nothing definite.] 

18. — No news yet. . . . Brook Watson arrived from 
Quebec. . . . 

19th. — The despatches by the Foivey, and Lord Dunmore 
who was passenger, come to town. No letter from Gen' Howe, 
but one from Lord Howe to the Admiralty. It is agreed that 
part of the troops crossed over to West Chester from the East 
Eiver, and attacked the rebels in their entrenchments, and 
drove tliem to the main body at Kiugsbridge. It is said near 
200 of the K.'^ troops are killed. CoP Carr, Cap" Creagh, [?] 
and other officers ; that the rebels a day or two after, retreated 
from Iviugsbridge to the Manor of Courtland, leaving about 
2000 in Fort Washington at Kingsbridge, and that Howe 
with the body of the army, was pursuing the enemy. 

In the evening Lord Townshend sent me a long letter he 
had received from Major Dilkes, dated Nov. 3rd, with a 
particular account of the action. A detachment or brigade 
lauded first, the 11th, and had some skirmishes: then the 17th 

* Accordmg to Augustus De Morgan's Booh of Almanacs, it was now 
Friday. 

t Where his son Thomas, with his wife and children, was then living. 



f^Te.] Dl^^y ^ND LETTM8 OP THOMAS HVTCElNSON. 121 

— 25th, and at last the 28th October, when was the principal 
action. He speahs very contemptuously of the enemy : calls 
them Eascals, Cowards, &c., and they seemed to be well 
fortified ; but it is certain they killed near 200 ; and though 
the King's troops had the advantage of pursuing them, yet it 
does not appear that the loss was much different. 

Wrote to my brother [Foster] at Halifax by M'' Selkrigg. 

20th.— Dined at M' Masere's. . . . 

21st. — Wrote this evening to W Ellis a very particular 
account of the proceedings at New York, from the 11th to the 
28th of October. . . . 

22nd.— At the Temple. . , . 

23rd. — Gilbert Deblois arrived in one of the transports from 
New York. More letters appear which encourage hopes of 
reconciliation. I think the Machine too unwieldy for the 
Congress to manage, and keep the several parts together. In 
the eveniug at M' Copley's. . . . 

24th. — Doctor Chandler read part of a letter from his cor- 
respond'' Ingolls at New York, which gives an ace* of the 
negotiations : — says that Lord Howe thought it necessary 
upon his arrival, his powers should be known : sent a message 
by a flagg to " O. Washington Esq.," which was sent back 
unopened, Washington saying he knew no such person : that 
Col° Paterson was sent a second time, under pretence of 
demanding the discharge* of the regiment taken at S* John's, 
who were to be exchanged for the men taken at the Cedars. 
What passed then he does not say, but a flag afterwards came 
from Washington by — Keed, his secretary, who married De 
Berdt's daughter, and wlio flourished away upon the oppressions 
and tyrannies which had made it necessary for the Colonists 
to take up arms. He was cut short by Lord Howe, who de- 
manded what message he had, or whether any ? " He came 
to be informed upon what terms his L^ship proposed to treat." 
Lord Howe said he did not propose to treat while they con- 
tinued in arms : that upon their laying down their arms and 

* The word " discharge " has been subsequently underUned, and the word 
" release " has been written over it, thus giving the reader his choice of the 
two words. It is in the same handwriting as the Diary. 



122 DIAltY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON, [f^^^. 

submitting to Government, he was authorised to give them 
assurances of everything they could in reason desire : if they 
refused and chose fii^'hting rather than submission, he wouhi 
give them assurances they shouhl havu enough of it. 

Lord Howe also sent copies of his Declaration to Amboy 
to be d'' [delivered ?] to the Conimnnder of the rebel forces 
there, with letters or coi)ics of the Declaration, under covers 
directed to several of the Congress, which were forwarded to 
them, but treated with neglect. 

After the battle on Brookland, [Brooklyn] when Sullivan was 
taken prisoner, he informed the two brothers that he did not 
doubt if he might have liberty to go to the Congress, he 
should be able to convince them of the expedience of appoint- 
ing i)ersons to hear what his Lordship had to offer, and that 
it would be attended with success, &c. Sidlivan was allowed 
to go upon his parole, and returned in 8 days. Soon after a 
flagg came from the Congress to desire safe conduct for 
Franklin, Jn° Adams, and Eutledge, which was granted, and 
tliey came in, and upon the first meeting Lord Howe desired to 
know in what character they considered themselves ? John 
Adams answered — " As Delegates from the Free and Inde- 
pendent States of North ^Vmerica." Upon which Lord Howe 
said that he had nothing to offer them, and withdrew. Whether 
this be a full account, or whether what the Congress has 
published passed at this time, or whether they have heard 
what Lord Howe may have said at other times, and in other 
companies, and made it part of this conversation, time may 
discover. 

Dined with Sergeant Ambler, &c. 

25th. — At the Temple. . . . 

26th. — Set out with Peggy in [a] postchaise ^ past nine, 
and arrived at Tylney Hall by three. M" S^ John and wife, 
and a Clergyman M^ Courtenay, dined there : no company 
besides the Chaplain M'' Jones, in the family. 

27th. — An uncomfortable day : cold, especially in this vast 
large house : squalls of snow : probably rain in London. The 
Duke and Dutchess of Bolton dined at M"" Ellis's, with Miss 
Lowther, sister to the Dutchess, and to Sir James Lovvther, 



Dec. 

1776 



.] DIARY AND LETTERS OP THOMAS HUTCniNSOK 123 



and a Clergyman, M^" Pawlet, a natural son to the last Duke of 
Bolton but one, by the famous Polly Pecham, her name, from 
the part she acted in the Beggar's Opera, but her real name 
[was] Feuton. The Duke had three or four children by her 
while his Dutchess lived, and as soon as she was dead married 
her, but had no child afterwards, and the title went to a 
collateral Pawlet, brother to the present Duke, who died 
without issue, and so the title came to this brother. 

This Clergyman's mother was an ordinary girl on the stage, 
employed on some occasions, and in a starving condition, just 
before W Gay wrote his Beggar's Opera : taking the part of 
Polly, she charmed the town ; but the D. of Bolton was the 
man who took her off the stage. She did many kind things 
■while she was the Duke's mistress, and behaved extremely well 
while she was his Dutchess ; and at his death was supposed to 
have had 50 or 60 thous'* pounds of his fortune, but then 
married a tall Irishman, Kelly, spent her fortune, turned sot, 
and died miserably, and neglected providing for her children. 
This son has said she was the most unnatural mother that ever 
man had. The present Duke is no genius, but is an affable 
easy talking man, and neither his Dutchess nor he are any way 
haughty or assuming.* 

28th.— With M' Ellis and W Jones to Odiam, &c. 

29th. — I kept house, the weather being cold ; and a cold 
Avhich I brought from London not decreasing. 

The post brings M"* Ellis, in writing, I suppose from 
W D'Oyly, as it is from Whitehall, intelligence brought from 
Linn [Lynn] in Mass. Bay, November 26"', that the day before 
an express came from Gen. Lee, advising the taking Fort 
Washington on the 16"' by storm, with 3000 men killed and 
made prisoners : that orders came to Linn from Boston to send 

* John Gay was born in 1G88, and the Beggar's Opera appeared in 1727, 
some fifty years prior to the date in the Diary to which we have arrived. 
Polly Pecham was in her theatrical glory as long as the Opeia was popular. 
Her silly second marriage produced the results that might have been expected. 
She would have been a wise woman had she maintained her widowhood as 
the unfettered Duchess of Bolton. As to one of her sons speaking of her as 
an unnatural mother and neglecting her children, perhaps, being now linked 
to a sot and a spendthrift, she may have lost her control over her resources, 
and no longer able to do the thing she would. 



124 DIARY AND LETTEHS OF THOMAS TTUTCHINSON. [f/^f^. 



every 4'" man to supply the place of every 5"' \vbo were to 
be discharged the 31 Dec.; but many said they would not go: 
that Washington was at Kips * Kill, and TjCO at an advanced 
post between Kipskill and Kingsbridge. 

This account is very probable. The intelligence is further, 
that the people in ]\[asa'' said, upon the taking of Fort Washing- 
ton, it was all over with them, and wished they had hearkened 
to the proposals made them. This may have been the 
sentiment of some, but I fear is not yet the general sentiment. 

30th.— M"" Ellis and lady, M' Agar, my daughter and I, 
dined at the Duke of Bolton's at Hackwood, where we found 
Sir Philip Jennings, Oust, [or Clerk], W Corbet and his wife, 
Lady Augusta, daughter of Lord Bute, ]\F Lane, who I can 
learn nothing of, and the Duke's family. 

In the evening came in from London Sir James Lowther, 
and Sir Mich. Fleming, neither of whom I had ever seen 
before, and a Clergyman of the name of Watson. They 
* reported that Cap" Gardner was arrived from N. York: 
confirmed the taking Fort Washington, and also Fort Consti- 
tution, with the loss of 700 of the King's troops, which latter 
circumstance I hope is not true. . . . 

31st. — I must do penance to-day for the fault of yesterday, 
and not go abroad tho' the weather is very fine. MJ Jenkinson 
and his young son were a-bed when we came home last night, 
and breakfasted with us this morning, coming yesterday from 
Sherborn. W Ellis receives a Gazette extraordinary of yester- 
day from W D'oyly with intelligence to Nov. 30, when Fort 
Washington, with 2700 men, and Fort Lee, with between 1 and 
200 had surrendered, the last on the Jersey side, from whence, 
or the environs, 2000 men narrowly escaped. Gen^ Howe says 
he did not think it necessary to follow Washington, or to that 
effect, which occasions speculation in this family. 

Lord Cornwallis was in pursuit of the rebels, who were 
retreating towards Brunswick. How far he was likely to follow 
is not said. As he had 7 or 8000 men, it is the opinion here 
he would run no risk if he marched to Philadelphia. 

* Should be Peek's. This foot-note is in the Diary, and added subsequently 
by Gov. H. 



Pec. 
1116 



.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 125 



I wrote to M"^ Winslow. . . . 

Thus goes out the year 1776, at which period the fortunes of 
the Americans were very low. The series of disasters that they 
had suffered immediately following the battle of Brooklyn, had 
reduced and demoralised their army, and had created an alarm 
bordering on despair amongst all orders of men who had cast their 
lot into the cause of open rebellion. If the Howes had followed up 
the advantages gained on Long Island, and had prosecuted them 
rapidly and vigorously through all the transactions that took 
place at the subsequent battles, and the retreat to Philadelphia, 
it is not too much to suppose that tbey would have brought the 
war to a speedy close. Most of the historians who have followed 
these events have commented on the unaccountable tactics of 
General Howe, and it appears that his conduct did not now 
escape the notice of Mr. Ellis's party at Tylney Hall, as mentioned 
above. 



( 12C ) [^,T^: 



CHAPTEE II. 

CONTINUATION OF THE DIARY, 
BEGINNING WITH THE YEAR 1777. 

January 1st. — A letter from my son [Thomas] at Brompton, 
enclosing the Gazette, all being as well as I left them. 

M'' Ellis's letters from London say that L** Cornwallis, Win- 
chelsea, and Shuldara are now on their passage for England. 
This puts an end to all expectation of further service this 
campaign, and affords another subject for Newspaper animad- 
versions, the plan of American measures, and the execution 
of it. 

2nd. — BP Jenkinson with his son left . . . [Bad cold.] 

3rd. — [Confined with his cold.] 

4th. — Upon the whole, I feel better . . . [M'' Paxton and 
A dm' Montagu arrived.] 

5th. — [Cold still bad.] The post brings me a letter and 
N. York newspapers from M'" Maudnit. A Proclamation of L** 
and Gen. Howe, promising pardon to all without exception, 
who shall within 60 days come in and subscribe a declaration 
to remain in peaceable obedience to the King, and not to take 
up arms against his authority, nor excite or encourage others 
to do it. Mauduit ?ays it is easier to obtain pardon for rebelling 
than not rebelling : for at S. Carolina they have hung a Scotch 
Presbyter[ian] ^Minister for being inimical to the liberties of 
America. M'' Ellis disapproves of a promise of pardon without 
exception. It looks as if they intended to keep possession of 
the Jerseys, and to take possession of Ehode Island, Clinton 
having sailed the 1st of December. 

Keturned the papers by post in letters to M"" Mauduit. 

6th.— A cold dav. . . . 



iTj".] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS IIUTCHINSON. 127 

7th. — A very cold day : the water freezes fast in my cham- 
ber. . . . [Speculations about the future of America.] 

8th. — The cold increases . . . set out at 10, and was in London 
10 minutes after 3*. . . 

9th. — Kept house . . . 

10th. — I walked as far as High Street. . . . 

11th. — In the city to visit M''® Grant . . . from Newport, 
Rhode Island. She thinks the town of Newport will be burnt 
... I asked if she saw my tenant Pierce , . . she answered 
No. . . . 

12th. — A M'et damp day . . . 

13thi. — A warm fair day . . . 

14th. — Lieutenant B ronton, returned from Halifiix, called 
upon me. . . Dined at M'" Jackson's, South" Buildings, my two 
sons E. and W. Found Gov. Pownall of the company, who was 
civil.f . . . 

Gov. Pownall said that a son of Sir Gilbert Eliot, coming 
through France, stopped at a house of Madame — I forget the 
name — where he saw Ben. Franklin, Silas Deane, and the 
Duke de Choiseul. 

15th.— Called upon W Ellis. At the King's Levee. Dined 
at S"" James Wright's . . . 

16th. — M' Ellis called and spent half an hour. . . , 

* An original letter of Jan. 8, from Mr, Jonathan Binney at Halifax, 
informs us that he had sent the Gov. two quintals of fish. Mr. Binney 
thinks that the American game is nearly played out. " The American game 
I hope is near over," he says, "as I make no doubt long before this, General 
Howe is at Philadelphia, and General Clinton at Boston, as he had got 
possession of Rhode Island long since." 

t This is faint praise. Pownall and the Governor were not exactly in 
accord when in America, on their principles of government. The latter was 
strictly a constitutional man, and perhaps he knew the Americans well 
enough to know, that wliere the sjnrit of liberty was disposed to run into the 
superlative, that spirit, for prudential reasons, rather needed the curb ; whilst 
the former, not dreaming of danger, sought popularity and won it, by not 
discouraging the growing fashion. The relations between them were there- 
fore a little strained. And when Pownall came to England, he supported 
the aspirations of the Americans in Parliament, until he saw that they were 
advancing from liberty into open rebeUion. He had sown the Dragun's 
tooth, and now the monster was ram|iant in the land ; so he turned about, 
and making overtures to Lord North, he entered the House this time to 
support the Tory Ministry, and he resisted the pretentions of the very people 
whom he had once encouraged. If he was out of humour with Mr. Hutchin- 
son, he was probably as much out of humour with himself. 



128 7)7.-17? r AND LETTERS OF THOMAS IIUTOniNSOK [itj"^; 

17th. — An cxcccdiDg thick fog. . . . 

18th. — Celebrated as the Queen's birthday. At Court : Peggy 
also, with ]\I" Ellis. . . . 

To tho Chief Justice Pctor Oliver the scene at Court was a 
novelty, and tho following description of it may be extracted from 
his Uiary : — 

" January 18th. — This day is celebrated as the Queen's Birthday. 
She was born on 19th May 17-44, but it coming so near to tho King's 
Birthday, who was born on 4th Juno 1738, and some inconveni- 
ences arising on the days happening so near to each other, the 
Queen's is always celebrated Jan. 18th. 

" I went to Court, and here appeared brilliancy in its splendor. 
Before their Majesties appeared, 3 or 4 of the young Princes were 
introduced. The Prince of Wales exhibited an open, sensible, and 
active temper : Prince Frederick, tho Bishop of Osnaburgh, is a fine 
youth with a manly, sensible behavior : one of tho young Princes, 
aV 5 or 6 years old, behaved very genteelly, and chatted a great deal 
w**" the foreign Ambassadors and others. Virgil's — Jam nova pro- 
genies, recurred to the mind. 

" Their Majesties soon entered : the King was richly dressed in 
honor to the Queen, and was very polite and aiTable to the company : 
the Queen appeared in the simplex munditiis, for she is not in high 
dress on her Birthday, but on the King's Birthday she shines with 
brilliance. Her Majesty walk'd round and conversed with every 
lad}^ ; and tho' she is not a perfect beauty as a meer object, yet 
her sweet temper, her royal condescension, and her engaging 
affability, rivalled the charms of Venus. She is of so amiably a 
good temper, and adorned with so much virtue, and meddles so 
little with public affairs, that whenever Scandal herself recollects 
her Majesty, she at the same time recollects tho — digito compresse 
labellum. 

" But amidst this parade of Eoyalty, which is necessary, I could 
not help pitying those who were obliged to encounter the fatigues 
of it ; but every species of roses hath its disagreeable prickles." 

19th.— At the Old Jewry. 

Mauduit called in the evening. The Gazette of last night 
offers pardon to all but the principal offender for discovery of 
the persons concerned in setting fire to two ships, and attempt- 
ing to set fire to several houses, whereby the whole city with 



i^^i^ DIABY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTOBINSON. 129 

its vast wealth, was in danger of being destro} ed ; and sub- 
scriptions bad been made for a reward to tlie amount of 500£ 
or upwards. 

Drizzb'ng weather. 

20th. — My son E., my daughter, and I, dined with 3P Paul 
Wentworth. S' Charles Douglass, W Duke, of Barbadoes, 
Col° Phips, and Yassall,* Perkins and wife, and Gov'" Went- 
worth's lady. Paul Wentworth says Le?, who is called Junius 
Americanus, is in France with Franklin, and that Deane and 
Lee are joined with Franklin by the Congress. Strange if Lee 
should return to England, and no notice be taken of it. 

S'' Cha. Douglass was Commander of the Iris at Quebec, and 
upon his return was made a Bart. ; — a plain open man without 
ostentation or vanity : drinks no wine, and he says scarce any 
other drink but tea twice a day. 

The city of Bristol said to be on fire, when an express came 
away the 19th at 8 o'clock in the morning. 

21st. — Account from Bristol that the fire was suppressed on 
the 19th after burning down a row of warehouses, but combus- 
tible matter discovered to be laid with design in divers parts of 
the city, which keeps the inhabitants in terror. . . . 

A ship which had been taken by the Americans bro't into 
Plimouth by the crew, which rose upon their captors. A report 
on 'Change that Clinton had possessed himself of R'' Island 
without opposition. 

A master of a ship named Hill, who had been taken and 
carried into Plimouth, N. England, bro't a letter to my son E. 
from his wife, dated the 20*'' Nov. He came away the 22"*^ to 
Nantz, and from France to England. They had not heard of 
Washington's leaving Kingsbridge, and talked as if they ex- 
pected Government would be tired : were full of business made 
by the privateers. The paper money sank fast. My daughter 

* " Col. Phips, tlie Higli Sheriff of Middlesex, [America], was oLliged to 
promise not to serve any Processes of Courts, and retired to Boston for 
protection." 

" William Vassall, Esq., a man of fortune and quite inoffensive in his 
puliliclv. conduct, tho' a Loyalist, was travelling with his Lady from Boston 
to his scat at Bristol in Piliode Island Government, about CO miles from 
Boston, were pelted by the mob in Bristol, to the endangering of their lives." 
— Notes by Ch. Just. Oliver. 

VOL. II. li 



130 DIAliY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON, [j 



Jttii. 

111. 



[iu-lawj says, if you have ii'.iytliiug to })art witli, you may buy 
as much money with it as you ph'aso. 

S 22iul. — Tho Merciu'ij, Jam?3 ^[oiitagu, arrived yesterday at 
Portsmouth, ami an express to-day with letters from Ciiutou 
aud 8'' V. Parker Dec. 8, from llhode Island, wliieli they took 
possession of the 7"', without any op[)3sition, tlie rcLcls retreating 
to Bristol Perry, which tlioy crossid, about oOOO : three ot 
Ilopkius's squadron, aud three or four smaller privateers running 
up to Providence, where H"" P. P. writes, he should give a good 
account of them. Clinton was sending forces to take possession 
of Couanicut aud Prudence. 

A ship with large quantity of cloathing taken by one of 
Hopkins's squadron. . . . 

23rd. — At Lord North's Levee to introduce M"^ Fitch. 

]\P Hutchinson* of (J. Anne Street, who formerly was Gov. 
of St. Helena, dying last week, the papers published the death 
of William Hutchinson Esq., late Gov. of Mass. Bay. This 
occasioned many complim*^ to me from the Bp. of Oxford, S'' 
Cha. \\'entworth, Col. Egerton, M^" Bacon, &c., &c., on seeing 
me alive. 

2ith. — Reduced to writing the account which Cap'^ Hill gave 
of the state of Boston, Plimouth, — and sent it in a letter to 
Lord George Germain. Scraps of divers of my letters printed 
to-day with liemarks in the FulHich Leger, most of which had 
been printed in other paper.-j. 

25tli. — . . . My son E., D'' Oliver, and ])an. OHver, went as 
mourners to Croydon to the funeral of Miss Katy Hutchinson, 
one of the daughters of the late Eliakim H. Esq. 

26th. — At the Temple church. , . . 

27th.— At Lord Hardwicke's. . . . 

28th. — In the city, and called on M"" Palmer, Devonshire 
Square, but missed him. At D'^ Cauer's. I spake to the 
Bishop of London at Court in the Doctor's behalf, and to-day 
the Bishop called, and brought an order on Mess''^ Drummond 
for 100£, pay* to me for the use of Doctor Caner. 

It is said to-day that Clinton found 4000 hhds. of sugar in 
Newport, 1900 in possession of one man, all which he had laid 
* I am not iufornied wlio this Mr, Ilutcliinsou may have bceu. 



ft^i^ DTARt AND LETTERS OF THOMAB BUTQEINBON. 131 

hands on. Account of an American privateer of 10 guns and 
90 men, bro't in to Plimoutli, taken off Cape Finisterre. 

29th.— Called on I\F D'Oyley. He says the Howes have 
explained the Proclamation in their letters : have intimated 
that at the expiration of the 60 days, other measures will be 
proper for such as stand out. 

]\P Mason called. He has been 11 years in England upon 
the business of the Mohegan Indians : came to ask information 
about Laconia : supposes Jn" Mason to whom it was granted 
was his ancestor, and has petitioned to have the grant con- 
firmed, or such part as has not been since granted or possessed. 
I told him Mason was not his ancestor, and that if he had been, 
it was a naked grant, which had been neglected 150 years, and 
nobody could set up a claim under it. 

Lord Hardwicke called and sat near an hour : had much of 
the history of his father the late Chancellor — told his sou, not 
long before the Chancellor's death, he feared this would be a 
reign full of troubles. When asked what he thought of M"^ 
Grenville's scheme for taxing America, said — They had not 
been used to taxes : told Abp. Seeker, when he proposed 
sending a Bishop, that the Americans left England to avoid 
Bishops. The Chancellor was a Churchman, but a very 
moderate one. 

I received 100 by tlie Archbishop of Canterbury's order, 
from Drummond's, for D^' Caner ; the Bp. of London in a note 
desires I would not pay it all in one payment : — I suppose 
because none have had more than 50£ at once. I paid him 
50£, and have the other for another time. 

oOth. — Letters to M"^ Lane from Corke, a Master of his being 
arrived in a transport from Khode Island, which sailed the 20 
of December — says the troops had embarked, and were within 
6 miles of Providence: that Clinton had let them know, if 
they burnt the town or the ships, he would give no quarter. 

31st. — [Keports — unconfirmed.] News of a ship with 412 
hhds. of tobacco from Maryland, on ace* of the Congres?, bound 
to France, brought in to Liverpool. The ship's company con- 
sisted of eight seamen, Americans, and eight Europeans, four 
of whom had been in American service before, a Master and 

K 2 



132 DUET AND LETTEIiS OF TIIOMAS nUTCHINSON. [J^f{. 

Supercargo. The four European?, "svho had never been before 
employctl, laid the plot and sounded the other four, who 
promised to be neuter. The lirst four took an opportunity to 
secure the Master and Supercargo when in the cabin together, 
and then the other four joined aud subdued the rest of the 
company : — secured a great number of letters and papers, 
which are brought to the Admiralty. Tlie ship was a large 
transport, which had been taken with Highlanders, and must 
go to the owners. The cargo, supposed worth 18 or 20,000£, 
can have no legal owner or claimer, and must be the King's, 
but its thought will be given to the eight sailors. 

I met M' Watts of the Council of New York. . . . 

February 1st. — M'' De Grey, of Chandos Street, Cavendish 
Square, called while I was at S"" James Wright's, who gives up 
all his intelligence from Georgia of a turn in favour of G*^, 
as ill founded. Francklin,* who was 1} Gov. of Nova Scotia, 
aud put out to make way for Arbuthnot, a man said to be very 
unfit, has a new office made for him — Curator or Guardian of 
Nova Scotia Indians, with 300£ a year. They are so few in 
number, that it must le a meer nominal place without 
business. 

[The intelligence in Lane's letters not confirmed.] 

2nd. — Old Jewry. . . . The tobacco ship Avas taken by fuur 
sailors only ; the other four Europeans being sick in their 
cabins. . . . 

3rd. — A fine sunshiny morning. . . . 

M'' Lane's Master [of his ship] is come to town from Ireland : 
says he saw Clinton within 5 miles of Providence, Avho enquired 
the state of the country — any stone walls, dc. ? and the Master 
answered None ; and now says the army might have marched 
into tonn without opposition, but were waiting for artillery, 
d'c. He thinks they dare not burn the ships for fear Clinton 
should destroy the tov/n : says, not an eighth of the people of 
Newport had left the town, and the rest in quiet possession of 
their houses. . . . 

4th. — In the city at my Banker's. Mauduit and Lane and 
Eraser. Eraser says their Master left Newport the 17 Decemb., 

* Xot of the family of Benjamin Franklin, The name differently Bpclt. 



nlr".] DIABY ^ND LETTEBS OF THOMAS EUTCEINSON. 138 

and Clinton had only embarked that day, which differs from the 
former account of the time of his sailing, and the place. When 
he left Clinton, a ship [was] bro't in by a man-of-war, bound 
with fish from Newbury Port to Bilboa, Tilestone, Master, one 
of D"" Pemberton's JMeeting, who is come to town. It is said he 
was in Boston December 2nd. 

Lord Huntingdon called. . . . 

5th. — At M"^ Palmer's in the Temple, and left my name. 
Cap"^ Goodwin was sent to my house by Mess" Lane and 
Eraser. He says the Master of the transport had orders the day 
before he sailed to be ready at an hour's warning, and that it 
was generally supposed they would go up to Patuxet, but the 
weather was very cold when he sailed, and the wind continued 
at NW 12 days, and they ran to the E of the Western Islands. 
He says he knew of nobody of any note who left Rhode Island 
upon the troops landing, except one John Ceilings, and those 
who had been concerned in privateers, and that the day before 
he sailed Judge Bowles, a great rebel, sent in his name to the 
General, to take the benefit of the Proclamation. 

I called on M"^ Rome. 

6th. — Called on M'' D'Oyley, where saw the famous planner 
of grounds — Browne, . . , 

This day Judge Oliver went to pay his respects to Lord North. 
Tho following is taken from his Diary : — 

" Gth. — Having never seen L^ North, I attended his Levee at the 
Treasury, wlaere were many of the first chaiacters, and where I 
was politely received by his Lordship. I pitied him for the fatigue 
which he suii'ered in fepeaking to each person, it biinging to mind 
those two lines of Cowley the Poet, w*^*" though they were designed 
for the Attender, yet may be very justly applied to the person 
waited upon, viz. — 

'Were I to curse the man I Late, 
Let attendance and depcndance be his fate.' 

" But such parade is quite necessary in political life : it keeps up 
distinctions, without which, as there is so little publick virtue, 
goverment would verge too much towaids anarchy — perhaps it leans 
already beyond the centre of gravity ; but unhappy they who hold 



131 DUnY AND LETTEnS OF THOMAS nUTCniNSOK [l^f{. 



tho Rcalo of I'lnpiro, snLjoct to thi^so forms, Avhich ovoiy wiso man 
despises, aiul only oiuluros tho fati<];nes from tlio sole consideration 
of their tondoncy to support tho dignity and wclfaro of tho con\mon 
>voal." 

7th. — Pined at ^randuit's , , . 

8th.— At Tiamhoth with Chandlor to thank tho Archbp. for 
tlic 1()0£ to Dr. Canor . . . 

Account in the paper to-day of Lady Fanlkner's death, Avifo 
to Gov. Townall.* 

Wrote to my tenant ricrco at Conaniciit, t nndor oovor to 
Gov. Wanton, and both nnder cover to M' Walter, or in his 
absence to W Isaac Winslow, New York. 

An astonisliing account of a forgery. D"^ Dod, Preacher at 
tlie J\[agdalen, having lived vainly much beyond his income, 
went to a Broker to raise 4200£ on a bond of Lord Chester- 
field's, who, it was pretended, desired privacy. The Broker 
procnred the money, and the person to whom the bond was 
made pay\ gave an order on S'' Charles Baymond and co. 
Bankers, and tho money was paid to Dod. The Broker 
observing there was but one witness, signed as another witness 
himself. By accident, in transacting the affair, ink was spilt 
on L'^ Chesterfield's name, and npon observing it, either the 
Broker or the Obligor, tho't it best to have a fair bond, and 
went to Lord C. to desire him to take it back, and execute 
another. L'^ C. said he never gave a bond to any man in his 
life. This caused immediate inquiry after Dod, who was called 
out of his room from a large company just going to dinner. 
He sent in to desire his wife to go to dinner with the company, 
and he was carried to S'' John Fielding, who committed him to 
the Counter. Last night and to-day he was carried before the 
L** Mayor, and committed to Newgate. The parties complain- 
ing were loth to be bound over to prosecute, but it was insisted 
on. Dod was L'^ Chesterfield's Tutor, who came of age about a 

* She was Ilarriet, daiiglifer of Lieut. Gen. Churclnll, and Lad been widow 
of Sir Everard Faulkner. She died Feb. G. 

t Conanicut is an island in Ehode Island bay. Mr. H. inherited an estate 
on it in right of his wife Margaret, daughter and co-heiress of William 
Ranford. It was contiscatcd with, the others, but jart of its value recovered. 



frtf] I>JAnY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS IlUTCniNSON. 135 

year ago, and gave him a living of 300£ p an., and it is said that 
for several years he has lived at the rate of 1200. Three 
thousand pounds of the money Dod returned, and gave an order 
for the rest, except 4 or 50 0£. 

This is the strangest infatuation, so soon after Perreau's* 
detedion that ever was : — Quos Bens vnJf ijcrdere, dr. Dod has 
wrote several pieces in high strains of devotion. I once heard 
a very pathetic Address from him to the Magdalens ; but his 
character has been very suspicious some time. The enemies of 
religion will be apt to take the advantage, and triumph. 

Peggy blooded by D'" Heberden's advice, liaving a bad cough, 
and pain in her side, f 

9th. — At the Temple : Dean of Eoch ester. At Court, and 
in the Presence Chamber. Lord Eavensworth, who I had never 
seen before, spake to me. . , . 

10th.— [Easterly winds.] 

11th. — The Bill for suspend. Hab. Corp. carried last night 
in H. of C. by 190 odd to 40 odd.J The Opposition loses i(s 
weight. [Speculations about Howe, Clinton, &c.] 

12th. — A wet cold day : I kept at home. Lord Hardwicke 
called to tell me Wallis was arrived: left Eli^' Island 7"^ or 8"^ 
of Jan^. No attempt on Providence : no other news. He says 
the N. York paper has been produced, which mentions the 
removal of the Congress from Philadelphia. He says Ihe 
Master of the vessel w'^^ brought it, received it from the 
Master of a vessel bound to the W. Indies, who reported that 
Howe was witbin 5 miles of Philadelphia. L*^ H. adds, that 
he has it divers ways, that D"" Franklin is down in the mouth, 
and much neglected. 

12th. § — Cap. Wallace, in Ihe Exi:)eriment, came to town 
from Bh'* Island, which he left the 8*'^ Jan^. 

Clinton had done nothing : its said he is coming home. The 

* See back Feb. 17, 1776. 

f Peggy was now beginning to go down bill. 

% Adolphns and the Continuator of Hnme both say 112 to 35. The 
object of this Bill was " to detain and secure persons charged with, or 
suspected of liigh treason, committed in North America, or on the high seas, 
cr the crime of piracy." The numbers are corrected further on — the 18th. 

§ The " 12th " occurs twice over in the Diary. 



13G DIARY AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS nUTCHINSON. [_l'l]\ 

taking tlio Hessians is confirniGcl. It's said tho Amoricans had 
cloathcd thomselvcs with tho roginiontuls they had taken, and 
the Hessians took them for part of tlie British forces. They 
had a report at Newport, tliat Lesley had inarched and 
rooovercd the Hessians, but tliey say it was report only. They 
further say that TiCO was taken prisoner by Col" Ilarcourt, who 
went out with 20 or 30 light horse to reconnoitre, and meeting 
a countryman, they compelled him by threats, and he informed 
of Lee's being in a farm house, at a few miles distance. The 
light horse went immediately : were fired on by the Guard, 
which fled. Lee fired two pistols from the house, and struck 
Col" Harcourt's helmet; but being threatened with certain 
death if they did not surrender, Lee threw open the doors, and 
claimed the benefit of the Proclamation, but was told it was too 
late. Other reports say that he told CoP Harcourt that he had 
just reached tho summit of his wishes, and was going to take 
"the command of the American army w'^'' Washington had 
resigned to him. 

13th. — At Lord Huntingd( n's. He read me a Lttor from a 
natural son, a young officer in Clinton's army : mentions the 
affair of the Hessians, and of Leo : he laments that this stroke 
upon the Hessians had hapned at the close of the campaign : 
says things will never go well here while we have no Minister. 
If Lord N. had any spirit, he Avould take the direction of 
everything : and if Lord Sandwich, in his department, did not 
appoint proper Admirals, or did not order the cloathing, ord- 
nance stores, &c., in such ships as that there should be not 
danger of their falling into the enemy's bands, he should turn 
him out : but now perhaps Shuldham will say — "If I can have 
the command, and you will get me an Irish Peerage, I will 
give you five thou&^ pounds : " and so Shuldham, tho' super- 
annuated, or without understanding, he must be the man. The 
K. says he thinks he is his own Minister. Matters are talked 
on ^/^*^^ of an hour in the Cabinet, and the K. says — " Well, you 
will take care of this, and you of that," and then an hour or 
two is spent in scandal — Lord such-an-one keeps such a 
mistress, and Lady such-an-one has such a gaUant: the Minis- 
ters go and dine together, and late in the evening the Clerks 



ff7^'.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTaniNSON. 137 

ai*3 set to worlc, and may be write all night, t^c. From this 
state of the affairs at hoino, he feels wliat so:n3 people call a 
misgiving as to the success of affairs abroad. 
14th. — [Billy and h's hoped for app3iutm5nt.] 
loth. — [Iteports and runours nncoiifirmed.] 
16th.— At the Old Jewry ... 
17th.— Lord Gage called . . . 

18th. — [Regrets at the capture of the Hessians.] Charles 
Fox said yesterday in the House of Com^ that in France, 
(where he has been), people thouglit very diff'' of the success in 
America, from whit we do here ; that they had no doubt the 
Americans could support their independence ; and if it should 
prove that they could not without help, France and Spain 
would declare for them. This was on the debate upon the Bill 
for securing persons guilty, or suspected of treason in vVmerica, 
which on a third reading was carried, 112 to 35, about the pro- 
portion, or rather greater minority than at the second reading. 
19th. — [D'' Heberden refuses his fees for Peggy.] Several 
Americans — Flucker, Hallowell, Sewall, Pliips, Dudley, Kome, 
together w*^ Mauduit, dined with me to-day. The uncertain 
state of the news from America furnished sufficient subject for 
conversation. 

20th.— Called on W JenklnsDn . . . 
21st. — A snowy night ... 

I am tempted to quote one page of the Diary of Elisha Iluchin- 
son at this place, not that it contains anything very noteable, but 
from the singularity of the order or sequence, or arrangement, in 
which the entries have been made. The page comprises seven days, 
namely, from the 23rd of Febuary, 1777 to the 1st of March in- 
clusive ; only the dates run upwards, or contrariwise, instead of 
downwards : — 

" Saturday, March 1st. — At Brompton : called on CoP Chandler 
and the rest ; M'' Gray, and Blowers. Afterwards walked in the 
Park, where I met M"' Brown who, the day before arrived fi'om 
Paris. Asked him to dine with Judge Oliver, and the Dr's familv, 
and M'' Green. — Oranges, &c. Gd. Honey 1/. — 1„6. 

" Friday, 28th. — Dined at M'' Vassall's, the company being the 
Gov', Gen' and M" Gage, M-" Sheriff, L' Gov-^ Oliver and ladv, 



138 DJAJiY AND JjETTERB OF THOMAS miTCIIINSON. [1^77'; 

Judge Oliver, iuul 'M' rnxton. Foggy to stay a few days at High 
Street. 

"Tlnirsday, 27tli.— ly^ Taxton and M" Oliver dined with us. 
Drank tea at l^roiuptoii. ]\[" Oliver lodged witli Teggy. 

" AVedncsday, 20th. — "Walked in the Tark, where I was tuld a 
letter in N. E. Cofteo IT. for mo. Took a hoat, and found it was 
a letter from W 1\ W. Boat— 1,/). 

" Tuesday, 2r)th. — Bought a p"" new silk hose C„0. 

" jMonday, 24th. — At the House of Lord's. No debate. 

" Sunday 23rd, Feb-'. — Walked to Old Jewry : in the [s/c] 
again in the city. Called on M'' Bliss : went with him to M"^ 
Perriu's to tea. Company." 

In the ahsenec of explanation, it is difficult to account for so 
singular a whim. The same ihing occurs in one other place, Lut the 
rest of the memorandums are entered normall}', according to con- 
Becutive date. This latter portion of the Diary is all in loose leaves, 
fra^^ments, and is verj^ imperfect. It has been written on sheets 
of ditferent size note paper, either single or in fasciculi that have 
never been sown together, so that they have become very much 
confused. As the date of the year, and the name of the month are 
only sparingly given, as some parts have gone to pieces by damp, 
and others lost, and as the whole had been utterly disarranged, it 
has been impossible to restore what remains to a satisfactory state 
of chronological order. Comparison with other Diaries has assisted 
in some places. But as Elisha's records are generally of a very 
commonplace nature, rarely alluding to the great events of the day, 
these deficiences need not cause much regret. The record of the 
greatest value is the account of the death of his father the Gov- 
ernor, at which he was present, along with his brother-in-law Dr. 
Peter Oliver. 

Jsow taking up the thread of the Governor's Diaiy at the 23rd 
of February, the days run on concurrently with the extract above, 
only in reverse order. 

23rd. — At the Temple ^church : Doctor Wicks of Chiswick : 
a good sermon. 

At Court — in the drawing room — the Queen not there. Saw 
and spoke with S'^ Cha. Bromley, who, I had not seen since he 
was in Boston in 1747 : surprisingly altered, which is owing to 
infirmity as much as age, tho' he says he is 73. He has been 



f^tf] MABY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS IIUTOniNSON. 139 

back [?] about two years from Eussia, where he had been several 
years superintending the Czarina's naval affairs. 

Doctor Dod convicted yesterday at the Old Bailey. In his 
speech he implicitly confessed his guilt, declaring that he was 
instructed by his Counsel that it was necessary there should be 
an intention of fraud, but he appealed to God, it was his full 
intention to have discharged the bond, and that Lord Chester- 
field should never be called on for any part of it. His Counsel 
excepted to an irregular proceeding in examining Robinson as 
a witness, and finding a Bill upon his evidence, while he stood 
charged as an accomplice ; and it seems the Court thought fit 
to refer it to the twelve Judges for their opinion, which pro- 
bably must take some time before it can be determined. 

24th. — The Bristol, Lord Shuldham, arrived yesterday at 
Portsmouth from New York, which she left the 8"* of January.* 
Col" Dalrymple a passenger: confirms the defeat of the Hessians 
at Trenton the 26"^ December, and the loss of 2 or 300 of 
British troops from a large body of the enemy a day or two 
after. This is all owing to Howe's extending his posts as far 
as Burlington, after he had made an attempt to cross the 
Delaware 13 miles above Trenton, and failed for want of boats. 
Some letters say he might have passed, — whether they mean 
forded or by rafts does not appear, — and that he would have 
been in possession of Philadelphia without opposition. After 
that everything was unfortunate. The enemy took fresh 
spirits : drove the Hessians from Burlington by boats with 
cannon in the river : attacked, and killed, and took prisoners 
the Hessians at Trenton, and interrupted the regiments on their 
march from one post to another, and killed and took 200 of 
them. This has given a great turn to people's opinions here, 
and a prospect of protracting the war, and lessened the opinion 
of the abilities of the commanders of the British army. 

The Congress had removed to Beading, where it was said 
only 13 remained. The Orphens Man-of-war, brought in to 

* Lord Shuldham ! It was only on tlie lotli instant, some eleven days 
ago, that we read some rather mysterious remarks al3out Irish Peerages and 
how to get them. How much of joke, or of scandal, or of innuendo may 
lurk in those dark passages, I must not tell if I know. Happily I know 
nothing about it. 



140 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS nUTCEINSON. [in"/." 

York 13 prizes, some taken off Delaware, most of thcin bound 
to France, on ace* of the Congress. Called on S"" Charles 
Kuowlos. 

25th. — [Dined with Canon Donglas, D.D.] 

26th. — Peggy so well as to take an airing . . . 

27tli.— At Lord George Germain's Levee . . . The newspapers 
are tilled with the bad condition of the King's troops, and the 
good condition of the Americans. Their privateers have taken 
a packet from Falmouth to Lisbon, and carried her into France ; 
and it is certain that great quantities of cloathing, some say for 
G0,000 men, arms, &c., are gone from France to the American 
ports. What the issue will be God only knows. It looks 
more doubtful than it did a few months ago. Tt is the duty of 
all concerned to acquiesce in the disposal of Divine Providence, 
which governs all, and controuls and changes in the most un- 
expected way and manner. 

28th.— [Dined with Col. Vassal), &c.] 

March 1st. — . . . j\P J° Green and Col^Browne just returned 
from France. He says when he tirst went there in October, 
there was much talk of assisting America : that upon the news 
of the poor defence, then all subsided, and America was never 
mentioned in conversation. 

2nd. — At the Old Jewry. iS'' H. Houghton came . . . 

3rd. — . . . The Harriet packet said to be arrived . . . 

4th. — . . . Upon talking with CoP Browne to-day I find Silas 
Deane to le a person at whose house M"^ Tryon lodged in 
Weathersfield when I was in Hartford in 1773, and that my 
daughter and I made a visit there. He married a daughter of 
G (?) galtonstall. 

Cth. — . . . Lord Sliuldham returned a visit I made on his 
arrival: thinks all will go well in America, though the war may 
be protracted by the little successes of the Americans in the 
Jerseys. Talk of a war w*^ France, principally founded on 
advice of a French man-of-war having sunk one of the King's 
sloops — the Pomona, in the West Indies . . . 

7th. — The talk of the French war wholly ceases, and the 
stocks recover their former rate. John the Painter tried 
yesterday at Wirchester Assizes : the evidence so full that the 



nnj DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTOHINSON. 141 

Jury gave their verdict witliout going from tlieir seats : the 
substance of his trial published in the papers: and among the 
rest of the evidence, that of his communicating his design to 
Silas Deane, &c. 

8th. — S" Francis Bernard and Lady came to town last 
evening, and dined with u? to-day, with Paxtoii, D"" Caner, 
Chandler, and Boucher. 

9th.— At the Temple with S' F. B. J)' Thurlow. Gallipont, 
cue of the Bencher.^ asked me w^hy I did not sit with them ? I 
told him I had no pretence. *' Why, you are older at the Bar 
than we." I told hiin I had not been called to the Bar. " Why, 
are you not of our house ? " No. I was an American Judge. 

xit Court and the Drawiug-room. Lord President gave me 
an account of John the Convict's confession. He is a Scotchman 
about 25 years of age — his name John Aitkin : left Edinburgh 
about 5 years ago, and went to Virginia: has 'listed and 
deserted two or three times: has been in Europe about two 
years : confesses 8 or 9 thefts and robberies : denies that Dean 
gave him a Bill for 300£, but owns he communicated his 
design, and that he encouraged it: recommended him to D^ 
Bancroft in Downing Street: gave him 12 six-livre pieces: 
told him this was eno' to carry him to England : and promised 
his reward when he had performed the service. 

It is said by Flucker that General Gage has a letter from 
N. York, advising the imprisonment of Dickenson by the 
Congress, for what he had wro'e to his brother in a letter 
which w\as intercepted. 

When W Boucher was at my house yesterday, I asked him 
how he knew that Delany was sent to, and desired to answer 
my speech to the Assembly? He said Delany told him so, 
and he thought it was a letter from Cushing, sent by a messen- 
ger express ; but Delany gave for answer that he had met with 
so much trouble from the consideration, that he would never 
write any more. If he refused, the messenger was to apply to 
Dickenson. It is certain that tho' my speech was the 6. of 
Jan^, their answer was delayed till the 26"\ 

Lord North continues ill tho' said to be giowing better. 
A hon-mot is often mentioned. He has been bled, blistered, &c., 



142 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS IIUTOIIINSON. \f^l'i, 

and is einasciated. He said to ])"■ Warroii ho was much 
obliged to him for introducing' a iiumbjr of his ohl acquaiut- 
auco, whicli lie had not kuowu these 20 year.-;. The Doctor 
was a little surprised, and suspected a delirium. I meau my 
ribs, Doctor, for I have not [been] able to feel them any time 
for 20 years past till now. 

]Oth. — Col. Skeene, who arrived in the packet, called on ma . . . 

11th. — Ground froze hard . . , Burgoync goes out iu the 
Apollo. John the Painter was executed yesterday at Ports- 
mouth. 

The career, the villauies, and the trial of this man, are all given 
in the journals of the day. The following heads arc from the 
Contiuuator of Hume's Histor}^ of England : — 

" A fire vi'hich had broke out in the llope-huusc at Portsmouth 
on the seventh of December, was then ascribed to accident ; but 
some six weeks after, the discovery of a machine in the hcmp- 
houso, designed fur the same purpose, led first to suspicions, and 
afterwards by a train of circumstances to the final conviction of 
the incendiary, commonly known by the appellation of John-the- 
Painter, but whose real name w^as James Aitken . . . The restless- 
ness of his mind, or the dread of punishment, made him ship him- 
self off fur America in the year 1773, and he continued there for 
about two years . . . He came back to England with tlie most 
deadly antipathy to the government and nation, and soon after 
formed a scheme to destroy the maritime force of the country , , , 
In the autumn of the year 1776 he w^ent to France, and com- 
municated his intentions to M'' Silas Deane, the American Pleni- 
potentiary to that Court, who told him, according to his own 
story, — ' when the work was done, he should be rewarded.' . . . He 
took wonderful pains in the construction of fireworks, machines, 
and combustibles. ... It was owing to this failure in his machines 
that the nation was saved from receiving some dreadful, if not 
irretrievable shock. One of them extinguished of itself . . . 
others, which he had placed in the Eopc-house, took effect. . , , 
His next attempt was to burn the shipping that lay along side the 
quay at Bristol. . . . Soon after his departure from Bristol, he was 
taken up in Ilampstead for a burglary. . . One Baldwin. . . found 
means . . . tu obtain his confidence in prison, until he drew from 
him the whole history of his crimes. Upon his trial at Winchester 

* . his pretended friend . . . the acknowledged baseness of the 



f.^5:] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTCniNSON. 143 

witness, and he received sentence of death with the most perfect 
indifference. He was removed from Winchester gaol on the 
tenth of March, and executed on a gallows sixty feet high before 
Portsmouth dock gate, the principal scene of his guilt." 

Adolphus says — " His confession proved his being omploj-ed by 
Silas Deane." Near three months after the execution of this 
man Judge Oliver was engaged in making a tour, and found him- 
self in Portsmouth on the 27th of May. He wrote as follows in 
his Diary : — ■ 

" I waited upon Commissioner Gambler, who was so polite as to 
order his Clerk to shew me the Dockyards, &c. The yards, stores, 
and other works are expressive indications of the grandeur of the 
British nation, but I think are exceeded by those of Plymouth. 
The ruins and devastations by fire perpetrated by John the Painter, 
by the instigation of Silas Dean and other American patriots of 
rebellion, must raise an indignation in every loyal breast. This 
villain had attempted to burn the shipping in several places in 
England, as Bristol, &c., by the instigation of Silas Dean, now in 
France, and several other American incendiaries, but had failed in 
his various attempts, 'till he had perpetrated his designs by burning 
the Rope-walk here in December last, but failed in burning the 
Dockyards. Ho was detected and executed, and hangs now in 
Irons, on the opposite side, at the entrance of Portsmouth Harbour, 
on a Gibbet GO feet high, as a warning to other villains of the like 
cast ; tho' there are so many of those beacons stuck about England, 
that they rather serve as Mercuries to point out roads to travellers 
than to warn against the like crimes. This John [blank] y" Painter 
was a most finished villain in almost all crimes, as he confessed 
himself, and the Congress and their adherents could not have 
pitched upon a more proper person to have executed their diaboli- 
cal piirposes, than upon this fellow, but alas ! how often are halters 
mis}>laccd ! Had they been tightened about the necks of some of 
his employers, neither the conflagration at Portsmouth or in America 
had committed such horrid ravages as have wasted the lives and 
habitations of so many thousands." 

After an interval of 107 years, John the Painter has turned up 
again. The public press informs us as follows : — " While some 
sappers were making excavations at Fort Blockhouse, near Gosj)ort, 
on Thursday, they came upon some remains which are believed to 
be those of ' Jack the Painter,' a notorious criminal, who more 
than a century ago set fire to Portsmouth Dockyard, and destroyed 



141 DIAIiY A^'l) LETTEnS OF THOMAS IIUTCIIIKSON. [fif,'. 

nearly the avIioIo of tlio cstaltlislimeiit. ITc was pililictcnl, aiul his 
l)ody, after hanging in chains several years, Avas hnried at the spot 
Avhero the remains M-ero found." — Exdcr and Vlijmoutli Gazette, 
Sat. Nov. 22, 188-t. 
But, to resume — 

12th. — Governor Pownall having lately buried his wife, Lady 
Faulkner, I called upon him to-day. There has been no visits 
passed for two year?, which I think has not been my fault. 

At W Keene's . . . 

loth. — The raw cold east wind still continues ... 

1-lth. — "Wind at NW, and Pegjiy takes an airing. I met 
Paul Wentworth in Pall Mall. He is angry tliat anybody 
should suppose Doctor Bancroft any \\ay capable, and says he 
has not only L'^ Suffolk's opinion, but is allowed by Lord 
Mansfield to say from him, that there was nothing improper in 
Ids conduct. He added, that Bancroft had told 20 of his 
friends what John the Painter said to him, and he supposed 
him to be a spy employed by government. 

15th. — [lleports unauthenticated.] 

IGth.— At the Old Jewry with Judge Oliver. 

At Court — and the Drawing-room, on the King's side only. 
In the evening with Sir F. B. at L'' Chancellor's, and L*^ 
Mansfield's, and afterwards at D'" Heberden's. L'' Marchmont, 
L*^ Willoughby of Parham, &c., at the Chancellor's : D. of 
Northum., L'^ Dudley, L*^ Panmure, &c., at L"^ Mansfield's. 
Mention made of Bancroft, and of its being incumbent on him, 
when John-the-Painter was apprehended, to have imformed 
Gov'' of John's having been with him. L^ Mansfield said he 
had seen a Yindication of Bancroft in a newspaper, w^*^ no 
doubt, by the appearance of it, was his own doing, but said 
nothing in his favour. 

L"^ Marchmont recommends strong souchong tea as tbe 
wholesomest breakfast can be eat. 

Peggy's illness increases : bled again to-day. 

Seeing M"^ Garrick at Court, and the Archbishop of Cant., 

D. of Ancaster, Lord Chesterfield, and many more of the 

Kobility, Gentry, and Clergy cordially greeting him, I could not 

help thinking that he comes the nearest to the character of 



Mej:] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 145 

Eoscius of any player since his time ; for as we meet with none 
of his fellow actors with whom Caesar, Cicero, Pompey, &c., 
would make themselves familiar, no more is there any in 
England besides Garrick who are thought proper for the notice 
of people of distinction here. Crarrick's private character being 
good, and his fortune great, and no unfairness in attaining to 
it, causes this distinction. 

17th. — The Hellespont, Lister, arrived from New York : 
sailed the first week in February. Nothing of news except 
that the Congress have appointed Washington Protector of the 
United States, and established a IMilitary Order of Indepen- 
dence, of which he is to be Sovereign ; and 2700 of the troops 
had returned from Kh*^ Island to New^ York. No action 
anywhere. 

In the evening I went for about half an hour to Lady 
Gideon's : Sir Eardley Wilmot, M"- Trevor, M"^ Blair, the 
principal persons I knew, or had any conversation with. 

18th. — Wrote to CoP Jos. Wanton at Newport, concerning 
my farm on Conanicut, sent by Colburn Barrett, to be forwarded 
to New York. Just as I was going to bed S'' H. Houghton 
sent me a note, that he had heard the French fleet of 8 line of 
battle ships, and 11 frigates, had sailed from Brest, which 
disturbed my rest. 

The movements of the French were beginning to attract con- 
siderable attention in England, not to say apprehension. 

The letter for Col. Wanton, mentioned above, was entered in his 
Letter Book by the Governor himself, and as it may contain one 
or two facts worth preserving, I will extract it entire : — 

«' Lond. New Bond S. 18 March, 1777. 

" Sir, — I have been informed that my estate upon Conanicut has, 
by force of an act or order of certain persons in Newport, been taken 
from the possession of my tenant Isaac Pierce, to whom I had given 
a lease of it, and that it has been possessed the last year by other 
persons, and that Avaste and spoil have been made there. 

" M"' Chesebro', who used tu inform me very kindly of anything 
that occurred relative to my own and my [wife's] sister's affairs, 
has ceased corresponding with me since I left New England. 

" Allow me to ask the favour of you to afford me y'' assistance 

VOL. 11. L 



146 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCEIJ^SON. [nn. 



in obtaining satisfaction for tlio injury done mo, and in securing 
my projK'rty from further injury. 

" I left my Governmont just before Lord Percy arrived, and have 
not the honour of being personally known to him ; but I think his 
Lordship must know that my sufferings have been occasioned 
mainly by my having been a servant of tlu^ (]rown, and I doubt 
not he will bo ready to favour an application in my behalf, so far 
as may be proper for him to interpose. 

" It would be most agreeable that my tenant, or his son under 
him, should return to the possession of his leasehold. How that 
may be, — whether he wishes it, or whether he has it in his power, 
it is not possible for me to know. I think it probable that he 
desires it. He was at 130£ quit [?] rent, besides some duties of 
l^lanting, &c., and making stone walls, and the two last years 
of his lease are at 150£ sterl. 

" If the estate cannot come into his hands, I Avish to have it 
under improvement the pres* year, on as good terms as may be ; 
and I most willingly convey to you for that purpose all the pov/ers 
I could have myself if I was on the spot, as also to obtain for me 
any compensation for damages, sustained since the estate was taken 
out of my hands. 

"I have heard that the man who disj)0ssessed L' Brenton has been 
compelled to ample compensation for his loss and damage. Whither 
other jiersons are able to obtain the like compensation, can be known 
ujion enquiry. Generally, like justice should be done in like cases. 

" My [wife's] sister Grizell Sanford, is owner of a farm at Black- 
point, which for several years has been let at the low rent of 100 or 
120 dollars a j^ear. M' Cheseborough used to receive the rent. 
To what time it was paid can be ascertained by the receipts to the 
tenant. I could wish what is due might be received and sent to 
me for my sister, who has occasion enough for it. 

" She has another farm on what is called Slocum's Island, let for 
60£ sterling to Eich*^ Sanford and John Eobinson. Sanford is since 
dead, and Eobinson in Boston, and the Island not being reduced, I 
suppose no rent can be recovered there, though two or three years 
are due. 

" You will be surprised at my long narrative, &c., without any 
previous apology, but when I began my letter I had not seen my 
friend Col° Browne, and unless I could be satisfied that you would 
not take amiss my applying to you, I would have applied to some 
other gentleman at Newport. The assurance he gives me that you 
will be ready to oblige me, has determined me to make my appli- 
cation to you, and to hope for the favour of an answer, and for 



n":] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 147 

your aihdco to any .steps on my part, if you judge any to 1)0 
necessary, . " I am, &c." 

" Hon. Joseph Wanton Esq., Newport." 

It need scarcely be added, that no redress or compensation could 
Le ol)tained, or any satisfactory information, owing t(j tlie confusion 
of the times ; and it resulted by the progress of the war, tliat these 
estates were seized along with the others. 

There is an original letter of March 18, written by ]\[r. Pelham 
Winslow in a small neat hand from Kew York, and addressed to 
Elisha Hutchinson, of which letter Captain Archdeacon was the 
bearer. It contains nothing material. 

In the volume containing Elisha's letters to his wife during their 
long enforced separation, he continues to harp iipon the likelihood 
of his return to America ; and the accounts arriving in England of 
the succession of victories obtained by the British troops at Brook- 
lyn, White Plains, through the Jerseys, and their pursuit after 
AV'ashington until he reached Philadelphia, all raised such a feeling 
in the Mother Country that the war was virtually over— and so it 
l)robably would have been had Greneral Howe only followed up his 
advantages with promptitude — that the Kefugees in England began 
to talk of their preparations for returning. Elisha alludes to this : — 

" New Bond Street, Mar. 2, 1777. 
" My Dear Polly, 

"About a month ago I gave a letter to Capt" Coffin, Avhu 
was bound to Nantucket, by way of the West Indies. 

" At that time our accounts from the army were very promising. 
Gen^ Howe advancing post-haste to Philadelphia. Gen' Clinton in 
possession of Ehode Island, and in his way to Providence. Many 
of the poor American Refugees imagined they could see the end of 
their exile, and began to count the months of their punishment. A 
New York gentleman told me, if I did not mean to be hurried, it 
Avas time to begin to pack up. 

"Later advices do not come up to our expectations . . . Gen' C, 
instead of visiting Providence, is now on a visit in London ; and 
by letters from K. York, we find Gen' H. has not quite reached 
Philadelphia, there being unluckily, a river in the Avay." 

The health of the Governor's youngest daughter Margaret, com- 
monly called Peggy, had become so seriously impaired of late, that 
her father resolved to take her to the Hot Wells at Bristol, at that 
time a Sanitarium in considerable repute. All the symptoms of 
rapid pulmonary consumption had set in. They left London on 

L 2 



148 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. [f^V" 



the 20th of March, together wiih the chlest daughter Sarah, the 
Avifo of Dr. Peter Oliver, and -were absent nearly two months. 
Thongh every page of his Diary at this iieriod is iilled with lamen- 
tations over the state of his child, there occurs liero and there a 
short entry that may he worth extracting. Thus, he writes — 

Mar. olst, — . . . The Dean of Glo'cestcr came to my lod^^- 
ings; shewed me a letter he had received from Turgot, the late 
Comptroller of the Finances in France, approving of the 
n\oasnres of the Americans, and wishing them success, and of 
the Dean's plan for setting them free, lie rec" it from London 
under a frank from Lord Shelburne. 

Ap. 27th. — ■ ... A little fishing scooner arrived the night 
before last from Salem with 4 men only, being brought by the 
mate of a ship, to bring him home : came out the 10 of ]\Iarch. 
I saw him, bat he knew nothing. 

Ap. 30th. — . . . My son writes, that by a vessel from York, 
they hear that AYashington died of the camp fever. 

May 8th. — . . . Yesterday took a full view of Bristol from 
l^randon Hill, where they say Cromwell erected his batteries, 
and beat down their houses. I think, take in all circumstances, 
and I should prefer living there to any place in England. The 
manners and customs of the people are very like those of the 
people of New England, and you might pick out a set of Boston 
Selectmen from any of their churches. 

May 9th. — . . . Account from Plim" of the arrival of a 
packet from N. York, and of the destruction of the magazines 
at Peeks Kill. 

May loth. — Winchester Cathedral entertained us.* The 
monuments of W^ Knfus, Card. Beaufort, W™ of Wickham, 
Wainfleet, Bp. Gardiner, being all, except the last, extremely 
well preserved. We lodged at the George Inn, and about 11 
set out for Southampton, the entrance to which is charming, 
and the town itself very agreeable. I went to the harbour, 
and viewed with pleasure the place from whence Winthrop, 
Dudley, &c., the first Magistrates of Mass. Bay in America 
embarked, from whence they dated their Declaration of affection 
to the Church and State of Eng ^. . . 

* On their return journey to London, 



itT] diary A^B LET'TERS of THOMAS HUTOmNSON. 149 

May 17th. — . . . we bad a pleasant day's journey to London. 

22nd. — . . . We took lodgings at the Dial House in Little 
Chelsea at 3 Guineas J> week, four weeks certain, to begia 
to-morrow. 

30th. — ... A strong desire to see and hear Lord Chatham 
carried me to the H. of Lords, where, after a long speech to 
inflame the kingdom, and to encourage France to cherish the 
rebellion, he moved for an Address to the K. to put an end to 
this unnatural ruinous war, to heal and redress grievances, 
&c., and to assure him that [the] House \vould do everything 
proper on their part, &c. 

June 4th. — . . . This is the first Birthday I have absented 
myself from Court, but I had no hectrt to go from home. 

5th. — . . . Lord Percy arrived in a packet from Newport. It 
is rumoured that he was not satisfied, and thought more due 
to him from Gen^ Howe than he received. Nothing done of 
importance the beginning of May. The packet left Newport 
the 5th. 

7th. — ... A vessel from N. York with news as late as the 
middle of May. Tyron, Browne, &c., with about 1800 men, 
had destroyed a large raagaziue of stores at Danbury, &c., with 
the loss of about 14 or 15 killed, and 60 or 70 wounded. In the 
march back [they] were harrassed as in the Lexington affair. 
It is said Worcester the rebel General, is killed, and Arnold 
wounded : above 100 privates killed, and 50 or 60 prisoners. 

9th. — ... I went to town: called at M"^ Ellis's to congratulate 
him on his new place of Treasurer of the Navy, but found that 
he was gone to Weymouth to sollicit his re-election. 

This day Judge Oliver and some friends went to Greenwich to 
see the King hold a review. In his Diary he writes thus : — 

" June Pth. — D'^ Chandler, Parson Boucher, Richard Clarke Esq., 
M"" Waterhouse, and myself, took coach for Blackheath, to see his 
Majesty review the Light Horse, where were at least 20,000 spec- 
tators outside of an area of several miles in compass. It was a 
grand shew and well worth seeing in the course of a man's life. 
After it was over we took a view of the late Sir Gregory Page's 
seat on the edge of the heath, which is a gx-and and elegaat build- 
ing, said to be begun and covered in the space of 11 months. Sir 



150 DIAET AND LETTERS OF THOMAS nUTOniNSOK [j^. 



Grcgoiy's father was avicli l)}•o^vel•: and as mony [sic] ans-svors all 
tliin-is, so it -will also accomplisli iu a short time what nieiliocrity 
wonid ho tedious iu eih-etiug. The liouse stauds on two low a 
scite to correspond with its grandeur. 

" Not far distant is the Hospital huilt hy S' John IMordcn. . . 
It was upon tliis Heath that AVat Tyler mustered his 100,000 men 
in rehollion in th(> reign of Eicliard 2nd . . . We tlicn walked a 
little below tlie linn AVarven or i'ark, down to tlio river Thames, 
where the convicts work at hallast heaving . . . auiong whom was 
the infamoiis Dignuui, who lately rendered himself so hy gross 
eheats, impositions, and thefts. He Avas a man of liberal education, 
and had published some 01)servations which had merit, but by a 
dissolute way of life had brought himself to the condition of raising 
ballast for the publick, instead of raising a reputation for himself." 

The Eefugce Judge, being now out of work, had taken a short 
trip for the piirpose of examining the beauties of Windsor Castle, 
Hampton Court, witli some gentlemen's seats by the way, and 
uiidcr the date of June 16 he writes : — 

'• After leaving Hampton Court, we pass'd thro' Bushy Park, 1:} 
mile, where Lord Xorth hath a seat. AV^e passed by a circular 
piece C)f water, with a statue in the middle : then to Tcddington, 
^ mile : to Twickenham, l£ miles, a pretty village Avith a number 
of fine seats upon the Thames, particularly the late M' Pope's, noAV 
in the possession of the E' Honorable Welljore Ellis Esq." &c. 

18th. — ... At J\rauduit'.o. Saw M'' J.ethieulier, who fears a 
Treaty. JM. says a friend of his had seen a letter from an officer 
in America, iu Avhich is au expression of this import — Yon must 
Dot be surprized if you should see me very soon in England, 
for I believe affairs are npou the very point of settlement. 

His friend says he looks upon this intelligence much the 
same as if it came from Howe himself, and added that some- 
thing was to come from AVashington, but this was not explained. 

24:th. — [The blanks in the date are almost entirely filled up 
with lamentations over Peggy's increasing illness.] ... I went 
to town : saw at j\P Knox's office a Carolinian just arrived : left 
N. Yorlv 25 May. Howe still at N.Y. : Coruwallis in camp in N. 
Jersey. There had been a small brush with his picket and a 
body of rebels. Washington still at Morristown: thinks not 
more than 700 strong : people divided whether the army goes 



i^n DIABY AND LETTEB8 OF THOMAS EVTCEINSON. 151 



\111.A 



to Philad. or to the n-ward : part of Carleton's force at Crown 
Point : the rest expected the beginning of June : Hotham and 
a squadron off Henlopen, and in Delaware Bay and river. Howe 
sends to Gov. a particular ace* of Danbury affair under Tryon * 

27th. — . . . D"* Dodd executed this morning at Tyburn, after 
the strongest efforts by his friends : a Petition from the Corpor- 
ation of London : another from the Jury who convicted him : 
and. others from different parishes — it is^said above 20,000 
hands to them for a pardon. It is observable that Wolridge 
and other Aldermen, &c., in the city, in opposition to Gov*, were 
the promoters of these applications. The King's refusal passes 
without reproach. If he had complied, the petitioners them- 
selves would have promoted a clamour against him in some 
secret way or other.f 

July 2nd. — ... I went to town. Accounts from Quebec of 
Burgoyne's arrival the 6th of May, but no advice of the troops 
having moved the 4th of June, when the ship sailed. 

* Governor Tryon, promoted to the rank of Major-General, led 2000 troops 
to Danbury, and on the 26feli of April destroyed a larsje quantity of stores 
deposited there. The English force got back with difficulty, having two 
encounters with the Americans on the way, in which they lost 172 in 
killed, wounded, and missing. 

t Dr. Dodd was born in 1729 at Bourne in the county of Lincoln, and was 
of Clare Hall, Cambridge. He entered into Holy Orders in 1753, and became 
a popular preacher in London. He published several volumes of sermons, and 
was a most prolific writer on religious and moral subjects. In 1766 he 
received the degree of LL.D., and soon after published a volume of poems. 
In 1769 he translated Massilion's Sermons, inscribed to the Prince of Wales. 
In 1771 appeared his three volumes of sermons to young men, which he 
dedicated to his pupils Charles and Philip Stanhope, afterwards Earl of 
Chesterfield. He had the living of Hockliffe, Bucks, was Lecturer at the 
Magdalen, received £100 a year as Editor of the Christian's Magazine, was 
Prebendary of Brecon, and Chaplain to the Bishop of St. Davids. These 
sources of emolument, together with some others, were not enough to satisfy 
his worldly vanity and profuse extravagance. He wrote an anonymous letter 
to Lady Apsley, offering a bribe of £3,000, if she would use her influence to 
get him appointed to the living of St. George's, Hanover Square. The secret 
was detected ; he was struck Irom the list of Chaplains, and he withdrew to 
the city of Geneva. His friend Lord Chesterfield then gave him the living of 
Winge, in Bucks, when he returned again to England. Failing, however, to 
learn wisdom by experience, he went from bad to worse, and ended his career 
as related above. 

In the London Magazine for 1773, p. 48, Jan. 19, we read : — " Same day 
the following convicts were executed at Tyburn, viz., Benjamin Bird, for 
forging an indorsement on a Bill of Exchange, [also several others] and 
William Griffiths, for robbing the Kev. Dr. Dodd on the highway, near 
Pancras." 



152 DIAliY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS nUTGHINSON. g'vY. 



7th. — No alteration, [in Peggy.] Sir Jn° Eliot called in his 
way to Sussex to visit L*^ G. Germain's child. He recommends 
[Peggy] three of the Hemlock i)ills going to bed, and to eat 
freely of cucumbers. Thinks «he does not lose. 

lltli. — An exceeding pleasant summer day, most of which she 
spent in the garden instead of the coach, but her fever exceed- 
ing high in the cven^'. S'" Jn" ordered bleeding w*^'' I consented 
to with reluctance ; but the blundering Apothecary made one 
attempt in her foot, and two in her arm, without opening a 
vein, and I would not suffer him to go on. 

I was at tlie Levee : the first time since I went out of town to 
the Hot ^^'^ells. Very few persons there. 

12th. — A more quiet night than I feared, after the ruffle, 
attempting to bleed. I sent for M'' Atkinson of Chelsea, another 
Apothecary, who bled her very dexterously. Took 6 ounces. 
Spent all day in the garden. No abatement of her fever. 

13th. — ... A packet yesterday from N. York. The army 
not moved the 9th of June. It is generally said the Provincials 
are much distressed, their army small, and ill provided. The 
delay is now on the part of Howe, attributed to want of camp 
ecpiipage — which were all arrived. 

19th. — A more calm night but no strength gained. I went 
to Loudon, [from Chelsea]. Called on S'" James Wright. He 
mentions a short note w*^ a pencil from Gen. Vaughan to his 
brother Lord Lisburne, of June 11, when skirmishes had begun : 
Grant's horse's head shot ofl' by a cannon ball, the 12th. This 
should prepare for a general attack on the loth. 

22nd. — ... I went to London : heard confirmation of the 
news of the Fox frigate being taken by M'^neal Manly, and some 
say another of the Provincial vessels near Nf'land, and that 
great havoc was made among the fisheries. Admiral Montagu 
thinking he had not force enough to go out. I suspect he will 
be censured when enquiry is made. 

31st. — ... I went to London to the Secr^ of State Ms office. 
From M''D'Oyly lam satisfied that Howe did not intend Phila- 
delphia. Possibly if Washington had been willing to meet him 
in the Jerseys, there would have been a general action there, 
but I suppose he is gone with great part of the army and fleet 



nn.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTGHIN SON. 153 

to New England, having dravm what forces the Colonels could 
collect to the west of Hudson's River. If he had taken Phila- 
delphia, he must have destroyed, [it ?] or have left too great pa rt 
of his army there and in the Jerseys, to keep possession. I fear 
the fate of my own country, [Massachusetts] and that the prin- 
ciple town will be sacrificed. 

At this place the rourth volume of the Diary terminates. Mujst 
people "who follow the course of the war, must agree " that Howe did 
not intend Philadelphia." At this date the full particulars attendant 
on the rapid and brilliant succession of victories achieved by the 
English army after the Battle of Long Island, were not sufficiently 
known in England, nor had there been time yet to comprehend the 
fact that America was then virtually conquered and won ; nor did 
she, nor could she then perceive, that if the then present advantages 
were relaxed, and not followed up, they would be all lost, and never 
to be secured again. 



( 154 ) [t^f. 



CHArTER III. 

uectINnino of vol. v. of the ptary. 

The Fifth Yolurac begins with the month of August, but as the 
first three days are occupied with Mr. Hutchinson's anxieties on 
the subject of liis daughter's declining health, whose lungs were 
greatly impaired, and whose strength was visibly decreasing, those 
days, and some others in other places, may be omitted. On the 4th 
there is an allusion to the reported capture of Ticonderoga. In com- 
mencing the attack on this important and strongly fortified place, 
the English troops under General Burgoyne, secured Mount Hope, 
and after this by great exertion, they possessed themselves of 
Sugar Hill, an advantageous post that commanded the works both 
at Ticonderoga, and at a neighbouring intrenched position called 
Fort Independence. These preliminaries having been accomplished 
l\y the ^)i]\ of June, the assault was intended for the next day. At 
dawn on the following morning however, it was discovered that the 
Americans had abandoned their works and withdrawn during the 
night. Lieutenant Anburey, who was present, tells us, [i. p. 323], 
that four men had been left behind, who were to have fired off the 
guns of a large battery that commanded the approach, and then to 
have made their escape as quickly as possible. The matches lay 
lighted beside the cannon. Great mischief and loss of life would 
have resulted if this proceeding had been carried out, but when the 
English entered, they found the four men dead drunk beside a cask 
of JMadeira. 

We read in the Diary as follows : — 

4th. — A vessel arrived from Quebec, and yesterday an officer 
came to town, who says Ticonderoga was besieged by Burgoyne, 
and that the day he came away, June 6th, it was generally 
reported and believed that it was taken . . . 

5th. — I wrote by M' Blowers to my kinsman E*^ H°* at 

* I have no record who this Edward Hutchinson was. All the Governor's 
immediate relatives had followed him to England, and his only brother 



n"?;] DIARY ANT) LETTERS OF THOMAS nUTCETNSON. 155 

Boston, to thank him for his letter, and account of my friends : 
to tell him I tlio't W Merchant, as next of kin, the properest 
person to administer on Sally Eogers's estate:* to approve his 
remaining in the country, as I would have done in a private 
character : to express my wish to convince that in public 
character I had ever aimed at the true interest, &c., "sv'^'^ I had 
the comfort of feeling every day, and time would discover who 
judged right: to mention my distress: to M'" Walter and 3P 
j\Iurray at N, York, acknowF their letters : to the former, that 
I would take care of his business, as well as M"" Winslow's of 
Braintree : and. to the latter, that I tho't it best he should stay in 
America : to both the case of my daughter, who in the morning 
was lower than usual. 

6th. — . . . There is an Address of Burgoyne's in the papers 
to-day to the people, dated at Putnam Creek, June 29th last — • 
flowery, but upon the whole, well adapted. 

8th. — We made a long journey in the coach to Hampton 
Court, which Peggy bore beyond expectation, and happily, just 
at the gate of the Palace we met AP® D'oyly, who has apart- 
ments there, and who kindly took my daughter into a gentle- 
man's house, of her (M*'' D'oyly 's) acquaintance, where she 
rested on a sophy, while W^ Sanford [Grizell Sanford, spinster, 
his sister-in-law], and my daughter Oliver, went over the 
Palace. We left my son E. at Eichmond, who provided a 
good but extravagantly dear dinner for us at the Star-and- 
Garter, where we stayed to tea, and came back to our lodgings 
just after sunset. A better day than I feared. As warm a 
day as any this year, but no hotter than what we call moderate 
in America. 

loth. — . . . To-day M*" Newton and his wife, just arrived 
from Halifax, where he is Collector ... 

15th. — Treasurer Gray called upon me. He had made an 

Foster had withdrawn to Halifax in Nova Scotia. There is an Edward 
Hutchinson in the Pedigree, brother of Eiizabetli, who married the Eev. 
Natliauiel Eobhins. Tlie Governor and he were first cousins, except tliat 
their grandmotliers were different people, because their grandfather Elisha 
married t\vice._ This Edward is the only one I can tbink'of, if he were alive 
in 1777. He is marked as having died single, but in what year is not stated. 
* Sally or Sarah Rogers was daughter of George Rogers, who married the 
Governor's younger sister Ljdia. fcjally died in 1776. 



156 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS liUTCEINSON. [f^^?; 

extract from a Sermon preached in 1759 at Boston by Doctor 
Cooper before Gov. Pownall and the Court, Avith his remarks. 
I had not hoard of the most material facts he charged upon 
Cooper : several he altered : the only one remaining which I 
had any doubt about his printing was — a meeting with Warren 
and the rest in Service time on a Sunday afternoon, until 
sermon was near over, and he came to baptize a child : but this, 
Gray aflirincd to bo notorious in tlie town, and that it was but 
a sliort time before the iamous 19th of April . , . 
t 16th. — Sensibly more feeble, and had a bad day. In this 
kind of life tlie days and nights pass incredibly swift, and I am 
six months older and nearer to my own death, than when my 
daughter's illness began ; and it appears like the dream of a 
night. 

t 18th. — Easterly wind and raw, and no airing. Kemoved 
what furniture we had in London to Little Chelsea . . . 

Cap*^ Loring, son of Com" Loring arrived from New York, 
w'^'^ he left the 16 July, when Lord and Gen. Howe were both 
there. So much of the summer gone, and nothing done. There 
had been an attack upon a redout in the Jerseys, when Cap. 
Finch and 14 others were killed, the place being carried. 
Prescot, who commanded at Newport, surprised at a house out 
of towD, and carried off.* Loring reports that Ticonderoga and 
Fort W" Henry were in possession of Burgoyue, and that the 
garrison of Ticonderoga were made prisoners. The packet and 
a man-of-war with transports sailed at the same time. Loring 
has no publick letters, nor any private w'^^ mention his news, 
and many doubt the truth. 

19th. — It is said to-day that an officer who came in [with ?] 
Loring, gives the same account he does . . . 

20th. — ... It is said everybody believes the news of 
Ticonderoga, and that New England would now be the 
object. I fear the destruction of poor Boston. What have 
those men to answer for who have brought on this destructive 
war ! 

* Tliis gallant exploit was planned and executed by the American Colonel 
Barton, who, witli a party of officers and men, surprised General Prescot in 
bed, and carried him off to the headquarters at Providence. This was a good 
set-off against the capture of General Lee. 



^'^f;] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS nUTOHINSON. 157 

21st. — I settled with W"^ Atwick : paid him iu full of rent, 
and delivered up my house in New Bond Street. Where, or 
whether I shall take another house in London, God only knows. 
Nothing can be more uncertain than my present state. ]\Ey 
daughter continues to decline. What will be the state of 
America ? 

Mauduit called in the evening : says the Fox is retaken by 
S'' G. Collier, and carried into Halifax. 

22ud. — . . . The Flora frigate, going to Halifax to repair, 
fell in with the Boston [and] the Haacoch, two of the best rebel 
vessels they have, and the Fox. While they were loolving at 
one another S^' G. Collier in the Piainhow, who had not been out 
of Halifax 3 hours, hove in sight and came up to them as fast 
as he could, but could not tell wliat to make of them. The 
Flora threw out false colours, being at a loss what to make of the 
Fiahibow. As soon as they were known to the rebels' vessels, 
they made the best way they could. The Flora followed the 
Fox, and took her, and carried her into Halifax. The Boston 
and Hancock steered different courses, and the Bainhoiv followed 
tlie Hancoch 36 hours, when she came up with her, and she 
struck without firing a gun. The Boston steered towards the 
Bay of Fimdy, where the Diamond was cruising.* 

23rd. — . . . An express arrived from Quebec, ^ith an 
account from Burgoyne, of his being in possession of Ticon- 
deroga : 500 of the garrison killed ; 500 prisoners ; and 7000 
escaped into the words, the Indians pursuing them.f 

25th. — . . . The Gazette to-day gives a particular account 
of the action at Ticonderoga. The rebels left the Fort and 
were followed : lost 2 or 300 killed, and more wounded and 
taken prisoners, but fought better than their enemies expected. 
About 60 of the K.'s troops killed — more wounded. Burgoyne 
was at Skeensborough the 28"' of July : the rebel army at 
Fort Edward. 

26th.— ... A vessel from N. York : sailed July 29. 

* This account came by the packet from New York, in letters which left 
that city July 18. 

t Lieutenant Anburey was present, as stated above; yet his account of the 
occupation of Ticonderoga is a very peaceful affair compared with this. But 
see the next entry. 



158 DIAEY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON, [^ll'!; 

I^l"" Hutcliiusou,* SecF to Gov. Shirley at Dominica, and son 
to ]']lialdni If., late (leceascd, came ])assengor. Ho ^\a.s taken 
in Ill's i)assago from Doni. to London, and carried to X. England, 
\vliere he was prisoner on Ids parole many months. Ife says 
news came the 22nd that Bnrgoyne Mas as far as Fort Kdwaid, 
upon Avhich the fleet and army sailed — destination not known. 
They spoke with a vessel which informed them they saw th<3 
fleet off Cape lieidopen. AVashington having left part of his 
force in the Jerseys, was gone with tho rest towards Albany. 
Matters were now at a crisis. 

28th. — Mauduit called last evening, and urged me against 
my inclination to go to Court to-day. The Queen asked where 
I had been? I told her I had been six months in the country 
with my sick daughter. " What, she that used to be hero ? 
AVliy, she looked fine and healthy. I hope she will get well 
again." 

A vessel from Quebec, and it is said brings news that Schuyler 
w"* I.jOO men at Fort Edward, had laid down tlieir arms . . . 

2t)th — . . . Sir James Wright came over to see me. He 
disapproves much of the fleet and army their going to Delaware 
and Chesapeak, as is now believed, and wishes they had gone 
northward.! 

September 1st. — ... At Lord George's office. M"" Knox 
says Howe certainly intended to go to Philadelphia when he 
left New York, and that Hotham writes to Lord George that 
Clinton had sent an express after him, to inform him of 
Washington's return with his army to Morris-town. 

3rd. — An autumn day, which would admit of going abroad 
for sick persons in a coach only. My sou E. received a letter 
from his wife,:{: dated Aug. 23rd at Cove [of Cork], being just 

* His uame was "William. He was descended from the sixth son of 
Pilchard, a younger brother of the first William. His widowed mother, and 
his sister were now Eefngees in London. They were eventually interred, in 
the Apthorpe vault in Croydon church. I find no record of what became of 
bim — whether he married, or left offspring, or died single. 

f It was this ver}' removal of General Howe's forces southward, instead of 
marching north to support Gen. Burgoyne as expected, that led to the 
surrender of Burgoyne and his army at Saratoga, as will be noticed further on. 

X There is an original letter of hers in the Letter Book to her friend 
" Ophelia," giving some account of the voyage. Is it unfinished and not 
signed. 



f'?*:] DIABY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 159 

arrived after 24 days passage in the Albion frigate from Ehode 
Island. She intended the next day to Corke, and by first 
opportunity to England. 

7th. — ... In the Evening the most remarkable northern 
light I have seen since my being in England, and seldom 
exceeded in America. 

15th. — My son E.'s wife came to London from Dublin yester- 
day at one o'clock,* but finding we had moved from N. Bond 
Street, sent a Porter to Little Chelsea, who returned that he 
could not find us. She then went to the New England Coffee 
House, and could get no intelligence there, nor find where 
Judge Oliver lived. At length she found Col° Browne in the 
evening, who conducted her to Judge Oliver, her grandfather, 
and a messenger came to my son after he Avas in bed, who rose 
and went to town, and to-day they came over and dined with 
us, but a distressing day it has been, my sick daughter havino- 
sunk visibly ; and being left alone with her, I was not without 
fears of her change before her sister [Sarah], who went to 
London, could return. In the evening some revival. f 

21st. — . . . Her breath grew shorter. The last words she 
said were to D"^ Oliver — " I am dying," — and continued speech- 
less, and but little, if at all, sensible, until about half after ten 
[at night], when she expired . . . 

22nd. — ... I desired my two eldest sons to go to Croydon, 
and provide a grave for her near Miss Katy Hutchinson lately 
buried there. + 

General Haldiman set out yesterday from town for Quebec. 
I sent a card to him to wish a happy arrival, and recommended 
Jon'' and Edw. Clarke as two Consignees of E. India tea, and 
sufferers, &c. . . 

25th. — The dear remains of my daughter deposited in a brick 

* There is an original letter from Pelham Winslow, dated Newport, Ehode 
Island, June 23, 1777, mentioning her endeavours and difficulties in securino- 
a jiassage to England. 

t Elisha had been separated from his wife, owing to the state of the times, 
from the first of June, 1774, when he left America with his fatlier, until the 
21st of September, 1777, being a space of three years, three months, and 
21 days. 

% Peggy's death is mentioned in Dr. Peter Oliver's Diary. He says — 
" Sep. 21 or 22. Peggy Hutchinson, Mrs. Oliver's sister, died at Chelsea of a 
consumption : 23rd year of her age." 



160 DIAET AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS nUTOHINSOK [j 



Oct. 

777. 



grave built in the cliurch at Croydon near M"" Aptborpe's tomb, 
and that of 31" Katy H. Her brothor-in-law J)"" Oliver, her 
cousins Daniel and 8ilvester 0., with M"" Lefoutaino, the young 
gentleman of the house where we are, followed the herse in a 
mourning coaeli as relations. I\[y daughter [Sarah] and I went 
early to High Street, [Judge Oliver's], and returned at 12 
o'clock. This is the custom here, when the near relatives don't 
leave the house as soon as death comes into it. A distressing 
dav to me, especially at leaving the house with the body of my 
dear daughter, and returning to the place again after its removal. 

October 1st. — In town again, and closed my agreement for 
the house in Sackville Street, the rent at 110£ a year un- 
furnished, the rent to commence on Michaelmas Day. 

7th. — A letter came to-day from Brook Watson at Margate 
to IsV Knox, dated yesterday, giving an account of a transport, 
Cap. Llackburne, arrived from N. York, an hour or two before 
that he sailed Aug. 30 : that the 28 an express came from L'' 
Howe, advising that the 10 part of the army landed at 
Baltimore ; the rest at the head of Elk river, within 40 miles 
of Philadelphia ; that Washington had marched his army to 
Philadel. ; that Burgoyne was below Albany ; that Clinton was 
preparing an expedition, supposed to meet him ; that Sullivan 
had landed 4000 men on Staten Island in the night, and had 
been drove oft" the next day with the loss of 900 ; that an 
attempt had been made the same night at Huntingdon on 
S. Island, and another at Kingsbridge ; and the rebels repulsed 
with loss at both. 

A New York paper of Aug. 22 says there had been risings 
of the people at Boston, and the merchants had been compelled 
to promise to sell their goods at the old price for paper 
money . . . 

8th. — At the King's Levee: very thin. The Bishop of 
Lichfield, and S'' Bob* Eden, all I had any conversation with. 
The K. seldom says anything of American, or any publick 
affairs at his Levee, but he asked me to-day if I did not think 
it strange there were no letters yet ? " Surely we may expect 
them every hour." I said — "There are private letters Sir." 
" Yes, but no publick accounts." 



frn.] DIABT AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTQHINSON. 161 

11th. — The Edinburgh news paper of the 6th says that a 
vessel at Clyde from Quebec, sailed the 24th Aug., and letters 
say that Arnold w^*^ 12,000 men, had surrendered, and that 
upon this news, several gentlemen had set out from Quebec 
for New York. This is only corroborating former reports.* 
But the state of Howe's army, and the time spent this 
summer without effecting anything material, gives the most 
concern . . . 

16tb. — Lent sister [-in-law] Gr. Sanford 5 Guineas. Began 
a journey into Norfolk with M"" Paxton in a post-chaise . . . 

19th. — This being the D. of Grafton's day for receiving his 
friends when he is at Euston, [in Suffolk], W Burch had 
intended a visit before we came, and the' with reluctance, upon 
his urging, I accompanied him, his son, and M'' Paxton. We 
found M"" Holt, Member for the county, and his brother [-in- 
law ?] Gen' Parker, brother to L'^ Macclesfield, M' Stone, head 
Comiss. of Excise, M"" Metcalf, and Grigsby, Norfolk gentle- 
men, the Minister of the parish, M'" Host, [?] Lady Dutchess, 
and Lord Euston. The dinner not more grand than at M' 
Ellis's . . . 

22nd. — Went on to Lord Townshend's at Eaynhara t • • • 

24th. — Lord Townshend carried us through a great part of his 
estate, which is immense, and in admirable order, about 12,000£ 
a year, besides eleven livings in his gift ... I rode a mule L'* 
T. brought from Portugal, and found her much easier than any 
horse I have rode in England. 

Nov. 1st. — On horseback to visit M'" De Grey, elder brother 
to the Ch. Justice . . . The evening paper gives an ace* of the 
arrival of the Sivallow Packet, 7 w^ and 3 days passage from 
Elk in Chesapeak Bay. Howe had landed and was about to 
march. Washington encamped between Howe and the rebel 
magazines. 

* It is needless to say that these reports wei'e without foundation. 

t Bless the gossips, how they talk ! Is there no way of stopping their 
mouths? Read the following absurdity, — "London, May 23. A treaty of 
marriage is said to be on foot between the Hon. Mr. Hutchinson, late Lt. Gov. 
of Boston, N.E., and the Rt. Hon. Lady Dowager Townshend, mother to 
the present Viscount Townshend of Portman Square." — Essex Gazette, 
27 July, 1775. 

This is quoted by Whitmore, in Lis ' H. and 0. Genealogies,' p. 22. 
VOL. II. M 



162 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS TIUTCniNSON. [^.°.l 



\_11Ti 



3rd. — Began our journey between nine and ten to London, 
after receiving the Gazette from M'' D'Oyly, with the account 
of Gen' Burgoyne's discouraging situation.* At Newmarket 
met with news that an express was gone from London to Lord 
Weymouth at Chippenham, with an account of Wasliington's 
defeat, and Howe's being in possession of Phihidclphia, and in 
the evening Lord March came in to Chesterford, where wo 
lodged, from Lord Weymouth's, and read to us the account sent 
from liondon. 

4th. — Dined in Sackville Street about three o' clock, after 
travelling 45 miles, most of the time in the rain . . . 

6th. — To Fulham : the Bishop received me very courteously. 

Dined with my son E.[lisha.] 

In the evening at Brompton, at the baptism of my son's 
[Thomas's] youngest son Andrew,t by D"^ Kippis. The cere- 
mony differs from that in New England. Before the first 
prayer the JMinister makes a long discourse upon the nature of 
the ordinance : after the words of baptism, he speaks of fighting 
under Christ's banner, or to that effect : then addresses to the 
parent, [and] tells him his obligation : then concludes with a 
short prayer. 

7th. — In the city. Called upon Blackburne, Mauduit, &c. 

Afterwards at the King's Levee, and at the Queen's Caudle. 

Met D' Poyntz, who I had seen at Lord Townshend's, M"" 
Cornwall, Szc. No ofiicial news yet. I mentioned to the King 
a letter Blackburne shewed me, which was kept open until the 
ship was ready to sail, and which says certain advice was just 
then received of great success of Howe, which might be 
depended on as certain. This was the fullest account the King 
said he had received. 

Letters, (M' Knox writes one), were rec*^ to-day from L*^ L* 
of Ireland, w'^^ mention letters dated N. York 23 Sep., 8 
o'clock in the evening, and that advice just then came in from 
Howe. 

* This does not refer to the surrender at Saratoga. The news of that 
disaster did not reach England until the beginning of December. 

t This was my father, bom on board ship in Nantasket Koads, March 24, 
1776, as before mentioned. There was another son William, born after this, 
i.e. June 14, 1778. 



f7°77;] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 163 

8th. — . . . Paul Went worth called : makes no doubt of 
Wasliington's defeat, — his authority, what he hears from Frank- 
lin's friends in the city ; talks like a friend to the cause of 
Gov*, and urges the necessity of the measures they have 
taken. 

9th. — At the Old Jewry. In the evening at D' Heberden's. 
Called with Mauduit a few minutes at St. James's, where the 
Queen's apartm*^ were filled with Nobility, &c. . . 

10th. — Lord Mayor's show,* which 1 had not curiosity enough 
to go out to see, but sat at home mournfully reflecting on being 
at the like show last year with my dear child, where she 
probably took a cold, which laid the foundation of her fatal 
distemper . . . 

11th. — I called upon L* Gov. Bull, lately arrived with his 
family from South Carolina, in Hart Street, Bloomsb. He had 
seen me in Boston many years ago, but I have no remembrance 
of him. 

Dined with M"^ Jenkinsou : — M"" Cornwall, Dean of Norwich, 
and their wives, and a Winchester gentleman, with M'" Jefifrys, 
an Irish gen. lately from Paris, where he saw Franklin about a 
fortnight ago — says Deane is more noticed there than Franklin 
— heard the news of Washington's defeat before he came away. 
Not a word more yet arrived here. 

13th. — At j\P Ellis's. He gives me more news by the 
Bienfaisant : mentions that Howe took possession of Philad. the 
24**^ Sept. : says nothing of any action, but that of the 11*^ : 
Congress at Trenton : city fired in 3 places, but extinguished : 
shipping all burnt : Washington's army crossed the Schuylkill : 
Howe's gone after them : Clinton said to be gone to Burgoyne, 
who was entrenched at Saratoga. 

Dined with Judge Oliver. 

The evening at Lord Hardwicke's. 

Wrote to Lord Townshend, Burch, and Paxton. 

15th. — IVP Boucher, Addison, two Maryland Clergymen, D'" 
Chandler, Auchmuty, and J. Green, dined with me. Boucher 
said Delany himself told him of the application made by 

* Surely the Governor is mistaken in his day. This may he exi:)lained by 
the fact that the 9th was Sunday, and the show therefore held on Mondaj'. 

i\r 2 



164 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS IIUTCniNSON. [nni 

Boston House of Rep. to an8\Yer my Speech.* Boucher lived 
ten years near ^Vashil)gton, and was very intimate : thought 
his capacity below mediocrity : by no means equal to such a 
post: civil and polite. 

ISth. — . . . ]\r Jackson called, and left with me two small 
tools, from among many, w*^'* ho had of the same sort, and which 
were ploughed up from under the surface of a piece of grass 
ground, w*^^ he supposes never to have been turned up for 1700 
years or more, being a long divisional strip between tilled 
grounds, where they lay open, but having lately been inclosed, 
ceased to be of use for that purpose. One seems to have been 
a chizzel, the other a gouge, and are of copper, or a mixed 
metal, partly copper, and he thinks belonged t'^ the ancient 
Britons, rather than the Romans. They were found in his own 
grounds in Norfolk, t 

Dined with IF and M" Ellis without any other company. 
He gives a character of the Duke of Norfolk, who has just 
succeeded to his title, as the most despicable, and even sordid 
man in the kingdom. His son, the Earl of Surrey, to whom 
the late Duke left 7,000£ p aun., and about 11,000£ p an. to 
the father, is a great gambler, devoted to dissipation. They are 
both Catholics : the Lady of L*^ Surrey a Protestant. But M"" 

* Perhaps this refers to some speech made before the Governor left 
America. 

t The simplicity of the above remarks may be excused on the ground that 
at that period of our history, the knowledge of Celts and Palstaves " of copjjer 
or mixed metal " had made but slender progress. In the " Costume of the 
Original Inhabitants of the British Isles," by Sir Samuel ]\Ieyrick, and C. H. 
Smith, Esq., the subject of this mixed metal is alluded to. Describing the 
Plate representing the ancient Briton clothed in the skin of the brindled cow, 
■with the circular shield, and spear tipped with bone, the experiments on the 
composition of ancient bronze implements by Dr. Pearson, and published in 
the 'Philosophical Transactions' for 1796, p. 395, are duly mentioned. From 
a series of analyses it resulted that difl'erent implements yielded different jiro- 
portions of metal in the alloys of tin and copper. Though the average pro- 
lX)rtiou for this species of object is generally about one of the former to nine 
or ten of the latter, he found them vary from 1 to G, 1 to 7^, 1 to 10, &c. 

The long strips alternately of grass and tilled ground, running across the 
large enclosures, a practice still lingering in the midland counties, although 
of date anterior to the Norman Conquest, were doubtless specimens of the 
open-field system, thus scored by balks, furlong.-j, or linches, so called. 
Mr. Seebohm, F.S.A., gave an interesting account of this system before the 
Society of Antiquaries in 1879 and 1880, as recorded in the pages of the 
Proceedings, 2nd S. YIII. 88, 355. 



5°v7:] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTCHINSOK 165 



Nov 
17? 



Ellis says it would not be matter of wonder if the D., the first 
day of Parliament, should take the oaths and his seat in the 
H. of Lords. 

20th. — The Parliament met. I felt no inclination to go to 
the House of Lords, though Lord Chatham was to go down and 
make an angry speech. Once hearing him was enough for me. 
My son E.'s wife found means lo get in. I sent the Bp. of 
Eochester a set of my History and the Collection to-day, as I 
had done to the Bp. of London yesterday, and from both rec*^ 
very polite cards. In the evening at Watson's. 

Only the Bishop of Rochester's " Card " has been preserved. A 
set of his History must mean the two first volumes of his History 
of Massachusetts Bay, and the " Collection," I take it, the Collec- 
tion of his Speeches to the House of Eepresentatives. The Bishop's 
" Card " runs thus : — 

" The Bishop of Eochester presents his complim*' to Gov'' Hutch- 
inson, with his best thanks for his obliging present, w'^'' will do 
honour to his Libary, and give both instruction and amrasement 
to him. The Bp. makes no long stay in town, but will take the 
first opportunity of paying his respects to the Governor on his 
return. 

" Deanery House, Westm^" 

"Nov. 20th 1777." 

Lord Chatham had not won the Governor's heart, and he had 
no desire to go and hear him speak. How indeed should he 
have won it, seeing that his Lordship had frequently uttered 
expressions calculated to encourage insubordination, and embroil 
the two countries? and in spite of the many proofs that the 
Americans liad given, all tending to shew that they intended, 
if possible, to break away from the Mother Country, yet the 
Noble Lord, together with a few others of equally limited vision, 
could not see it. " The assertion that America aspired at inde- 
pendence, was treated as an unfounded calumny, calculated only 
for purposes of delusion." Hence, his refusal to believe a patent 
fact, acted as an incentive to further excesses. To declare that 
the Americans were justified in their resistance, was encourage- 
ment enough to teach them that they had a powerful friend 
in a place where he could do them much service in promoting 
their views, which was a premium to go on. But his Lordship 



1G6 BtAitY AiJD LETTERS OF THOMAS IIUTCniNSON. [SV. 

Avas not alono in liis iudiscrotion, there being several Peers in 
tlic one House, and several Connnoners in the other, who were 
equally unpatriotic and un-English in their principles and in 
their teaching, and who were thereby aiding and abetting the 
very war, and the very disniembermcnt of the Empire, which 
they pretended to deprecate. If they really believed that the 
Americans had a right to complain, why did they not say how 
far they might go, and where they ought to stop? Vague decla- 
mations about ill-defined wrongs, act as encoiiragements to un- 
bridled licence ; and the ^Continnator of Hume writes — " that 
the leaders of the minority in both Houses were not only the 
encouragers, but in a great degree, the authors of the American 
rebellion." The ill-advised zeal of these declaimers had fed 
the aspirations of those who were now striking for total inde- 
pendence, and had led them to a confident hope that they would 
soon get everything for them; but these encouragements were 
hollow and illusory, for in criticising the famous speech of 
November 20, 177G, Adolphus says — "Lord Chatham then ex- 
plicitly stated his repugnance to the independence of America." 
The contradictions uttered by some of these great men were 
sometimes so palpable, that it was not always easy to understand 
what they really meant in the conduct of American affairs, and 
it is a question whether they knew themselves. Certain it is, 
that they fanned the flame into fiercer fires ; so that it was the 
opinion of some men, that the rebellion in America should really 
have been first stifled in the Parliament of England : and it may 
be assumed, that if half-a-dozen Members oiit of each Chamber had 
been hanged, a very sedative effect would have been produced in 
the Colonies. 

Eeturn we to the Diary : — 

21st. — Called on W Cornwall, who gave me a full account 
of the debates in both Houses. The Opposition in both agreed 
on the same measure — to propose an amendment in the 
Answer to the King's Speech, to pray him to order an im- 
mediate cessation of arms, and then to proceed to treat v/^^ 
them. Strange as such a notion is, such men as the D. of 
G-rafton, L*^ Chatham, Shelburne, Camden, &c., spoke in favour 
of it in the Lords, and Burke, Bane, Fox, Wilkes, &c., in the 
Commons. Let what motion will, be made, in opposition, the 
number is much the same : — in the Lords 28 to 86 : in the 



Jr. 

1111 



:] DIARY AND LETTEBS OF TII0MA8 HUTOHiNSON. 167 



Commons 86 to 243 : and the last year it was near the same 
proportion.* 

22ud. — At Lord Townshend's, Portman Square. Lady Towns- 
hend asked me if I had a mind to see an instance of American 
loyalty ? and going to the sopha, uncovered a large gilt head, 
which at once appeared to be that of the King, which it seems 
the rebels at N. York, after the Declaration of Independence, 
[July 4, 1776], cut oflf from the statue which had been erected 
there, and sent to Fort Washington, in order to fix it on a pole 
or pike : but by some means or other it was buried, and after 
the surrender of the Fort, Montresor [?] took it into his 
possession, and sent it to Lord T., which he rec'* last night. 
The nose is wounded and defaced, but the gilding remains fair; 
and as it was well executed, it retains a striking likeness . . . 

In the first volume, page 520, 1 have said that during one of my 
visits to New York, I was one day shewn the spot where the statue 
of George III. had stood, and was told that at the out-break of 
hostilities it Avas taken down and cast into bullets, because it was 
well known in the city that it was made of lead. The American 
who told me this did not say it was gilt, or whether it was an 
eqnestrian group or a single figure, and perhaps he did not know, 
nor did I think of asking such questions. It is probable that the 
lead was given to the British and Hessian troops at the Battle of 
Brooklyn on Long Island, and close to New York, fought on the 
27th of August, 1776; and possibly the head was carried away 
northward a few days after, when the Americans withdrew from 
the city and marched towards Fort Washington. If it was put on 
a pole or pike at that place, for the diversion or the derision of the 
Eepublican soldiary, it may have been buried within the works 
when the Fort was assaulted and captured on the 16th of November 
following. 

In the Diary, at one or two j)laces — October 10, 1776, for instance 
— the Governor observes that amongst the prisoners taken at the 
Battle of Brooklyn, was a Lord Sterling " so called." It has been 
said that when this ofiicer, who commanded the American right 
wing, fell into the hands of the English soldiers, there Avas some 

* In Adolplius, vol. iii. p. 13, the numbeis in the Lords are 28 to 8-1, 
and in the Commons 86 to 243, he, however, placing the higher numbers 
first. The Continuator of Hmne says 97 to 28 in the Upper, and 213 to 86 
iu the Lower House. 



168 DIARY AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS IIUTCIIINSON. [J 



nee. 
777. 



approlionsion that ho woukl ho rouglily liaiulled, as it was imcler- 
etootl that it "was ho who hail sawn oft" or out off" tho head of the 
King's statuo. As to the mystorions expression " so called," some 
light is thrown npou it in a foot-noto on page 123 of Serjeant 
JjixmSi 6 Journal of Occurrences during the late American War. The 
note says — 

" His father, Mr. Alexander, (for that was his real name), went 
to America many years ago, where ho acquii'cd a considerable 
estate. Upon the death of Lord Sterliiag, a Scotch Peer, whose 
name was Alexander, cither tho late or present M"^ Alexander, came 
over to England and laid claim to the title. When the cause was 
tried by the House of Lords, and the claim lejected, the Lords 
forbade him to assume the title on pain of being led round 
Westminister Hall, labelled as an impostor ; but ever since, by the 
courtesy of his countrymen, ho has been distinguished by the title 
of Lord Sterling. The first Lord Sterling obtained a grant of 
Long Island, and was the fi.rst that settled it with British 
inhabitants. He died in 1G40." 

This little concatenation of circumstances may serve to awaken 
an excusable curiosity into the history of the statue. It is not 
likely that it had been made in the Colony, but was probably a 
present from a friendly King to a loyal city. His Majesty came to 
the throne in 1760, and the catastrophe happened in 1776 — a space 
of sixteen years ; so that we have a limited range during which 
the work had been done. Mr. Hutchinson had seen the King, and 
had talked with him often enough to know his features well, and 
we have his testimony that the likeness was good. The modeling 
— the casting — and the gilding — could scarcely have been done by 
an inexperienced hand. We would willingly know who had been 
the sculptor : whether the work had been a single figure or an 
equestrian group : when it was executed : and though we know all 
about the distribution of the body, we should like to be informed 
as to what has become of the head. 

It is time to hark back. Eumours of coming events in America 
had found their way to England at intervals for some weeks past, 
causing a considerable amount of uneasiness, as they implied some 
want of capacity in Sir William Howe, and some reverse of fortune to 
General Burgoyne ; but nothing of a tangible nature was received 
until the beginning of December. 

December 1st. — Almon tells me this morning, a vessel is 
arrived at Nantz from Charlestown : sailed 19 October : advises 



Dec, 
1777 



.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTCHINSON. 169 



the total loss of Burgoyne's army, and the distressed state of 
Howe's. I think Almon wishes it may prove true, as do too 
many, out [of] opposition to Administration. 

Major Cayler arrived before noon, with letters from S'" W. 
Howe. M' Knox mentions his being in possession of Piiilad. 
the 26 Sep'", having liad a subseq* action with Washington after 
that, and beat him : that Clinton had taken the Forts in the 
Highlands: and that it is said Burgoyne had retreated. This 
is all I hear with certainty ; only, it is agreed, that the 
Augusta, a 64-gun ship, ran aground ; and being stripped, was 
burnt : and that the Mertoii [?] sloop is lost. Affairs look less 
favorable than Ministry expected they would. Howe's going 
round to Chesapeak instead of going to join Burgoyne, is cen- 
sured much ; and it begins now to be said, that he has not 
capacity for the place he is in. 

2nd. — The Gazette in the evening gives a full account of 
yesterday's intelligence. Howe had met with more obstruction 
that was imagined lie would, and lost, in the whole, three or 
four hundred besides wounded and missing. The Augusta 
ship of 64 guns, burnt by accident in Delaware Kiver. The 
rebels still kept possession of Mud Island, about 5 miles below 
Philad., which our ships were preparing to attack. Tiie 
obstinate resistance made at one place and another, is astonish- 
ing to all parties here. Clinton had taken several Forts : 
destroyed the booms : one of which, he says, the rebels pre- 
tend cost 70,000 pounds : and AVallace, the 17"" October, 
was off Esopus, which Gen. Vaughan had laid in ashes ; 
but not a word said of Burgoyne ; and everything is in the 
dark, except we credit the rebel newspapers, which are very 
unfavorable. 

3rd. — Going into the city, I met M"" Watson, who gave me 
the first account of a ship from Quebec, with advice of the 
surrender of Burgoyne and all his army. — At M'" Ellis's. 

4th. — The papers this morning all agree in the arrival of the 
Wanvich man-of-war, which sailed the 28 of October from 
Quebec, and that Burgoyne's army laid down their arms, after 
having been some days without provisions. It is said they are 
to be sent home : that Eraser is killed, with 800 men, out of a 



170 DIAPiY AND LETTEPiS OF THOMAS IIUTCIIINSON. \J]f^\ 

tlioiisand, with wliich ho attempted to make way thro' an 
infinite number of Provincials. 

^^'herc the blame \vill lay [lie] seems undetermined. Howe's 
leaving Burgoyue after he kuew he was on his way to Albany, 
and going npon the southern expedition, is not at present 
ai'counted for. Stocks sunk at once 2 or 3 pi . Ministry 
however had the same majority or near it in a debate last night 
in the H. of Commons. Sir W" Meredith returned to the 
min. side [?]* and Governor Pownall . . . 

5th. — Into the city — universal dejection : opinion that Howe 
will not keep Philadelphia. Dined at General Gage's w"* two 
sons, E. and AV. ]i* Gov. Oliver and wife, and Judge Oliver, 
and ]\rajor Cuyler, lately arrived express. He is aide-du-camp 
to Howe, but connected \s^^ M" Gage's family : gives but an 
indifferent account of the prospect for the winter : does not 
pretend that Howe can have any assistance from the navy : is 
drawing lines of redoubts. The possession of Philadelphia is 
really, in my opinion, a disadvantage, and his army would be 
better in New York, in the state it was last winter. 

Gth. — ]\I'' Ellis called. He says the kingdom must subdue 
the Colonies, or the Colonies will subdue the kingdom. The 
iishery will be gone ; the islands gone, &c. The Opposition 
themselves are confounded when they come to the consequence 
of their own motion for a cessation of arms. Various reports of 
Howe's being shot ; Vaughan taken prisoner, &c., which do not 
appear to have any foundation. 

7th. — At the Old Jewry. [Some unknown gentleman bowed 
coming out.] Sir James Wright called after church. He 
speaks freely of past measures, and as freely of the necessity of 
a more vigorous exertion than ever. Happy would it be if the 
consideration of the terrible consequences of another year's 
campaign might dispose to reasonable terms of accommodation, 
but there seems little prospect. 

lOth. — M' Paxton came to town last evening : dined and 
spent this evening with me. A newspaper from Boston w^^ 
the particulars of Burgoyne's surrender to Gates the 17th of 
October. 

* Blotted and indistinct. Query — ministerial side. 



nn.] I>IART AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 171 

11th. — At Lord Huntingdon's where I saw General Conway 
the first time. He was very conversible, but attached to his old 
system : asked me whether I thought the Americans would 
hearken to any proposals of accoiiiodation ? and seemed to 
refer to a plan. I said I imagined they were so determined, 
that nothing short of a separation would satisfy them. After I 
left him I found Lord North had informed the House, that as 
soon as the holidays were over, he would lay some plan of 
accommodation before them, but would make no proposals to 
the Colonies during the recess. 

12th. — At M'' Ellis's, who laments the state of affairs, and the 
dispirited Administration : says things are very diflicult, but 
not desperate. 

At Lord Hillsborough's, and left my name : the Bp. of 
London's the same. 

At Lord Hardwicke's, who says there will be a change — in 
the American command certainly, — if not further. 

At D'' Kippis's, who has all the air, the house, the wife, &c., 
of one of our clergymen in a country town. 

At Col** Vassall's, Berner's Street, and left my name. At 
S'' W. Pepperrell's, Queen Anne Street, West. 

Everybody in a gloom : most of us expect to lay our bones 
here. We have reason to say the battle is not to the strong, &e. 
15th. — Kept house, my cold increasing. Paxton, with E. 
and his wife, dined. Keports of more ill success: — that 
Vaughan had surrendered on Hudson's river — that Burgoyne 
had shot himself. Govermeut, it is certain, was never more 
distressed. Loth to concede to American Independence, they 
seem to despair of being able to prevent it : and yet it is the 
prevailing voice — We cannot stop — America must be checked, 
or they will not admit of English Independence. 

The proposal made by L** North of laying before the House 
the 20 Jan., to w''^ time ParP is adjourned, a plan of governni* 
for America, a compliance with w*^'' he hoped to enforce, dis- 
covers the feeble state of Gov*. L" Chatham is too old to come 
in. He certainly wishes to enforce the authority of Parliam* 
in general : but to save his own views of opposition to all 
administration but his own, has adopted notions of a partial 



172 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS TWTCnmSON. \J^^\ 

constitutional dependence of a colony, wliicli, upon just the 
same reason, infers a total iiidependeuce. Wo are to expect 
further accounts from America, still unpleasing. 

The clamour increases against the Howes, who ought to be 
heard before they are condemned. 

19th. — My cold continues bad. Accounts from N. York, by 
way of Ireland say, that Mud Island was taken, and the river 
Delaware ch'arcd. The question some people ask is — What 
good will Philad. do us now we have got it? 

20th. — ... A little time every day I generally take for 
continuing my History, and a little more in reading ; both 
which give me relief. 

23rd. — Find my pulse very quick this morning : stay at 
home and keep to barley drink, and avoid animal food : my 
cough not worse : try, in the evening, a large dose of brimstone 
and molasses my daughter Oliver prepared for me. Lord and 
Lady Gage sent to invite me to dinner to-raorrow, but am 
obliged to excuse myself. 

31st. — A cold NE. wind . . . IM"" Eliakim Hutchinson's widow, 
daughter, and son, dined with me upon a fine haunch of venison, 
a present from L'' Hardwicke, with Judge Oliver's and son E.'s 
fa^ lilies. 

At the end of another year, it may bo permitted to make a short 
pause. The fortunes of war had oscillated from one side to the 
other, and back again, but the actual advance to either party, had 
not been very perceptible. England however, was in the 
ascendant in August 177G. The Battle of Brooklyn virtually laid 
the Colonies at the feet of the Mother Country, and the successes 
that followed confirmed the accuracy of this assertion. It was said 
that Sir William Howe wanted a little more dash. " But General 
Howe," says the Continuator of Hume, " was much more blamable 
for not pursuing the advantages gained on his side. With cold 
and dilatory caution he checked his brave men in the career of 
success." He occupied New York — beat the Americans at White 
Plains, at Forts Washington and Lee, and then followed them 
leisurely to the waters of Philadelphia, where he arrived, writes 
Stedman — " just when the last boat of General Washington's 
embarkation crossed the river, as if he had calculated, it was 
observed, with great accuracy, the exact time necessary for his 



Dec. 
1Y77 



.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 173 



enemy to make his escape." Says the Continuator — " But nothing 
of the vast, the vigorous, or decisive, appeared in the plans or 
conduct of General Howe, who, from so often stopping the progress, 
chilling the ardour, and benumbing, as it were, the faculties of his 
victorious troops, acquired the disgraceful nickname of the Military 
Torpedo." This should seem to have been a play upon the word 
torpid. A resolute hand would then have terminated the war, for 
the fate of the Colonies was in the grasp of the General. 

As to the affair of Saratoga, it may be observed, that if England 
had been struck with surprise on receiving news of the Battle of 
Bunker's Hill, the recent account of the surrender of General 
Burgoyue and his army at Saratoga, had intensified surprise into a 
stronger word. Various excuses were offered by different people 
according to the tendency of their sympathies ; but we gather from 
the Diary, that from the first rumour of disaster in that quarter, 
there was a feeling among the Ministers, or among those who were 
closely associated with them, that Sir William Howe was to blame 
for going south to Philadelphia, instead of going north to support 
General Burgoyne. That Howe was expected, and that a sort of 
belief to that effect was prevalent among Burgoyne's troops is 
certain, because Lieutenant Anburey, who was with them, 
distinctly says so. He writes. Vol. ii. p. 6, — " It was universally 
understood throughout the army, that the object of our expedition 
was to effect a junction with that under General Howe, and by such 
means become masters of the Hudson's river, dividing the northern 
from the southern provinces. You can easily conceive the 
astonishment it occasioned, when we were informed that General 
Howe's army had gone to Philadelphia, and it was the more 
increased, as we could not form to ourselves any idea how such a 
step would facilitate or effect a junction." 

It is late in the day however, to discuss these military 
movements, and it is only done so as far as may apply to the 
remarks made in the Diary. At a subsequent date, when these 
officers returned to England, they lost no time in meeting their 
accusers, and fought bravely to overcome the slanders that had 
been heaped up against them. The adverse accounts which had 
crossed the Atlantic of late had seriously impaired the popularity 
of the two brothers Howe ; but with an amount of fairness and love 
of justice, to friends, foes, and all orders of men. Governor 
Hutchinson writes under December 15th — " The clamour increases 
against the Howes, who ought to be heard before they are 
condemned." 

But the unexpected intelligence had struck a heavy blow to the 



174 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS IIUTCJUNSON. [n??; 

hopes of tlio Loyalists and Rofiigces, who wore getting impatient 
to rotxnn homo in peace. Even tlie Governor, who had hitliorto so 
fondly and so persistently clung to this hope, at last begins to 
hetray signs of despair. On the 25th of May, 1775, he wrote — " I 
see my contemporaries dying away so fast, that I am more anxious 
than over to hasten home, lest I should die here, which I dread 
ahove all things:" Init now, on the l'2th of Decemher, 1777, he 
writes — " Most of us expect to lay our hones here." 



Jan. 
Ills 



.] ( 175 ) 



CHAPTER IV. 

BEGINNING OF THE YEAR 1778. 

Jan'' 1st. — I called upon L** Huntingdon. He was very open 
in condemning Howe's conduct : at a loss where to find a 
successor : inclines to Sir H. Clinton : mentioned the talk of 
Murray: doubted whether Lord Amherst would go. In the 
evening I sent him a letter I rec** from D'" Gardiner at N. 
York, and extract of a letter to D'" Chandler from M' Wether- 
head. M"" Thomas, one of the Massachusetts Council, arrived 
last night from N. York, last from Ireland, called on me. 

2nd. — Col" Scott of Boston, who arrived at the same time 
with M"^ Thomas, called with M"^ Timmins. Affairs never 
looked so dark. Mauduit spent an hour in the evening — very 
gloomy. 

L*^ Huntingdon returned me the letters. He sent [to] me, 
informing me his son, (natural), M' Hastings, came to town last 
night, and confirms everything in those letters. I suppose he 
came in the Irish fleet. 

4th. — . . . Dined with M"" Ellis, his wife only, and his 
nephews. I was surprised to hear him say that he did not 
believe there was any thought of a change in the American 
command by land. He had heard talk of a division, or separate 
coinand of part of [the] naval force : he added he had not had 
much opportunity of informing himself, coming to town the 
day before . . . 

5th. — A report this morning that the D. of Manchester has a 
letter from France, which says they had entered into a treaty 
with the Americans for 31 years . . . 

7th. — In the city at M"" Palmer's, Devonshire Square, upon 
ray affair with Dupuis' Executor. Talk prevails there of a 
French war. Lord Mansfield is gone suddenly to Paris. Stocks 



176 DIAIiY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON, [i"^,:": 

fall: Bank st. at 120, was at 141 when I bought for M"" 
"SVinslow. 

"Wrote by the packet to D'' Gardiner, in answer to a letter 
rec** from him to Jos. Wanton Jr., Esq., at Newport, respecting 
my estate and my sister's, which I inclosed to M'' Colburn 
Barratt at N. York, and prayed him to forward. 

8th. — ... At Court. D'' Ross, new Bp. of Exeter, kissed 
hands : first time of seeing the Queen since my daughter 
died . . . 

9th. — A Gazette extraordinary gives letters from L"^ Howe, 
and Gen. Howe, as late as 29 Nov., but nothing very material. 
The enemy's shipping was either burnt by them, or escaped up 
the river, and they have lost nothing but their old cannon, an'l 
a quantity of shot. 

The General writes that he was just upon moving to go after 
"Washington, who, it is thought, was also just upon moving, to 
keep at such distance from him as he should think fit. 

10th. — At Brompton, at my son's, [Thomas's], where I had 
not been since the death of his child.* 

11th. — At Prince's Street — D"" Kippis. Called on Bliss, who 
is as yellow as saffron with the jaundice . . . 

12th. — Into the city with my sou T. in the coach. I called 
on Blackburne : he says Murray is sent for from Minorca : that 
Howe had determined to burn German-town, and the environs 
of Philadelphia . . . 

13ih. — Called on Lord Huntingdon: shewed him Putnam's 
letter. He says L** George's Lady is dying with the measles ; 
otherwise he would have talked with him on the subject: he 
hears, he says, orders are gone to recall Howe: added that 
Clinton, S' "VV" Erskine, Grey, Leslie, had all wrote to be 
recalled if Howe remained, and the officers were universally 
discontented : that Clinton had said he wished old Bobertson 
was chief, that he might take all the care of the army, except 
fighting, and that he was his second : but this could not be, 

* There is no mention of this child in the Pedigree or any family record. 
It comes in between Andrew and William, Andrew was born March 24, 
1776, and William June 14, 1778, a space of two } ears, two months, and 
21 days, and considering the interval of time, this boy or girl, whichever it 
may have been, could only have been a few months old. 



Jan 

1778 



^.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. Ill 



because R. was a younger officer. This connexion makes 
probable what it is reported R. said when he heard H. was 

gone to the southward instead of N. England — "By G ■ 

he deserves to be hanged ! " 

L*^ Huntingdon apologised for Clinton's conduct at S. Caro- 
lina : said he had been constantly sea-sick for a month or two, 
and all his spirits wasted : that there was a L* Coffin who 
Parker wished to make a Captain : that he sent this Coffin to 
Charlestown to reconnoitre : that he made return that Sullivan's 
Island Fort was unfinished : that there was a ford of not more 
than 18 inches from Long Island to Sullivan's Island: that 
Clinton was persuaded by Parker to attempt Charlestown : 
that when he landed at Long Island and found not less than 
6 or 7 feet water, he advised Parker of it, and sent Gen. 
Vaughan, to oifer, with three or four battalions, to go up with 
the fleet to Charlestown : that he proposed to go up by a creek 
in boats : that there was a point called Hedeson's Point, or 
some such name, where were two or three heavy cannon, which 
raked this creek, and therefore it was necessary they should be 
silenced by the ships : that to his surprize, before he had any 
answer, Parker began to fire upon the Fort at 800 yards 
distance : that he stood like a beast upon deck, receiving their 
fire from the Fort, not regarding how many of his men were 
killed for many hours, doing no execution : that Lee had no 
apprehension the Fort would stand the fire of the ships, and 
ordered the garrison to make the best retreat they could, and 
even to leave Charlestown ; but when he saw the ships anchor 
800 yards off, he led the garrison, knowing they were secure : 
that Clinton was hurt [ofiended] because Lord George did not 
publish all his letter, but that the clauses not published were 
kept back out of sincere kindness to Clinton ; and though 
Clinton resented it and came home on that account, yet he 
returned satisfied ; and Lord Huntingdon, when Clinton shewed 
him the paragraphs, observed to him that, with persons who 
knew Clinton's character, they could do him no hurt, yet, with 
the world in general, a construction would have been made to 
his disadvantage : that Lord Rawdon had made up the differ- 
ence between Clinton and Sir P. Parker, but Parker was brought 

VOL. ir. N 



178 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS IIUTCIIINSON. fim 



Lina. 



to ackuowledge he bad uot done justice to Clintou in the 
account whicli ho gave in his letters to Lord George. . . 

l-lth. — A storm of rain all day, and easterly wind. Staid all 
day at home : wrote five or six folio pages of the History of 
my own administration. This has been my diversion at times 
ever since I came from the Hot Wells. [Jan. 1775, I. 345.J 
Sometimes for a week together I write more or less every day, 
and then neglect it some days together, and fdl the time with 
reading. If I had not found such employment for my thoughts, 
my troubles would have preyed upon me much more than they 
have, and I believe been too powerful. I thank God I have 
never quitted books, and so, I have not lost the relish of them. 
My friend M'' Ellis cautioned me against it, and mentioned his 
going into the country with Sir E. Walpole after he was out of 
place : that he would take up a book, and in two or three 
minutes throw it down and say — " How happy should I be if I 
could but relish a book as once I did." 

Lord Hardwicke called notwithstanding the bad weather, 
and sat half an hour. I shewed him Putnam's letter. He did 
not approve of it. 

15th. — At Lincolus Inn Hall to see Dupuis' Executor. Full 
of Americans — Paxton, Lechmere, Paddock, Fitch, Pickman. 
The new Bishop of Exeter called also. 

16th. — . . . D'" Chandler, Paxton, Leonard, Fitch, Dan- 
forth, Scott, and Jackson, Americans, dined with me. 

17th. — At M' Ellis's, Hanover Square. Carried D"^ Chandler 
in my coach to Lambeth, and dined with the A-Bishop, M" 
Cornwallis, Bp. of Kochester, D'' Wynn, a civilian, W [blank] 
D' Wise, and D^ Backhouse, [?] Chaplains. Generally he 
Las a full table on Saturdays, but it was remarkably thin 
to-day. 

It was said Murray is coming from Minorca. 

An article of news seems to gain credit, and is said to come 
from private letters, as well as newspapers : — that upon debate, 
the Congress were equally divided upon a question whether they 
should relinquish their claim, or rescind their vote for indepen- 
dency, and treat with the Commissioners, and that a fresh 
member was called in, and turned the vote against rescinding, 



Jan. 
1778. 



] DIAllY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 179 



&c., — and the distress of the people is said to be intolerable, 
being destitute of necessaries. 

18th.— At Prince's Street : D"^ Kippis. 

Just before dinner 1/ Townshend came in, and mentioned 
the arrival of Lord Cornwallis, who was not then come from the 
King : had heard nothing remarkable : both armies gone to 
winter quarters : fleet to Newport : 7 regiments to New York : 
talk that there was a division in the Congress, and that 
Washington was for peace. 

Dined at Lord Hardwicke's: General Paoli and Mauduit, 
besides the family. In the evening M" Yorke, who I had not 
seen before, Avidow of Charles Yorke, and her daughter. Lady 
Mary, I suspect, must have something imperceptible in a 
general acquaintance, which has been an impediment to a 
match, her person and behaviour being engaging.* Lady 
Polwarth, with her Lord at Nice, for his health. 

19th. — Yesterday being Sunday, the Q.'s birthday was 
observed to-day. I intended to stay at home, but being 
invited to dine at L* Huntingdon's, and obliged to dress, I 
went for a little while to Court, and luckily was the 2nd 
person the King spoke to ; immediately after which I left the 
Drawing-room, and was at home soon after 3 o'clock. 

A gloomy day it was to me, from the recollection that this 
day twelvemonth my daughter took the cold which laid the 
foundation of her illness. 

Found less company at L*^ H.'s than expected : — young Lord 
Fielding, Col" Hastings, and M' Hastings, his n. son, (L* 
Huntingdon's). L*^ H. discovered that he had no expectation 
of a change in the Amer. command, and despaired of success. 



* Tastes and preferences are infinite, and they are unaccountable. There 
are many agreeable, accomplislied, and estimable old Maids in the world. 
They may have become so from choice, or disappointment, owing to some of 
the hundred-and-one impediments which are too often to be encountered in 
bringing these matters to a happy conclusion. We have heard of a staid 
old Maid who one day gave vent in very strong language, in speaking of a 
number of fast young ladies of her acquaintance, who were rapidly picking 
up husbands all round her, by their irresistible arts and flirtations, which 
put her out of patience with them, and then she wound up her impassioned 
diatribe by exclaiming — " Ah ! it is the trash that is picked up, whilst the 
best are always left 1 " 

N 2 



180 mAJRY AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS nUTCIIJNSON. [/,';^; 

He was to have dined himself w^^ Lord G., but the death of 
Lady G. prevented.* . , 

20th. — ravliament meets, but no business. . . 

23rd. — At Lord Hardwicke's, and tho Bishop of London's : the 
rest of tho day upon my history ; in the evening Mauduit called. 

25th. — A severe N. East storm ; did not stir out all day. 
Lord Gage dropped in in the midst of it, without cloak or 
great coat, of which it's probable he has neither, the polite part 
of the kingdom alTecting to wear neither, but to walk about in 
the rain : and women particularly, of middle rank, often walk- 
ing with their silk hats and silk cloaks, designed as a paxt of 
their dress in fair weather. 

27th. — ... At B^ Lee Parkins's. Young Gould from 
Boston, 28 of xVugust. He speaks of great distress in the 
to\Mi : all government at an end : their paper money sunk to 
almost nothing, &c. 

29th. — Lord Percy called, after a long time since my visit 
upon his arrival. Spent an hour — Paxton with him : good 
natured, easy, and pleasant, as w^ell as free in conversation: 
plainly discovers his opinion of wrong measures this year: 
related very circumstantially Sullivan's artful manner of per- 
suading Gen. Howe to let him go out, to send persons in to 
treat : the manner of Franklin, Adams, and Kutledge's treat- 
ment of Lord Howe, &c. 

I received a letter two days ago from M"" Wanton about my 
estate at Conanicut. Lord Percy brought a message from him 
to acquaint me with the ruinous state of it ; but my letter 
dated March 19 f did not get to hand till 22^ Oct^— At Lord 
North's Levee. Lord Amherst left his card when I was abroad. 

30th. — At Lord Huntingdon's. He says L*^ Amherst has 
declined going out : that Clinton has wrote to him that he will 

* Dr. Peter Oliver speaks in his Diary of going to the " Queen's Ball Room," 
on January the 18th, which was Sunday. Perhaps, like the Queen's Drawing 
Room, the aflair came off on the Monday. He writes thus — " Jan. 18, 1778. 
— I went to the Queen's Ball Room with Wm. Hutchinson, son of Ehakim 
Hutchinson." 'the next entry is this — "In Apl. following my father and 
J. Clarke went to live at Birmingham." 

What induced the Chief Justice to settle down at Birmingham is nowhere 
stated. 

t See back, Mar. 18, 1777. 



S.] DIABT AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 181 

not serve under Howe: that he should not like to command 
the debris of Howe's army : and that he (L*^ H.) believes that 
as soon as the East River is free of ice, Clinton will come home. 
While that is froze, he says N. York is so exposed, Clinton 
will not leave it. Upon the whole, L*^ H. supposes Howe will 
keep the command. 

31st. — Spent good part of an hour with M' Cornwall, w*^^ he 
desired might be in confidence. He says L*^ North had sud- 
denly engaged to the House what it is now very difficult to 
perform — some plan of conciliation : that if he had com- 
mitted an error himself, he should think it the best way 
frankly to acknowledge it : he did not suppose that would be 
the case now : he owned he savv nothing could be offered but 
what would make the case worse than at present, or without it : 
he mentioned three or four difi' schemes thought of — the least 
exceptionable, a proposal, that if the colonies [would return] to 
the same subjection they were under in 1763, all the Acts passed 
since should be repealed, (Lord Chatham's proposal was only 
"suspended,") and already should then commence for the future 
governm* of the Colonies. But to whom is this proposal to be 
made, or what security can be given for any compliance with it?* 

Called on Lord Amherst w*^ Paxton : left cards. At M' 
Jackson's. 
■ 1st February. — At the Old Jewry. 

At Court, on the Queen's side of the Drawing Room only. 
In the evening at L** Mansfield's, and the Chancellor's : never 
saw them so full — D. of Devonshire, L*^ Dartmouth, Mackles- 
field, Percy, Abercorn, I\Iarchmont, Falconberg, Beaulieu, 
Lewisham, A-Bp. of York, Bp. of Llandaff, W Oswald, D' 
Courtenay, cum multis aliis, unknown to me. At D"" Heberden's. 
A raw foggy disagreeable day. Jy Watson says that Clarendon 
House stood in Piccadilly, and ran back up Albemarle Street, 
■where 5 or 6 houses now stand : that the Duke of Ormond 
lived in that house when Blood seized him. 

* Since the surrender of Burgoyne the aspect of affairs between the two 
countries had assumed a very serious complexion. The tenor of these dis- 
cussions shews that both Houses were at their wits' end to devise some 
scheme for accommodation. Had they not discovered by this time that the 
Americans did not want accommodation ? 



182 DIARY AND LETTERS OF TlIOMAS HUTCHINSON. [/S 



l.'el). 
78. 



2n(l.— At Lord Ilillsborongli's : his son [blot] Lord Fairford 
at breakfast >Yith him. Talked Avitli great freedom: said he 
and I had always thought exactly alike: asked what those 
members of Pari* could do at such a time, when they did not 
approve of particular measures, and yet in general approved 
the design of IMiuistry, in restoring America to the Empire ? — 
the present Ministry, tho' feeble and irresolute, was better than 
what would come in their room if there should be a charuge : 
and yet it was difficult to vote for what was directly against 
their judgment : asked whether L^ North ever consulted me? 
I told him No. He said he was a good man, but apt suddenly 
to resolve on a thing, which upon second thoughts he repented 
of, and intimated that to be the case when he promised to lay 
some plan, which he now found more difficult than he expected. 
There is talk of a letter from Gates to Lord Thanet, w'^'* 
Lord Fairford said he heard Lord Petersham say he brought, 
[having been assured] upon Gates' word, that there was no 
politicks in it. Lord Loudoun asked me yesterday at Court 
if 1 knew Gates? and said, -when he was in America, he was 
the laughing stock of the array, as an ignorant nonsensical 
fellow. 

A raw, unpleasant dark day. 

3rd. — At Lord Hardwicke's, where I met Soame Jenyns, who 
gave an account of yesterday's debate in the U. of Commons. 
A motion was made by Charles Fox, that no part of the troops 
now in Great Britain and Ireland should be sent to America, 
[even] tho' new levies of raw men should be placed in their 
stead. He spoke more than two hours in support of the 
motion: nobody said one word, so that it can't be called 
strictly a debate. The Question was called for, and carried — • 
259 against, to 165 : a larger minority than has lately been 
known. Both L*^ H. and S. Jenyns thought it impolitic to 
make no answer, and that the Ministry lost hands by it. In 
the Lords the same motion was made, and 91 or 2 Lords were 
against 31 or 2.* 

* The Continuator of Hume speaks of the "contemptuous silence " with 
which the speech Avas received. He says the motion was rejected by 259 
to 165 in the Lower House, and 93 to 31 in the Upper. 



i>^-."| DIABY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 183 

4th. — My cough returning last night I kept house, being a 
raw day. 

Tiiere has been much talk for two or three days of L"* 
Chatham's coming in — some say in L'^ Dartmouth's place. 
M"^ Howard, brother to Lord Hingham, mentioned a day or two 
ago, that Lord Chatham had wrote to the M. of Eockingham, 
that he could not bear to see the Kingdom ruined, and 
intimated his not being able to go all lengths, &c. Adminis- 
tration must undoubtedly be distressed, and seem afraid to 
take the measures which all agree ought to be taken, by 
changing the American commands. 

5th. — . . . The report of Lord Chatham's separating from 
the Opposition gains ground. 

6th. — At M'' D'Oyly's. He says the papers laid before the 
House show that there was no thought of Howe's joining 
Burgoyne until he heard of his being at Albany : and now the 
clamour seems to be reserved either for Burgoyne or the 
Ministry. ^ I met L^ Onslow, and asked him whether there 
could be all this smoak \sic\ about Lord Chatham, and no fire ? 
He says No : that L*^ Chatham has certainly left the Opposition. 

7th. — At jVF Ellis's. He has removed all my apprehensions 
of L'' Chatham : says there is nothing more than that he did 
not like the motion of the Opposition, to make the enquiry 
now before Parliament, and would not come down : does not 
like the state of things : particularly fears difficulties from the 
plan which Lord North has promised : thinks, himself, a 
declaration might be made of Parliament's being ready to 
admit Members from the Colonies.* 

* If Mr. Ellis talked in that way, lie must have quite forgotten that the 
Americans did not want to be represented in the English Parliament, the 
distance, and the length of time in those days, of imparting and receiving intelli- 
gence, being insuperable objections to an unwilling people. In " The Declar- 
ation by the Eepresentatives of the United Colonies of North America," &Ci, 
a copy dated 1775 being before me, the pleasure of complainmg richly adorns 
every page, and at page 11 Representation in Parliament is alluded to, as 
thus : — " After the most valuable right of legislation was infringed, when the 
powers assumed by your Parliament, in which tue are not represented, and 
from our local, and other circumstances, cannot projyerJy he represented," &c., 
&c. This passage is quite enough to shew that at this time they did not 
desire representation, although at one period the want of it was said to have 
originated the quarrel. 



184 DIARY AND LETTEIiS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. [„' 



Feb. 
778. 



It is said D'Oyly is removed from Lord George's office. 

lOtli.— Called on M' D'Oyly. lie lias put himself out, but 
it is because he sees ho does not please Lord George. He 
shews his attachment to the Howes more than ever : Lady 
Howe and ]\L" D'Oyly always together. He speaks freely of 
Lord George's taking Thomson into his family. Some points 
look strange. Lord Hardwicke said to me yesterday, he had 
heard, and believed it, that Gen. H. is recalled. This affair of 
D'Oyly's looks like it. D'Oyly says no orders are gone to call 
Gen. ]\Iurray to England. — Judge Browne dined and spent the 
evening. Called on M"" Agar. 

11th, — At home all day upon my History, except a short 
Avalk to Pall ]\[all and back. I am in danger of too much 
confinement for my health, and often go out w*^ reluctance. 

Reports that Burgoyne's men are stopped at Boston.* 

12th. — . . . The Howes lose ground every day. It is 
now said that upon information of Ministry's not being 
satisfied, they desired leave to come home, and that it has been 
granted, and Clinton is to take the command : but some think 
he will be come away, before the leave arrives. 
, Mauduit in the evening — is very low-spirited at the state of 
affairs. 

13th. — My family all dined with J[udge] Oliver, High 
Street. 

It is now past all doubt that the Howes are recalled. I 
called on M"" Keene : talked upon L** North's conciliatory 
plan. He intimates proposing to ascertain the proportion of a 
tax to be made by America^suppose 2/- a head. 1 told him 
all would be scouted and ridiculed. He said something must 
be done : the Country Party was going off : they had lost 50 
members : they should not have a majority of 20 if something 
was not done : spoke of the danger of a fresh war, and sinking 
stocks. 

14th. — Never were men more universally condemned than 

* The march of General Burgoyne's army to the neighbourhood of Boston, 
the severity of the winter, with the bad accommodation, the brutal conduct 
of Colonel Henley towards the English prisoners, the prosecution of him for 
his cruelties, with Burgoyne's masterly pleading, and skilful forensic manage- 
ment of the trial, are given in the second volume of Anburcy's Travels. 



Feb 

177d 



.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTQHINSON. 185 



the Howes. It is now said, two men of less capacity were not 
to be found. Tuesday the 17th is appointed for L'^ North's 
plan to come before the House. He never was so much 
perplexed before, and his friends think he is making bad worse. 

16th. — Called upon BF Ellis. Wondered, considering his 
caution, to hear him speak so freely of the present state of 
Government. He says there will be 400 Members at two or 
three o'clock in the House, and let what will be before them, 
soon after four they are reduced to little more than 100 ; the 
absentees at Coffee Houses, taverns round Parliam* House, 
rooms above or below, or on the ground floors, eating, drinking, 
&c. By 7 or 8 the House is full again, and presently, after 
the " Question ! Question ! " many flustered — constant con- 
tention, who is up, and ought to speak : and in this strange 
irregularity, somehow or other, affairs go on, and Government 
holds together. 

Dined at M"" Ellis's : Douglas, Paymaster of the Navy there. 

17th. — At Lord Hardwicke's. He opened Lord North's 
plan, as it had been communicated to him. He seems willing 
to give up all, but is confused in his notions of government, as 
every man must be when he departs from the fundamental 
principles, and admits governed to be governors. It is agreed 
on all hands that Commissioners are to go out. It follows that 
the whole powers they are to be entrusted with cannot bo 
communicated to Parliament, or, in other words, made publick. 

The K. therefore, must be impowered to instruct them, as he 
may constitutionally do, in treating upon peace or war, with 
any who are not subjects, &c.* 

18th. — Last night Lord North communicated his plan — the 
substance [being] to relinquish taxing, if the Colonies will 
engage to contribute by their Assemblies, an adequate 
proportion to the charge of the Empire : to appoint five 
Commissioners, fully impowered to treat with any body cor- 
porate or individual, for the restoration of peace upon those 

* This implies a difficulty on the very threshold. If the King is to treat 
with the Americans not as subjects, this would be a confession that they are 
free and independent, which is the very thing they were contending for, and 
which England denied. 



186 PTAIii" AND LETTERS OF THOMAS IlUTCIIINSON. [n. 



78. 



terms, the Commission to continue till June 1779. Upon this 
plan, as all is to bo done by Act of Parliament, the King may 
instruct the Commissioners to give up any further points he 
thinks proper. 

' It is said the French have actually entered into a Treaty of 
Commerce with them as Independent States. It is difficult to 
judge what eiltect this concession will have upon the minds of 
the people. At present they are much divided : so are the 
friends of the Minister, though they vote with him. We 
Americans are silent. 

Pleduntur Acliivi. [The Loyalists are plucked !] 
At Lord Townshend's. He is in great wrath : condemns the 
pusilhxnimity of Lord North: has been down into Norfolk: 
encouraged subscriptions: subscribed 500£ himself, though 
involved and straitened beyond bearing. His poor Lady looks 
distressed also. When I see so much uneasiness of mind in 
persons of that high rank, it ought to make me more sensible 
of the goodness of God to me. I am less uidiappy under all 
the troubles brought upon me by his Providence, than they 
appear to be in what the world calls affluence and pro- 
sperity : for though he is so involved, yet with prudence and 
[sic] oeconomy, his estate and income are so great, he might 
soon extricate himself. 

19th.— Two Bills bro't into the H. of Commons : one for 
renouncing the right of taxation ; the other to enable the K. 
to impower Coinissioners, &c. Nothing said. 

20th.— At M'' D'Oyly's in the morning. He raves! The 
nation is ruined! but the recall of the Howes is the cause 
(with him) of the ruin. Everybody, however, it must be 
acknowledged, is struck with this motion. Lord Hillsborough 
called and spent an hour. When he persuaded me to take 
the Gov* he thought he was doing public service, and serving 
me ; now he saw what I suffered, he wished, for my sake, he 
had not urged me. 

I said there was no judging what effect this turn would 

have : still the country might be saved, and much would 

depend on the Commissioners. I thought there seemed to be a 

ort of amazement in people's countenances. He said it was a 



K?8.] DIAEY AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS IIUTCJIINSON. 187 

sullen silence. He agreed [that] all the best men in the 
kingdom were voting in Parliam* for a measure they disap- 
proved of. But one of the Cabinet was in it — that was Lord 
Dartmouth. He did not know but L'' Weymouth might think 
less unfavourably than L'' President, L*^ Chancellor, 1/ Suffolk, 
and Lord Sandwich, who were utterly against it. I asked if the 
King did not countenance it ? He thought the K. would never 
thwart his Minister, and would rather, when dissatisfied, change 
him. I was yesterday at L' Huntingdon's. He says the K. is 
for it : he does not like the dismembering his Empire, but he 
wants to be quiet, and to enjoy his small circle of happiness in 
Buckingham House. 

It is certainly a cricis. 

Some great turn in afftiirs seems approaching. 

]\r Perry from Boston, by way of Halifax, and W Messerous [?] 
from New York, called on me. The former left Boston Jan. 3*^. 
No such want of provisions as has been reported. Cloathing and 
many other articles extreme scarce. The paper money makes 
great confusion in all dealing. 

21st. — At IVP Jenkiuson's, Avho is very silent, cold, and 
reserved : asked a question or two : he answered he had no 
hand in what was doin<2:. It not beins: one of the mollia 
tempora, I withdrew. Everybody where I go is out of temper. 
What can be more unpleasant than to be obliged to vote for 
what they utterly disapprove ? 

22nd. — At Marybone Chapel with Judge Oliver, &c. After- 
wards at Court. Lord Talbot said a great deal upon the plan : 
thought we had better withdraw all our troops, and make a 
naval war : said he did not know how to join the Opposition. 

In the evening at If Heberden's. Not one word of govern- 
ment matters. 

23rd.— I obtained, after long solicitation, £300 for two years' 
salary for M"" Putnam, Att^ Gen. of Mass^ Bay, by an order on 
the Bank, paying M"" Rowe 7. 10/ for his fees. 

Whilst there is so much fault found with the Minister's plan, 
I keep more at home than usual, t) be out of the way of 
giving offence. I am sure I can do no good by finding fault 
with it. 



188 DTAEY AND LETTEIiS OP THOMAS nUTCIIINSON. [J^t\ 

24th. — At M"" Ellis's. He says the House sat till one, upon 
motions for amendiii}^ the Bills: one — that the Massachusetts 
Charter Bill should be suspended, and he says M"" Wedderburn 
was for a total repeal, and that ho is to bring in a Bill to- 
morrow, but M*" Ellis disapproves, and so he does of the whole 
measure, and yet says he is forced to go with the torrent. I 
told him — If the torrent was left to its natural course, it would 
run the other way. He did not know but it might. I said — 
At Lloyd's I heard everybody declared against the proceedings. 
" Why," says he, " don't they pour in their petitions? " I told 
him it would not do for me to concern myself. " No," says 
he, " by no means. Keep as much out of sight as you can : 
there is scarce a day but somebody or other has a fling at you 
in the House. Don't offend the Ministry who are friendly to 
you ; but your friend Mauduit might do a great deal." 

Afterwards at Lord Hardwicke's, where I saw Soame Jenyns. 
They are for the Bills, though they say they are as ill-timed as 
is possible. 

I was at Paxton's lodgings. Lord Percy was there just 
before. He says there is great confusion. He won't go to the 
H. of Lords till the affair is over. He does not like Lord 
Carlisle's being at the head of the Commission. 

25th. — Went into the city, and called upon M' Strahan, 
who says all is given up : after that upon Blackburn and 
Mauduit. 

26th. — At Lord Huntingdon's. Americans dined with me : — 
L* Gov. Oliver, S' W"^ Pepperell, Flucker, Waldo, Hatch, 
Paxton, Hallowell, Vassall, with M'' John Lane. 

27th. — Dined at Lord Townshend's : only Paxton, and L** and 
Lady T., daughter, and governess. Countess Dowager of 
Egmont, a most agreeable Lady, in the evening. L*^ T. says 
there is a breach with the Chancellor, and that he is going out. 
He talks like a man in a frenzy about the proposed measures : 
told his Secry. to bring him the names of two people that 
wanted some little provision : Lord North would be out, and be 
could expect nothing from Lord Kockingham, &c. 

Adm. Gambier called on me. He came from M' Robinson's, 
Secry. to the Treasury. He says Robinson said enough to 



so DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 189 

convince him Lord N. wishes he had not gone so far as he has, 
&c. — Pablick fast. 

March 1st. — At the Old Jewry with my cliildren as usual. 
At home the rest of the day and evening. 

2nd. — Called on Sir James Wright, and left my name. A 
letter from M' Walter, New York, Jan. 5. News to Feb. 2^ 
It's now agreed Clinton will stay and take the command of the 
army, and Sir W^ Howe return. 

Affairs go on yet in the H. of Commons. The measure is 
that of the minority, to whom the Minister gives way: the 
majority do not like the measure, but they follow the Minister. 
Montesquieu says, the English Constitution will perish when 
the legislative part shall become more corrupt than the executive. 
I have found it difficult to conceive what he intended, seeing 
the executive must be the corruptors, who must be as corrupt 
as the corrupted. I don't know whether the present state of 
things may not bo nearly his idea. 

3rd. — Called on M"" Preston, Charles Street. In the city to 
Devonshire Square, and back a-foot. I think there will be an 
acquiescence in measures more tlian I expected. L*^ Percy 
said to Paxton — L*^ North will not be Minister a month 
hence ; but I believe he does not guess right, for it is — a 
guess. 

4th. — Called on my friend M'' . He is generally reserved 

but opened himself to-day. He would have died before he 

would have taken the part Lord has done. He is sure that 

if he had been in his place, and the K. had proposed such a 
measure to him, he should have given up all his places rather 
than have complied with it. So strange a measure is not to be 
paralleled in history. He had spoke to the Sollicitor General 
to shew him the repealing the Boston Charter Bill could 
answer no end now. If reserved to the Commissioners, it 
might be one of the terms conceded to induce them to submit. 
The Sollicitor answered — " Let them have it if they will." In 
short, he despaired of the Commonwealth. 

What an astonishing state of affairs is this ! The first men 
condemn measures as most absurd and fatal. They do not 
vote for them, but have not resolution to vote against them 



190 DIAllY AND LETTEKS OF TIIOMAB HUTCHINSON. [J 



Mar, 

778. 



Everything which is a contradiction is now carried by the 
Opposition. Tlie measure is tlieirs — they vote for it — three 
•fourths of the House don't like it — but when the Speaker says — - 
"The Ayes have it," nobody will say — "The Noes have it," 
because they will not divide against it. Tilings being thus 
carried without dividing in Parliament, the people seem at 
present to be easy. , , 

5th. — The Bills passed the Jjords — arguments from necessity 
— humiliating, but no help for it — no division upon the ques- 
tion. M"" Knox called upon me. He says all will end in some 
sort of known established government over America. I tell 
him all is conjecture : there's no saying what is the probable 
consequence next week, or more than next year; people 
everywhere being struck out of their senses, and when, and to 
what degiee they will recover, is uncertain. 

Cth. — At Lord Hillsborough's, where were M' Ellis and B. 
Gascoigne. All agreed in sentiment — all condemned the pro- 
ceedings in Parliament — and all declined opposing them. 

Left my name at Lord Temple's. 

Advertisement published in the Publick Leger of this day, 
charges Gov. H. Avith bringing a nurse and maid from America, 
and then deserting them : that the maid run mad ; had been 
in Bedlam ; and had recovered ; but was an object of charity, 
and subscriptions were proposed for her at St. James's Coifee- 
House, &c. Signed [blank] Williams, Attorney. In every 
part, as to me, an infamous lie, and is occasioned by my son's 
bringing a maid who proved a common prostitute and thief, 
and behaved so badly that he turned her off, and had provided 
a passage for her to Halifax as she proposed, but afterwards 
refused to go, and went into service, and stole from her master, 
and he turned her off, and she either run mad or counterfeited 
madness, and was sent to Bedlam. 

7th. — Upon inquiry into the publication of yesterday, it 
seems to be a trick of an Attorney to draw money from the 
public. My sons saw him and he promises to unsay in the 
next newspaper what he has said yesterday and to-day. . , 

9th. — This morning at Lord Temple's by appointment. He 
laments the state of the nation — is at a loss whether it is 



177 



f;.] DIABY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS JLUTCIIINSON. 191 



owing to the weak ministry, or to the Opposition. I thought 
the principles of the Opposition gave them more encourage- 
ment. He asked my age, and mentioned his own: find they 
are very near alike. He Avas born on 7"^ October, and I the 
20 September, the same year.* 

10th. — In the city at Palmer's. At W Jackson's : had much 
conversation on his errand to America. Lord Carlisle, M'" 
Jackson, and M"" Eden, of the Board of Trade, being the men. 
M'' Jackson says there must be peace, at all events — the war 
cannot go on. Eden has always been in Lord Suffolk's office, 
and perhaps is not so thorough an American. Lord Carlisle is 
a young man ; was a good scholar at Eaton [sic] or AVest- 
minster; has spoke once in the H. of Lords; has involved a 
great estate in a great debt by dissipation. The choice is 
found fault with. Jackson thought Lord North should have 
pitched upon one or more of the Opposition to be more agree- 
able to the Americans. 

11th. — A raw cold day. I kept at home and amused myself 
with correcting my History, &c. 

12th. — At W Ellis's : more open than ever : speaks of con- 
fusion in government : the most preposterous motion that ever 
was: to lay a tax of ^4 oii ^^^ salaries, pensions, &c., above 
200£ a year, carried in the Committee, and recovered in the 
House by 147 against 141, which was all the majority Lord N, 
could make by summoning from all quarters : — Min[isters] 
run about the House as if they did not know whicli side to 
go. He added — " There's no going back — it must be pushed 
through." 

At L* Gov. Oliver's. 

13th. — Called on IVF Jackson again. Carried him extract of 
a letter from M"^ Wethered of N. York to D^ Chandler, w^^ 
mentions a disposition in the Congress and people to treat, 
which I found to be pleasing to Jackson, who said — " It's well, 
if one half of it is true." I mentioned no names. 



* In Vol i. p. 41, the extracts from his mother's Memorandum book give 
particulars. He was born Sep. 9, 1711, and his wet-nurse was hired, or at 
all events came, on the day following. The change of style explains the 
seeming contradiction. 



192 niART AND LETTERS OF THOMAS IIUTCniNSON. fmJ 



L1778. 



Dined at W Ellis's. General Paoli,* and Judge Oliver. 
Not a word of English politicks. Eoiits, Concerts, Operas, &c., 
in which I took no part. 

14th. — L' Gov. Oliver called. I shewed him a private letter 
from Lord Hillsborough in 1770, in which he says he is ex- 
tremely glad that I have departed from those apprehensions 
which induced me to decline accepting the government ; and 
he assured me he had never heard I had declined it, and 
seemed surprized: asked the reasons? I gave them, — the 
prospect of increasing difficulties, and a desire to apply myself 
to the most agreeable office I ever sustained — that of Chief 
Justice, in which I thought I had done good, and had been 
very little abused for it. He complimented me by saying 
nobody ever gave more general satisfaction ; said it was impos- 
sible, after being thus drawn into the government, I should 
ever be left to suffer. 

Judge Oliver's family, E. and wife, Browne, D"" Chandler, 
Boucher, and Addams [?] dined with me. Politicks enough ! 
It was thought Boucher would go chaplain to the Ambassadors, 
says it has been objected, that he has been active in opposing 
the American measures, and no such persons are to have any 
part in this Embassy. 

Gov. Wentworth arrived last night from Philadelphia — 24 
days passage : The report [is] that the country is open 30 
miles round : many deserters from Howe's army : ice in the 
river Delaware : nothing very important. 

15th.— At D-^ Kippis's. . . 

16th. — The papers to-day announce a French war, and say 
the F. Ambassador has acquainted Lord Weymouth the F. 
King had entered into a Treaty with the Colonies as Independ* 

* General Pascal Paoli, was the son of Il^-aciuth Paoli, one of the chief 
Magistrates of Corsica. Pascal distinguished himself in the cause of Corsican 
freedom, when the Genoese and the French were threatening her indepen- 
dence, but the French were too strong for him and his army. When all was 
lost he fled to England, where he lived and died. What can a small and 
weak state do against a large and a strong one ? It may be a serious question, — 
which is the best course for a true Patriot to take for the greatest good to 
his country ? — To fight and be conquered, and succumb to an exasperated 
enemy ; or meet him half way in peace, submit to the inevitable, and make 
the best terms possible ? 



f.fs.] DIABY ^iND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 193 

States. It is said Lord Stormont has given the same intelli- 
gence. M'' Morris, of the Customs called, and says Adm' Hill 
informed him L'' Sandwich had ordered all the Captains in the 
navy to their ships immediately. 

17th. — Everybody is struck dumb! 

The declarations from France, that they have entered into 
a Treaty with the Colonies as Independent States, seems to 
make a war inevitable. I met Gen' Moiikton. He is in pain 
for Howe's fleet in the Delaware : thinks the French force gone 
out may be too strong for them. The message from the King 
is to be coihunicated to-day. An address must follow — whether 
for an immediate declaration of war doubtful. 

The sudden agreement of France seems to be the effect of 
the new measures here. Franklin's act * probably carried him 
to require an immediate answer ; otherwise the Colonies would, 
close w*** England ; but this is conjecture. 

18th. — In the city to Blackburne's, Bush Lane. He says 
the subscribers to the new loan complain of Lord N. If he 
saw a French war was so near, he ought to have let them 
know it : if he did not know it himself, he was not fit for a 
Minister, &c. 

An Address voted yesterday, but nobody knows yet what are 
the determinations of Government. America seems to be lost. 

Paxton, and young Hatch, Jo. Burch, and M'' Hare dined 
with me. 

19th. — Called on M'' Ellis. Laments the universal despon- 
dency : should not wonder if this afternoon the Americans 
were acknowledged Independent — a term they always avoided 
as a Religious distinction, but will always boast of as a 
Civil character. After all, I shall never see that there 
were just grounds for this revolt. I see that the ways of 
Providence are mysterious, but I abhor the least thought that 
all is not perfectly right, and ordered by infinite rectitude and 
wisdom. 

20th. — The H. of Commons sat last night till 4 o'clock 
debating whether the Ministry had ill planned the measures 
of last year ; and after all, it went off without a division. I 

* The word is of doubtful reading. It may be 'act' or it may be 'art.' 

VOL. IT. O 



191 DIAUY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON, [i^! 

met M"^ D'Oyly : lio says ho did not get liome till 5 this 
morning. Everything stands stilh Tlio season will be lost. 
Never was a Govornincnt in such a state. — Gtov. Wentworth 
called. 

22ud.— At D-^ ]Cippis's. 

At Court. Small "Drawing-room. King advised to walk 
much, kc. 

Browne and son, and D'" Chandler, dined with me. In the 
evening at D'" Jlcberden's— Dean of Glocester, Bp. of Chester, 
and Exeter, ]\1'" Pelhani, cum multis all is. 

Mauduit declares for Independence of America, and wishes 
Parliament to acknowledge it. Never was such an instantaneous 
conversion of a whole kingdom. There is the strangest cessa- 
tion of measures that ever was known : nobody knows what is 
to take place next. Lord Chancellor told me the Comission for 
the American Commissioners had not yet come to him. He 
added — '' I suppose that will be one of the last things." 
23rd. — [Speculations upon tlie same subjects,] 
24th. — Everything still indecisive. The debates yesterday 
in tlie II. of Lords shew more than ever a disposition to concede 
to the revolt of the Colonies, the minority gaining ground. A 
change of JMinistry in whole or in part looks probable. Some 
say Lord Chatham will come in, Avhile others say his infirmities 
from age will not admit of it. 

To my surprize C Robertson of Edinburgh came in about 
noon.* I had corresponded with him in America, but never 
saw him before. An hour's converse was very pleasing. He 
has laid aside his History of the English Colonies. He gave 
this reason — that there was no knowing what would be the 
future condition of them. I told him I thought, be it what it 
may, it need make no odds in writing the Histoiy of what is 
past, and I thought a true state of them ought to be handed 
down to posterity. 

* Dr. William riolertson was born iu 1721, and educated at Edinburgh 
University. He was the author of a History of Charles V., a History of 
Scotland, a History of America, which, as indicated in the text, was never 
finished, and romc other works. He was made Principal of the University of 
Edinburgh, H;storiographer to the King in Scotland, and Minister of the Old 
Ciniy Friars. He died much esteemed in June, 1793. 



I'jy DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 195 



Mar 
1 



He said, upon D"" Franklin's recommendation, he luid pro- 
cured Diplomas for several of the New England Clergy, ^Yllo 
lie had reason to believe became active in promoting the 
revolt, and mentioned Channing ; and upon my naming 
Cooper, remembered him also,^and Winthrop, tlio' not of the 
Clergy. 

He gave me an anecdote, which he had from David Hume. 
"When D'' Franklin had been at the Board of Trade, upon his 
first coming to England 20 years ago, Hume said to M'^ Oswald, 
then one of the Lords of Trade, that there had been with them 
a friend of Hume's, an American, the greatest literary character 
he had ever known from that part of the world. Oswald said 
he could not tell what his literary character was, but he was 
much deceived if he had not enough of the spirit of Faction in 
him to put a whole Empire into confusion. 

25th. — At Lord Huntingdon's. He says there certainly has 
been a Message from the King to L'^ Chatham. What the 
answer was is not certain. Some say that he was willing to come 
in, and take the guidance if only two or three of his friends might 
be with him : others, that he declined unless there was a new 
Ministry. The first, L'^ H. thinks most probable, and he 
believes L"* Shelburne expects the Seals in L'^ George's place, 
who is to be made a Peer ; and he supposes Barre will be 
Secretary at War, Lord Barriugton for some time wishing to 
resign. A strange world in which we live. It's certain the 
political clock stands still. 

Sir Eardley Wilmot called, and spent half an hour in a 
pleasing conversation. I mentioned D'' Robertson's anecdote 
of Hume and Oswald. He observed that it struck him, be- 
cause he knew Oswald well, and that he had the greatest 
talent of discerning men, of any person he ever met with. 

Account by the French mail of stopping all English vessels 
in the French ports, except smugglers. 

26th — Into the city and back before 12 o'clock, a-foot. 

At Lord North's Levee with Sir F. Bernard. But few 
people there. I never saw him appear more oppressed with 
business. Had an opportunity of speaking to W Robinson, 
and procuring an order for my brother's salary from Jan. 

o 2 



196 DIABY AXD LETTERS OF THOMAS IIUTCUINSON. [in"'; 

177G, but am further solliciting that it may commence July 
procoding.* 

Sir F. Bernard lias seen M*" Jackson : lie sees no prospect of 
ailvantage in going Commissioner : doubts whether he shall 
go. Lord Carlisle, at Lord Nortli's liCveo, appeared to be 
much engaged. In the city ^V liashlcigh told me people 
were much disturbed — English ships stopped in the ports of 
France — Spain also, declared to support a trade with America 
as Independent States. All tending to confusion. Called on 
l)"" liobcrtson. 

'JTtli. — At Sir IL Houghton's, but did not see him. L' Gov. 
()liv(n-'s, P"" Ixobertson's lodgings, wdio was just come from 
Court. Lord Stormont kissed the King's liauds on his return 
from Paris. Uncertainty still remains. I^verything stands 
still. Jy Kobortson &;ays some great genius must rise and save 
the nation. 

IMauduit brought me in the evening a printed sheet of his 
own composing, in favour of declaring the Colonies indepen- 
dent. He a}ipears to me to be employed by Ministry.f It is 
difficult to say how the people will receive it. If he has done 
the thing against his own judgment, it is something very 
different from his general character. Geij. Harvey, who has 
always taken kind notice of me, died to-daj'. 

28th. — Calling upon M"" Ellis this morning, he assures me 
there is no truth in any of the reports of Lord Chatham, 
Shelbuine, or Camden's coming in; and he does not believe 
any hint has been given to any of them. I shewed him the 
sheet IMauduit gave me. He does not believe Lord North 
knows anything of it : does not seem to have a high opinion of 
M.'s judgment : believes him to be an honest man. 

Sir F. B. and son, Greene, Thomas, and Sewall dined with me, 
and Jud. Oliver. 

29th. — At Paddington church ... W Boucher says M"" 

* Foster Hutchinson, the Governor's younger, and onh' hrother, removed 
to Halifax, Xova Scotia, on the evacuation of Boston, where the p]nghsh 
government did what they could to help a faithful servant. 

t Could Mauduit have been employed bj^ the Ministry to do the very 
thing they were trying to prevent? This is a strange idea, though there 
may havebeen something in the background, better known to him than to us. 



^'i^J DlAlt Y AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 197 

Eden seemed to think last week the Commission was at an end, 
but for two days past it Las been settled that it is to go on 
with all speed ; and lie thinks the Commissioners will go out 
with all speed. He said there had been a demur about Lord 
Carlisle : he certainly discovers more fondness for tho employ- 
ment than the other two. 

Slst. — Still silent. Motions in each house of Parliament by 
[the] Opposition upon particular parts of the conduct of 
Administration, which take up all the lime of Parliament. 
Everybody discontented — the general language. This cannot 
last. Mauduit in the evening ; his spirits gone — reserved — 
seems to be for giving all up, and yet hardly thinks it right. 

April 1st. — Went over to my dreadful lodgings at Little 
Chelsea. Strange it should be so, and yet I felt an inclination 
to see the place where I went through such a scene of distress ; 
— where I saw and heard the last of my dear child . . . 

3 id. — . . . The three Coiuiss" kissed the King's hand — 
Tjovd Carlisle, 3P Eden, and Gov. Johustunc, in the room of 
]\P Jackson. . . 

4th. — Called upon W Cornwall who, I saw by his counte- 
nance, to be engaged, and had only two or three words. I said 
1 had no concern for myself, but I had no prospect for my 
children. Ho btd me not be concerned : government w ould 
never let them suffer. America, he said, was lost. Un- 
necessarily, I thought, given up. j\Iost shamefully, he added. 
Gov. Johnstone he seemed surprized at: asked what M*^ Ellis 
said ? 

At Sir James Wright's : shewed him ^lauduit's sheet. He 
had not seen it, but had heard that language for ten days past, 
and he had no doubt it was thrown out with the knowledge of 
government. 

M"" Fitch, Clarke, Johannot, and lY Perkins dined with me. 

7th. — Walked into the city to Lime Street, Mauduit's 
Counting House. I can't tell what to make of him, but rather 
believe he has been persuaded by Ministry to publish the sheet 
for Independence of the Colonies.* It is now the current 
talk that the motion will be made this week. Fresh talk to- 

* Xn copy 'jf tlii.-? sheet has been fminil r.moiicst the Governor'.-; papers. 



198 DUny AND LETTEItS OF THOMAS JIUTCniNSON. [i*,?': 

day of a treaty on foot between the Howes and Congress in 
America. Everybody now wislios it may be true, as there is 
no degree of spirit left in Administration. 

8th. — In the House of Lords last evening the D. of Ivich- 
mond moved for an Address to withdraw the force from 
America. The motion.. L'' Loudoun says, made a small book, 
as it contained all the reasons w"^^ had been assigned for 
removing ]Ministry, (S:c. This vas answered by Lord AVey- 
niouth, and then L'' Chatbam declared against American Inde- 
pendence, in a speech of about ^ of an hour. The D. of Kich- 
mond replied, chit-fly to L'' Chatham, and reflected upon him 
with some severity. As L'' Chatham was rising again, he 
made some difficulty,— pulled up his breeches, and sunk down 
in his place, and fell back wiih his mouth open, and insensible. 
L'' Shelburne, and L'^ Mahon, mIio was behind the throne, ran 
to liini, and \/ Dunmoie assisting, thus carried him out of 
the House. He scon had his Physicians, and came to himself, 
but is not well enough to be sent home this morning. This 
accident broke off the debate, which is to come on again to-day. 

Wc have arrived at a erieis. Well indeed, might ho exelaiiu — 
" What an astonishing state of things is this ! " and — " Never was 
GovernmeBt in such a state ! " Mr. D'Oyly raved, and declared that 
the country Avas ruined ; whilst Lord Townshend talked " like a 
man in a frenzy." The perplexity of Administration, and tlie alarm 
among all orders of men, seem to have shewn themselves immedi- 
ately after hearing of General Burgoyne's disaster at Saratoga. At 
last the Governor writes — " America seems to be lost." The two 
Bills introduced at this time by Lord North are denounced by 
Franklin. In a letter from Passy of February the 26th 1778 to 
David Hartley, M.P., he says — " I received yours of the 18th and 
19th of this month, with Lord North's proposed Bills," and then he 
tears them to threads. But matters have suddenly culminated in 
a startling event, and the Earl of Chatham has hastened his death 
by declaiming agaiiftt the prospect of American Indejiendence, 
which he had done so much all his life to encourage, but now, 
when he sees it has come to the point, he characterises as a dis- 
memberment of the Empire. So long ago as January the 14th 17(36 
he declared that Parliament had no right to tax the Colonies, to 
which Mr. Grenville replied — " That tliis Kingdom has the 



iVrs] DIABY AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 199 

sovereign, the siipreiue legislative power over America is granted 
- — it cannot be denied ; and taxation is a part of that sovereign 
power. It is one l>ranch of legislation." But it was required that 
this branch should be lopped off, and the C'onstitution mutilated. 
And he would not believe that the Americans, in the midst of all 
their excesses, contemplated Independency, or a separation from the 
parent state, although for a series of years it had been notorious 
that their aspirations had tended in that direction. In the debate 
on the 1st of February 1775, [Adolph. ii. 186.] the subject was 
alluded to, when he exclaimed — " But were he once persuaded that 
they entertained the most distant intention of rejecting the legis- 
lative supremacy, and the general, constitutional, superintending 
authority and control of the British legislature, he Avould be the 
first and most zealous mover for exerting the whole force of Britain 
in securing and enforcing that power." And in November of the 
same year the Duke of Eichmond, with Lords Shelburne and 
Camden, denied that there existed any intention of the sort. " The 
assertion that America aspired at independence, was treated as an 
unfounded calumny, calculated only for purposes of delusion." 
[ib. ii. 280.] With these views, and in order to quiet the country, 
they frequently urged the advisability of withdrawing the fleet 
and the troops from the Colonies. To have done this would have 
been something like removing the Police from London, in order to 
promote the peace and the security of the inhabitants. In their 
case it would have been tantamount to relinquishing America 
quietly to the Americans. Hence the Governor wrote, on the 6th 
of December 1777 — "The Opposition themselves are confounded 
when they come to the consequence of their own motion for a 
cessation of arms." No doubt, if their motion had been carried, 
they would have been very much perplexed to know how to carry 
it out. 

What could be more encouraging to the Sons of Liberty across 
the Atlantic, than to hear such words uttered as the following, in 
the House of Lords ? — " Eesistance to j^our acts was necessary, as it 
was just," by Lord Chatham, on the 20th of January 1775 ; or an- 
other assertion, which has been quoted in amazement before, as 
spoken by the Duke of Eichmond, and seconded by Lord Camden 
— " I think the Americans have good right to resist. I hope they 
will resist; and that they will succeed." Succeed in what? In 
dismembering the Empire ? This was something like exclaiming 
— " Fight on boys — we'll back you up ! " How is it that they 
escaped impeachment, as traitors to their countrj^ ? 

But to put the most tender construction upon these utterances, 



200 BJAIiY AXD LETTEBS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. [{^Vg; 

to say the least of tlioni, tlioj' wore hii>;lily iiuliscroet and in- 
judicious, because auytliiug spokou in the House of Lords would 
have great effect out of doors ; and it was well known that Mr. De 
Berdt, or Dr. Franklin, or Junius Americanus Lee, or Mr. Quiucy, or 
twenty other Americans, who Avere at different times in London, 
were eagerly on tho look out for any favourable remark so spoken, 
which was immediately hurried olf to the Congress, or to other 
leadera of Burke's " extreme of Liberty," there to be made use 
of by Samuel Adams's " Independent we arc, and independent 
we will be! "' 

But Avhat says the discursive, versatile, and industrious chronicler 
AValpole, on the momentous signs of the times, in the atmosphere 
and aroma of which he lived? On the 1st of September 1777 ho 
wrote, — " In one thing alone all that come from America agree, 
that the alienation from this country is incredible and universal." 
And on the 20th of February 1778 he writes, — " All that remains 
certain is, that America is not only lost, but given up." 

He docs not omit to notice the catastrophe in the House, and ho 
notes down as follows, on the 8th of April, — " Though my fellow 
labourers of this morning will give you a minute account of the 
great event of yesterday, I should be a \evy negligent gazetteer if 
I took no notice of it. Lord Chatham fell in tlie Senate — not by 
daggers, nor by the thunder of Lord Suffolk's eloquence. He had 
spoken with every symptom of debility, repeated his own phrases, 
could not recollect his own ideas, and, which is no new practice, 
persisting in our asserting sovereignty over America, though he 
could not tell hy loJiat means. It was only new, to confess his 
io-norance. The Duke of Eichmond answered him with much 
decency and temper, though Lord Chatham had called imrsuit icith- 
oiit means timid and pusillanimous conduct. The Earl was rising 
to reply, but fell down in a second fit of apoplex}', with strong 
convulsions and slabbering at the mouth." 

As soon as he could bo removed he was conveyed to his villa at 
Hayes in Kent, where he died on the 11th of May following, being 
in the 70th year of his age. 

Copley's well known picture in the National Gallery represents 
him leaning back in a moribund state, — pale, and with closed eyes, 
the Duke of Cumberland, in a light blue coat with breeches and 
stockings, balanced in colour by the Earl's crimson robes, holds his 
left arm — a little awkwardly ; Lord Viscount Mahon, on one knee, 
in dark blue, supports his feet and legs ; whilst the Hon. James 
Pitt, in black, and his relative in dull green, stand close on tho 
further side of the dviug nobleman. 



1^78.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 201 

9th. — Last night in the H. of Lords, the P. of Richmond's 
motion was rejected by 50 only, against 33, — the largest 
minority at any time, tho' the greatest question in favour of 
Americans^ and tho' L'^ Shelburne had left the minority upon 
this question. This question was in a Committee, where no 
Proxies are received. 

Dined at D*" Heberden's : M'" Harris of Sab'shury, Soame 
Jenyns and wife, Daniel Wray and wife, and IMauduit. 

At L'' North's Levee, and a little while at Court. 

13th. — At Lord Hillsborough's, Avho kept me above an hour, 
giving me the history of his whole political life. Called upon 
Chandler. He read to me the heads of what he drew up for 
Governor Johnstone, one of the Commissioners. They left 
town in order to embark on board the Trident at Portsmouth. 
Mauduit says it's pity they dont go in three different ships, for 
they will quarrel before they get to America. In my passage 
from England to America, [in 1741,] I could not help observing 
how much a company shut up G or 8 weeks in a cabin is 
dispDsed to form little parties — to take sides, and to grow tired, 
and to be alienated one from another.* 

14th. — It seems to be an opinion gaining ground, that Howe 
will not come home, notwitiistanding his leave. Some think 
he will strike a bold stroke to retrieve his credit ; others, that 
he will come to an accommodation ; all — a sudden start. In 
the Commission Lord Howe and Sir William Howe are named, 
and not the Commanders-in-chief for the time being. I^ord 
Cornwallis is gone with the Comiss". This, it is supposed, is to 

* Always the case ! I went out for a frolic, and started on the first of 
January in a fine sailing ship of something under a thousand tons, not 
pressed for time, having had a lYiend go out in the same ship the year before. 
We were seven weeks beating against westerly gales, and could scarcely get 
up Xew York harbour for ice. I observed the same cliques and parties and 
back-biting and tittle-tattling, and I was told that in every voyage there was 
always one disagreeable passenger who made mischief. The return voyage, 
made the year after, was accomplished in eighteen days, by iavour of the 
same westerly wind. I remarked on tbis difference to one of the sailors one 
day. He said — "I understand, sir, that it is up hill going to America, but 
down hill coming home." He said it gravely, but whether he believed it or 
whether he was at his fun, I cannot say. 1 prefer a sailing shi[i. There is a 
something delightful in the art and the science of trimming, and steering, 
and managing, a fine ship under canvas. The rapid passages of tlie present 
day give no time for the evils mentioned above. 



202 PTAni' AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. [t-iVs. 

prevent tlio command falling to Knipliausen, in case of Howe 
and Clinton both being absent. 

Dined at Col" Vassall's, Berners Street. 

lutli. — Advice yesterday, confirmed to-day, of a frigate at 
Boiirdeaux from Boston, with John Adams on board, which it 
is said has taken a ship bonnd to N. York with oO,000£ on 
board. Adams, it is supposed relieves Deane. 

ISth.— A letter to I)"" Chandler, Thilad. 10 Feb.. says a vote 
of the Congress had been printed, in which they decline ratify- 
ing the Convention of Saratoga, nntil it should be ratified by 
the Court of (iroat Britain. J. Clarke also, went from Boston 
to Bhilad., writes IMauduit 2-i Feb., that he wishes there was a 
prospect of Burgoyne's men leaving Boston. No letters yet 
from Howe. 

20tb. — . . . Sir H. Houghton called. He wonders at 
Mauduit's publication — was at M'' Jenkinson's when the thing 
was talked of. I did not think Jenkinson would have run to that 
extreme. Sir H. H. says he told IMauduit that he wondered 
at his handing about such a paper : and told him though Gor'' H. 
might have done such a thing with better grace, yet he sliouUl 
have thought it officious in him to have dictated such a measure. 

Paul Went worth called. 

23rd. — Advice that the Commissioners in the Trident sailed 
for America from Portsmouth the 21st about 12 o'clock. The 
wind has been fair ever since. Mauduit Fays the main-stay of 
the Trident was discovered to be cut almost through — no doubt 
with a bad intent. 

21th. — Wind still to the northward, but there seems to be 
no expectations whether the Commissioners ariive sooner or 
later. I met Bridgen indeed, who says, the Americanshave 
been so cheated by the French, as to be sick of their alliance. 

26th. — At the Queen's Drawing-Room. It was said that 
appearing at such a time would be deemed more respectful,* 
but it was a thin Court. Dukes of Chandos, IMontagu, and 
Gordon; Lords Abercoru, and Pelham, and Lord G. Germain, 
Lord Harrowby, and some Bishops : the Duke of Buccleugh 
also, and Duke of Beaufort, Avho I had never seen before : 
* llic Kiiif' teins absent. He was at Chatliam. 



^^78.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 203 

Lord Loudoun, and Ladies plenty — among them old Lady- 
Say and Sele, said to [be] four score and four, with a liij.'h 
head like a young girl : never was a more rediculous figure . . . 
Lord Delaware arrived to-day from Philadelphia : supposed to 
come from Corke in a ship of the last fleet. 

27th. — . . . Judge Oliver nnd Jenny Clarke [his niece] set 
out to-day for Birmingham. He talks of fixing in the country 
near that town, never to come to London again. He has left 
his son's family of wife and three children here in town : 
promises to contribute 100£ a year to their support. I told 
my daughter [Sarah] I would allow the like sum so long as I 
am enabled by Gov* to do it, and make the first quarterly 
payment the beginning of June. 

29th. — Account received yesterday of the sailing of 12 sail 
of French ships of the line from Toulon, under the Count 
D'Estaigne, alarms all Americans : and everybody is amazed 
that 40 sail of like ships are lying at Spithead. The King 
returned in two or three days from Chatham, but it is said is 
going Avitli the Queen to Portsmouth. 

May 2nd. — . . . Dined at the Arch-Bp.'s at Lambeth . . . 

3rd. — At the Old Jewry with my daughter. M"" Brinley 
and Johannot dined with me . . . 

5th. — . . . Called on Mauduit at his Compting-house in 
Lime Street. Never saw him in such distress: opened him- 
self with freedom : professed that when H. arrives he shall be 
prosecuted for the Pamphlet he has published : has heard 
nothing suggested. I told him his nerves were aflected : 
every mole-hill was a mountain : mentioned to him my lying 
awake whole nights in America, fearing I should be called to 
account in England for neglect of duty to the King at the 
time of the Confederacies — at least, I concduded I should suffer 
much in my character for yielding to the demands of the 
people when my sons were in danger. He seemed relieved. 
The Bishop of Exeter asked me at Lambeth what ailed 
Mauduit ? 1 had no suspicion this was his trouble. 

It is said an Ambassador is coming over from Spain, where 
the Treaty of France is utterly disapproved, and that he is to 
come through France, and to mediate. 



204 DIARY AND lA'/rTKRS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. \Jw. 

7tli. — Strong south ^viIKl still. A vessel yesterday from 
X. York, 3[iir. 24. (j!ov. C'levelaiid arrived : was told of the 
repeal of the Aets : said they had better have sent 10 thousand 
men. IMany French and otiier prizes taken. Several frigates 
and transports said to be lost iu the Sound between N. York 
and lihoJe Island. 

Account of I\Iassachusetts Eesolves: — That no Mandamus 
Counsellor, Are., should be at liberty to return : but if he should, 
[he] shall be sent out of the Province : and returning a second 
time, shall be put to death. 

8th. — . . . IMauduit left alone, was in the horrors about his 
book. D"" Apthorpe said he had read IsV Mauduit's book with 
great pleasure. '• 3Iy book?" [IMauduit loquitur] "I don't own 
it : I beg you would say I disown it : how cruel is it " &c. 

I — when the company was gone — told him he would put 
people upou making criminal what was not so, if he discovered 
such concern. ''Oh! I did not know— would give 1000£ he 
had had nothing to do with it. What, if he should be called 
upon — must accept a challenge, or may be, be sued in large 
damages." It is the strangest conduct I ever saw in him. 
He attacked J\l'' Pitt with ten times the aciimony. Nobody 
besides himself sees anything exceptionable. — Wind still S.A\'. 

0th. — The K. and Q. leturned to-day from Portsmouth. 

AVind still unfavourable. 

M"" Mather came to town from Hillersdon, (?) where ho 
lives, and dined with us. Mauduit in the evening, in a strange 
disturbed state of mind. I did what I could to quiet him, and 
endeavoured to dissnade him from a measure very prejudicial 
to him. and. whi'-ii, if he was less disturbed, he would not have 
thought lawful. 

lOtli. — At Bow cliuich, D'' Apthorpe's new living, where he 
officiated. This is the gift of the A.-13p. for a book which he has 
published in answer to Gibbon's attack upon the religion of Jesus. 

I wrote to jManduit. He called in the even'ng and thanked 
me. Wind still contrary. 

13th. — The House of Commons yesterday voted to be at the 
expense of Lord Chatham's funeral, vho died on Monday last, 
(the llth.) and of a ]\[nn!iment in Westiniister Abbey. 



nrl] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 205 

It seems now agreed that the French fleet went through the 
Strait's mouth for America without stopping at Cadiz. — Wind 
still S. west, and strong. 

l-ith. — Gen' Burgoyne arrived hist night, leaving his army 
behind. News of M"" Boutineau's death at Bristol, of the gout 
in his stomach.* General Burgoyne forbid going to Court. 
A Board of Enquiry appointed. It is said he is come home 
upon his parole. 

M called in the evening. My letter on Sunday stopped 

him from doing what wo'dd have hurt him exceedingly. He 
said to me again, it was a good letter. I assured him if any 
man had offered me 500£ to suffer him to have done what he 
proposed, I would not have taken it. 

16th. — At Lord Huntingdon's, who was more free than ever 

in speaking of the , which, considering my obligations, I 

wondered at. He was 14 years in office, until lie voted con- 
trary to the King's mind in Wilkes' affair, and was dismissed 
from being Master of the Horse, which he called 3000 a year. 

Greene, Timmins, Quincy, and Scott dined with me. 

At Lloyd's. There is an account of the Ariadne s taking the 
Randolph frigate of 36 guns, after 5 hours engagement ; and 
Cap. Pringle of the Ariadne killed. And that a 64 gun ship 
had sunk two other frigates — one of 32, the other 20 odd 
guns. 

17th.— At D' Kippis's. 

At Court. The King said little, except about the weather. 
The Queen, supposing I had a place in the country, asked 
where? I told her I had none of my own, but sometimes I 
visited my friends. I had been at M'' Ellis's. " He is a very 
good man," she said. . . 

23rd. — An hour or near it at Lord Hillsborough's, where I 
had a fuller account of the present unsettled state of affairs 
than I have heard from any other person. Whether he will 
come into office or not is doubtful. He does not seem to be 
altogether without expectations. . . 

Lord H. said that Thurlow, all agreed, would be Lord 

* Mr. James Boutineau, Attornej'-at-law, Mandamus Counsellor, banished, 
proscribed, and his estates confiscated. He withdrew to England, where he died. 



20G BJAHy AM) LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. [iS 

Cliauccllor, and a Peer. Wcdderburne was intended for Att'' 
General, but lie Avould not touch it, and insisted to be a Peer, 
and rather submitted to take the place of Ch. Justice of the 
Common Pleas, and be bad the promise of them, without 
considering that De Grey could not be turned out. When he 
was talked with, he discovered no inclination ; was infirm, but 
could attend : besides, every day a place was expected to fall, 
worth 7000£, w^'Mie intended for his son. Whenever he quitted 
lie should expect a Peerage, and a pension equivalent to his 
falary. Well, it must be done, and all was promised him. Sir 
Fletcher Norton, hearing this, attacks Lord North : charges 
him Avith the indignity offered him in giving a Scotchman, who 
did not know an ounce of law, the preference to an old servant 
who took the Chair upon being pressed to it, upon the strongest 
assurances of being first provided for. He insisted upon his 
Peerage, and would wait for De Grey's place. He had the 
place of Ch. Justice in Eyre with 3000£ for life, which he was 
willing to throw up when Ch. Justice. Lord N. said it was 
gone too far to be altered. Sir F. threatened an Impeach- 
ment for a waste of public money ; that he would throw his 
Speaker's robes over the Chair ; take his seat, and be the first 
to move for an Impeachment. Thus the matter now stands. 
Lord H. says Wedderburne will carry it. Sir F. possibly may 
be satisfied by another large provision out of the general 
store. . . 

27th. — Called this morning on I\P Cornwall : promises to 
bring on my brother's petition lying at the Treasury : speaks 
lightly of Burgoyne's speech in the H. of Commons yesterday, 
and condemns his faying the men who had deserted from him 
after the capitulation, had done it w**^ a view to get to Clinton 
or Howe. This may be made use of to bad purposes.* 

Strange confusion in the House, upon high words between 

* General Burgoyne was allowed to go to England on his parole. Lieutenant 
Anburej'-, ii. 20, thus writes : — " In the beginning of this letter I mentioned 
that General Burgoyne is sailed for England. No doubt, on his arrival, his 
enemies will be attacking him in all quarters. Do not be led away with 
the general voice, and follow a misled faction : the General, in every situation 
of danger and difficulty, ever had the confidence of the army," &c. ; and the 
writer goes on and devotes a whole page in hearty praises of the General, as a 
good officer and a thorough gentleman. 



htQ diary and letters of THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 207 

Lord Georgo and Temple Lutterell, and all order seems to be 
lost there. . . 

29tb.— Dined in the city with J^laiiduit. Nobody but W 
Parry, a Prebend [ary] of Worcester. lie says M" Ann Pitt, 
eldest sister of Lord Chatham, has wrote to M"" Daines Barring- 
ton from Florence, that being at the Opera, the Grand Dutchess 
spoke to her, and said that, as she was an English woman, she 
would be pleased to know that the G. Dutch^ father, the King 
of Spain, had wrote to her [that] he utterly disapproved of the 
Independency of America* 

30th. — At Lord Huntingdon's, where I met with M"" Vane, 
who told me he Avas descended from Sir Henry Vane, once 
Governor of N. England. Just as I was going out Col° Barre 
came in, — the first time I met him anywhere since I came lo 
England. I said I had been unfortunate — having endeavoured 

• He made a rather awkward apology — discovered no 

inclination to say much of our acquaintance in New England, 
where I had shewn him, when L* Governor in 1759, more 
respect than he received from the Governor, which he then took 
notice of. 

Here I first heard of the arrival of the Andromeda at N. 
York; that Clinton was to sail for Philadelphia the 25th of 
April ; and that Howe had taken his passage in the Grcujhonnd 
frigate ; therefore may be every day expected. 

]\P Ellis called. Speaking of Burg. [Burgoyne'sJ imprudence 
in saying the men had deserted with a view to join Clinton, he 
explained himself, that he would not be understood, that he 
approved of their deserting, but on the contrary, if he had 
known of it, he would have hindered it. This was the next 
day after his speech. 

31st. — To Twickenham in coach with j\P^ Ellis. Gen. Paoli 
and I\P Ellis went on horseback. 

June 1st.— With M*"' Ellis to Richmond. She called on Gen' 
Williamson's lady : I went to Lord Hardwicke's. I wrote to 
Col. Browne under W Ellis's Frank, at Cowbridge. 

2ad. — Returned from Twickenham. 

* Very sincere ! It was well kuown that at this very time the King of 
Spain was intriguing with France to assist America against England. 



208 DIARY AND LKTTEES OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON, {{^^l 

Livdy Bernard died last week, the 2Gtb, at Aylesbiiiy. 
Paxton was there on a visit. She had been in poor liealth 
several months, but took an airini^ the day before the niglit in 
wliioh she died, or ratlier towards morning. 

The letters from N. York lament the conciliatory measures, 
ns they are called ; fearing they will make the Americans 
more tenacious of their In<lcpendenc<' : speak of a treaty as a 
matter uncertain, but rather believe they will not come into it. 

3rd. — Parliament prorogued — which most people seem 
pleased at ; no good being expected from its sitting. Lord 
Chancellor [ ] resigned the Seals ; W Thurlow succeeds, 

and Wedderburne Attorney Gen. ; Wallace, Sollicitor [Gene- 
ral ;] TiOrds Piochford, Suffolk, and Weymouth Garters, 

An old parrot, which has been in the family 16 or 18 years, 
died. 

4th.— At Court— the Birth Day. 

5th. — Intelligence to-day that the Toulon fleet sailed tlie IG 
of IMay thro' the Straits, and stood to the westward. 

6th. — A vessel from New York. Lord Huntingdon met mo 
and informed me Lord Pawdon's brother, who lost his leir, was 
arrived ; and that Clinton left New York, which he did the 5 
May, to take the command at Philadelphia. He added that 
Clinton had large orders — to remain at Philad. — to evacuate it 
— or take what steps he thought fit : that there were great 
rejoicings upon Clinton's having the command: that soms 
liked, but more disliked the conciliatory Bills, itc. 

8th. — I finished my brother's business at the Treasury : 
received 341 "5/ his salary to 5th of April last, and lodged it 
with Gines & Atkinson, Bankers,* and at the same time lodged 
]\P Putnam's money there, being £365 12 G. . . 

* Fustcr Hutchinson, a lawj'cr of eminence, removed to Halifax in Nova 
Scotia on the evacuation of Boston ia March 1770. He married a dau. of 
Gen. Jean Paul Mascarene, and Avas the father of twelve children : — Margaret, 
d. young ; Sarah, ob. ccr-l. ; Elizabeth, ob. cccl. ; Lydia, m. Slater, s. p. ; 
Abigail, d. young; Joanna, ob. cccl. ; Hannah, m. Snelling; Foster, ob. ccel. ; 
Thomas, d. young; Grizel, ob. ccel; Margaret, m. Sabatier; s. p.; Abigail, 
ob. coel. Hannah and Mr. Snelling had Eliza, d. young; and William, who 
is said to have burnt all Foster Hutchinson's letters and papers. Said William 
married, and had William, ob. coel.; Foster, ob. coel.; Jonathan, and 
Frederick, d. young, and Eliza SnelUng, who m. Mr. Stirling, and had William 
John, the last and sole representative. 



ms'J DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 209 

9th. — The wind still continues contrary. A large French 
fleet sailed 3 or 4 weeks, and no ships followed. Everybody 
complains of the languor and inactivity in publick affairs. 
This detention is the hand of Heaven. 

10th. — Paxton brought me to-day a letter from Lord Town- 
shend's, w*^'' was taken out of a prize, and carried into Glasgow. 
It is from a French officer in Washington's army, De Portail, 
a Brigadier General, dated Dec. lltli. Howe had not then 
taken Mud Island, but it was thought he would, Tlie writer 
attributes the American success, not to their strength, but to 
the astonishing conduct of the British forces. He condemns 
the sending Burgoyne with such an army thro' a horrid wil- 
derness, where the Americans could harrass and distress them, 
and could fight in the only way advantageous to them. He 
says [that] after the victory at Brandy wine, and another I 
forget, little or no advantage was made for want of cavalry, but 
expresses astonishment a la lenteur et la timidite of the General. 
He says there are different opinions upon the final success of 
the Eebellion. He doubts it. If the English can keep 30,000 
men in America, it must be subdued. If Washington's army 
had been destroyed last year, it would have finished the war. 
He says the Americans are in want of warlike stores, linens, 
woollens, and most of the comforts of life : they have been 
used to idleness, to drinking tea, rum, to smoaking, &c. : they 
will not hold out in war. It will not do to think of sending a 
French force to act in concert with them : they have a violent 
antipathy to the French : they would sooner go over to the 
British army than fight with the French. There was a proposal 
for a French force, aided by the Americans, to recover Quebec : 
he doubts whether any possessions on the Continent can be a 
benefit to France. If there should be war w"' England, he 
thirdvs it better to take Jamaica, and those islands which cannot 
maintain independence. It appeared to him the best scheme 
[would be] to keep the English from sending troops to America. 
If they can be deprived of their Colonies, he supposes their 
trade must be in a great measure lost ; their naval force ruined ; 
and they will become of little consideration in Euroj)e. 

As a circumstance to prevent the Americans from succeeding, 

VOL. II. P 



June 



210 jHAnr Axn lettebs of tiiomas nuToniNSON. Li"^"' 

he supposes that they cannot attain to a naval force under a 
long course of years : and if J']nghind should give them up, 
they never wonhl unite, but ([uarrel one Slate with another, of 
Avhicli there are already some buds, (t/ermcH.)* 

22ud. — A remarkably hot, sun-shiny American day. . . 
]\luch talk of llurgoyne's publication. Some say he has ruined 
himself by it. A report that he is ordered back to America. . . 

At Lord Townshend's. It is said that when l>urg|oyne] 
arrived, Charles F. asked him his plan ? — To charge Howe 
with leaving him to be sacrificed. "If that's y'' plan we must 
forsake you : we arc determined to support H." The next 
news — that IMinistry is chargeable ; and his speech in the H., 
and his new publication, are conformable to this account. 

25th. — Began a journey in a post-chaiso with M'' Paxtou, and 
lodged at the Blue Posts Inn in Witham. I lodged there in 
(September 1775, and left en the table when I washed, a ring 
with my wife's hair, which tiie Landlady had taken care of, and 
now returned to me.f 

27th. — We sailed up one of the most pleasant rivers in the 
world from Harwich to Ipswich, about 12 miles, in a well 
accommodated passage boat, which goes every day at six pence 
a passenger. My servant carelessly left my wig in a box in 
the boat, which he did not discover until the evening. 

30th. — . . . The post brings advice of the return of Keppel 
to Portsmouth, after taking two French frigates, and suffering 
the French merchant ships to sail through his fleet. There is 
a mystery in this conduct. 

The French had for some time been playing a double game, and 
so had the Spaniards, despite the soft accents of the Grand Duchess 
at the Opera. Dr. Connick writes — " The conduct of France and 
Spain had for some time been an object of just suspicion. In 
the midst of all their assurances of friendship for Great Britainj 

"^ The above is probably a free translation of the Frenchman's letter. The 
States held together pretty well until the internal rebellion in Lincoln's time, 
at which stormy season they were spoken of in England as " The Disunited 
States," and the boasted national motto E plurihus Unum, became E pluribtls 
j)lurimum. 

s t This was a pattern Landlady. This excursion into the Eastern Counties 
and other districts will not contain much that need be quoted, and space must 
be economised. 



i^l] DIARY AND LETTERS OF TH0MA8 HUTOIIINSON. 211 

a frandful intercourse with America was carried on." Adolplius 
says — " Tiie public regarded, with due indignation, the treacherous 
interference of France." At this time Franklin wrote from 
Passy — " The English and French fleets, of nearly equal force, 
are now both at sea. It is not doubted but that if they meet 
there will be a battle." As a preliminai-y to such a battle. Admiral 
Keppel left Portsmouth on the loth of June, and steered his fleet 
to the waters of Brest and the Bay of Biscay. On the 17th he 
observed two frigates, the Licorne and the Belle Poide, reconnoitring 
his force. On bringing these to a parley, the Licorne suddenly fired 
a broadside into the America, and then struck her colours. The 
Belle Poiile had a smart action with the Aretliusa, and escaped 
by running into shallow water, when the Pallas, another frigate 
of the enemy, having cruised sufficiently near the English ships to 
make observations, was taken and secured. It was with these that 
Keppel returned to Spithead. It could not be expected that 
Walpole would have been silent on this occasion, wherefoi'e he 
writes — "Well, the signal is fired! Admiral Keppel has had a 
smart skirmish with three frigates of the Brest squadron, and Las 
sent one [two] of them in. They fired first, and yet seemed to 
have provoked him, that they may plead we began the war." 

These remarks are inserted at this place, because it was from 
this date that the war with France began. 

July 2nd. — The Loudon papers of Tuesday evening * men- 
tion Keppel's having sailed again from Portsmouth, upon L'* 
Sandwich's arrival there. . . W De Grey called upon us. 

6th. — Paxton left us this morning, and went to L"^ Towns^ 
bend's at Eayuham. The post brings us Gen. Howe's arrival 
— being at Court, ka. Philadelphia to be evacuated, and it 
we may guess, America to be admitted Independent. Great 
rejoicings in Washington's army upon news of the Treaty with 
France. Long live the K. of France ! the general shout, {Vive 
le Eoi !) 

9tb. — A letter from my son T. He says Philadelphia [is to 
be ?] evacuated, as a preliminary to a Treaty : but I can't 
make a Treaty consist with the proceedings of the Colonies in 
their Treaty with France, &c. 

2-lth. — We went to Cowbridge [in South Wales], 12 miles,' 

* It was now Thursday. 

1^ 2 



212 lUARV AND LETTERS OF THOMAS IlUTCniNSON. [j\"g: 

wlici-e we found W Browne nnd W ]\rurray, our two country- 
men, and their females, as we had found 37 Caner and M'' 
Apthorpe, and their families, at Cardiff, all waiting the state 
of the present contest, if it may any longer be said to be a 
contest, with America. 

31st. — We set out early for London ... I arrived at 
eight. 

August 1st. — The calm among all sorts of people is 
astonishing. It looks just the same as one might expect it 
would, if the English and French fleets were parading in the 
Channel upon friendly terms ; and yet every minute some 
decisive stroke, some say, may be expected. The British 
forces in America are mouldering away — the Commissioners 
treated with neglect— and all considered as a matter of 
indifterence. Why don't Government withdraw its forces, and 
leave the Americans to that Independence which the Ministry 
eeem to expect they will attain to? 

2nd. — Walked down to the Old Jewry and back. . . 
Account last night of an action in which four or five of 
Keppel's fleet were engaged with the Brest squadron, which 
had gone into harbour. No ships taken ; and it is said the 
Victory^ [Keppel's ship,] lost many men, — but it occasions 
triumph. Bells ringing at 12 o'clock at night. 

6th. — At Court. Keppel's Captain Faulkner introduced to 
the Queen. 

Sth.— CoP Chandler, W Clarke, and M^ Bowell, ^^ith my 
son T., and D"" Oliver and Avife, dined with me. All lament at 
the prospect of being debarred from the coimtry which gave 
them birth, and deprived of the estates which they left there. 

9th. — At Prince's Street. After service called on Daniel 
Leonard, beyond Buckingham Gate. He has been very 
dangerously sick while I was in the country, but is now 
recovered. His wife and children came last night from 
Halifax.* 

llth.--Wi-ote by Packet to Putnam at New York, that 1 

* Daniel Leonard was tlie same with Massaclimettertsis, the -writer of a 
series of loyal Letters at the commencement of the contest. He has been 
frequently quoted in the first volume. 



d'ifl DIABY AND LETTEliB OF THOMAS EUTOHINSON. 213 



17 78. J 



heard the March and April mails miscarried, by w^^ I informed 
him of the receipt of his salary. The letters from the 
Commiss[ioners] to the Congress — the answer — a private letter 
of Johnstone to Laurence — and his answer — with the Kesolve 
of Congress — all appear in the General Advertiser. Never was 
there an instance of such mortifying appearances in the publick 
prints. The design undoubtedly is — to bring Parliament to 
give them up. What the event will be, God only knows. 

Lord Hardwicke having sent me a side of fine venison. Gen. 
Gage, S^ J. Wright, Gov. Wentworth, L* Gov. Oliver, M"^ Gray, 
Lechmere, Fiucker, Leonard, Paul Wentworth, J. Newton, 
dined with me. 

13th. — My son and grandson Tommy H. dined with me. 
Everybody despairs of being able to return. A report that 
3F Lee, who has remained hitherto at Cambridge, has sold his 
estate, and is about to leave the country. 

19th. — The same weather continues.* It is now two month? 
since the last date from Clinton's army. There is a most 
unaccountable unconcern and indifference about publick affairs, 
w^'^ never were in so bad a state since the days of Charles the 
First. 

22nd. — As I was at dinner a porter came from Lord 
Townshend to desire me to call at his house, and he would tell 
me some news — the fellow said good news : and to give the 
porter sixpence. After I had gone part of the way, I had no 
doubt it must be a trick to get sixpence, a? Lord T. had so 
many servants, and was inclined to return — but went on. 

When I came, I found he had met a porter in the street. 
Instead of good news, he informed me of the arrival of Major 
Crew and General Paterson from N. York, the latter, who had 
the dispatches, not in town, but every minute expected : — that 
Lord Howe ^Aas blocked up in the harbour of N. York — that 
Clinton had been attacked passing thro' the Jerseys — some 
officers killed — knew no more particulars, only that he had not 
above a fortnight's provisions. This last article, if true, is 
more than all the rest. 

* Frequent entries concerning the long continuance of great heat. The 
Slimmer of 1778 appears to have been one of the hottest on record in England, 



214 DTARY AKJ) LETTERS OF THOMAS niJTCniNSON. [^"s 



:\"K. 



23rcl.— At \y Kippis's. 

Lord T. sent mo a precis — summary of tho intelligence : — 
Clinton lost oTa, killed, wounded, and missing : arrived tlio 
Itli July at N. Yorlv. D'Estaigne's* fleet arrived at tho Hook 
the lltli : had Leon into Chesapeak and Delaware, and miss(Ml 
L'' 1 [owe and tho transports but a few days. This is a kind 
providence, as all the provisions and stores of the army must 
have fell into thoir hands. 1/ Howe had 6 of the line, 3 of 50, 
2 of 40, and many frigates, and lay within the Hook in line of 
battle. The morning ratcrson camo away, D'Estaigno was 
preparing to come to sail — supposed to bo intended to Eh. 
Island. No account of Byron. 

25th. — Account of a prize arrived, taken by Byron, who Avas 
left with 3 sail — it was at first said with 10, in long. 55, lat. 41, 
the 28 July, so that it may be long before ho reaches N. York. 
— A very hot noon. 

27th. — For want of better employ, spent most of the day 
upon my History. . , 

AVith tho end of the mouth tho Fifth volume of tlio Diary 
terminates. If wo may judge hy the entry on tho first of August 
— especially by tho latter portion of it — and a few others following 
that date, we might infer that the game was nearly played out, 
and that we w^cre coming to " the beginning of the end." 

The unaccountable lull in public affairs so often alluded to, 
though more especially of late, as the gravity of the situation w^as 
becoming more intensified, and the strange inactivity of Adminis- 
tration, may have resulted from the fact, that Ministers had tried 
all plans in vain, and were now at a loss to know what stop to take 
next. Tho number of conciliatory Bills that had been introduced 
into Parliament, both by the Constitutional partj^, and also by the 
most ardent favourers of American liberty, had shewn at least, 
that there had been no lack of willingness on tho side of England, 
to come to a peaceful accommodation if possible. This may be made 
still more apparent, Ity referring to tho friendly advances several 
times carried out by Commissioners specially sent for the purpose; 
yet, in all cases, their proposals had boon met either by indifference, 
by evasion, or — as with the Commissioners now in America — by 

* Stedman and Adolplius write the Freuch Admiral's name D'Estaing . 
Hiune'^s Continuator spells it D'Estaigne. 



n"!:] DIARY AND LETTEB8 OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 215 

positive insult. The difficnlt nature of a war in a thinly settled, 
and partially cleared cotintr}', amid the forests and fastnesses of 
wild nature, had not heen sufficiently taken into account. If wc 
look hack and take a survey of the fortunes of war, as they have 
presented themselves from the materials used in this l)Ook, wc 
shall see that America Avas virtually won to England immediately 
after the success that followed the occupation of Kcw York in 
August 177G, and virtually lost in Octoher 1777 hy the disaster 
to General Burgoyne at Saratoga. The entries in the Diary 
subsequent to that event, plainly show that the Kefugees in England 
were well-nigh convinced that there was little chance of their ever 
returning to America again. In a melancholy strain of wit the 
following words, by the Governor's hand, were written on the fly- 
leaf at the end of vol. vi. of his Diary — " Vincit qui ixditur — 
Motto for Refugees." And yet, if. we may judge by an extract 
from a letter from Grotius to his father of April 16, 1621, after he 
had escaped from prison, and which he had quoted on another 
fly-leaf of his Diary, he continued to cling to the country that had 
ruined him in fortune, and had never ceased to try and ruin 
him in fame: — "iJ^/o non desino omnibus mild rede vohmtatihns 
Patriam commendare, cujus amorem, mihi nuUee iinqiiam ivjiirise 
extorqiiehant.'' 



( 21G ) K«: 



CHAPTER V. 

BEGINNING OF VOL. IV. OF THE DIARY. 

September Ist. — The changes in the List four or five years 
of my life make the wliole scene, when I look back upon it, 
appear like a dream or other delusion. From the possession of 
one of the best houses in Boston, tlie pleasantest house and 
farm at Milton of almost any in the world, and one of the best 
estates in the Colony of Rhode Island — free from debt, an 
affluent income, and a prospect of being able to make a hand- 
some provision for each of my children at my death — 1 have 
not a foot of land at my command, and personal esta*e of about 
7.000£ only ; depending on the bounty of Government for a 
pension, which, though it affords a present ample provision for 
myself, and enables me to distribute 500£ a year among 
my children, yet is precarious, and I cannot avoid anxiety. 
But I am still distinguished by a kind providence from 
my suffering relations, friends, and countrymen in America, 
as well as from many of them in England, and have great 
reason to be thankful that so muoli mercy is yet cntiuued 
to me. 

3rd. — A New England man — Nutting, of Cambridge — goes 
in the Packet. He is to be employed as overseer of carpenters, 
who are to rebuild the Fort at Penobscot. This he gives out. 
AYhat Ministry propose is matter of conjecture only, but this 
measure looks as if they expected to continue some hold of the 
Colonies. 

10th. — At Court. The Drawing-Room being very thin, the 
King said more to me than usual. After something upon books, 
and my being acquainted with them when young, and finding 
the benefit of it now I am old, he asked what sort of reading 



f?^:':] DTAIiY AND LETTER B OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 217 

I found most entertaining, or, I spent most of my time in ? 
" None more pleasing than History. It gave me pain however, 
to compare the present times [with those] which had preceded." 
" I believe so — none were more wicked. I flmcy," he added, 
"some of the wickedness of the times went from hence to 
America." " I knew it well," I answered. Turning from me, 
he looked back again — " They are a sad nest." " I hope Sir, 
they'll be broke up in time," was my return. 

13th.— At D-- Kippis's. 

The Montreal, with Gov. Carleton on board, from Quebec, 
spoke the 8th with, a Paclcet from N. York. D'Estaigne could 
not water there, and was gone, as supposed, to the Delaware. 
L*^ Howe had sailed after him with 7 ships of the line and a 
store ship, armed of the same force as a line of battle ship, five 
55 guns, and two 44, and frigates. Two of the 50 guns found 
their way in, notw'^'stand[ing] D'Estaigne's squadron ; and the 
■ Cormvall, one of Byron's ship', was arrived. The French had 
destroyed and taken 30 sail of one sort and another. 

14th. — The accounts open more to-day. No victuallers 
among the prizes taken by D'Estaigne. The Cornwall arrived 
but the 31 July : the BaisonahJe, a 60 gun ship, had also 
joined, so that Howe had 8 line of battle ships, and no store 
ship, she being designed only for a battery in harbour. 

15th. — The packet w*^^ came out w''' the armed vessel also 
arrived. Howe not sailed the 1"^ Aug., but was to sail the next 
day. D'Estaigne was seen the 28 July, steering, as supposed, 
for Ehode Island. Gov. Avbuthnot ai rived from Halifax: 
sailed about the 20 Aug. One of the three ships w^^' were with 
Byron, arrived there the 16*^. I have a letter from my brother 
of tlie 18*^ : complains much of his dark prospects. 

19th. — I called to-day upon M"" Knox at the ofifice. He sa'd 
he had at last accomplished what he had been endeavouring, 
and had brought " them " to take possession of Penobscot ; an 1 
shewed me a letter to Sir H. Clinton from L*^ George, directing 
him to send a sufficient body of the troops to Penobscot, as 
soon as they could be spared, to cover the workmen, who were 
to be employed in building a Fort, M"" Nutting being tho't 
proper for overseer of the workmen, 6:c. It seems it is to be 



218 J)TAIil' AND LETTERS OF THOMAS nUTGIJJNSON. [i^; 

pliiccd where Castillo's Fort was built ; ami tins is to bo erected 
into a new ]^-ovince, and to bo given to tlie Rofngccs, upon 
tlio same qnilrents as the N. iranipsliiro and otlier (Iranfccs, as 
a voconipcn(>o for their suflt'rings, and to ease Govcrnmont of 
tlio expense it is now at for their snpport. It put mo in mind 
of ^P' Loeke's story of L'' Shaftesbury's friend, who, after lie 
was privately married, sent for his I/'ship and another friend, 
to ask tliL'ir advice : and I observed the same rule so far as 
to find uo fanlt with the most preposterous measure, because 
already carrying into execution, Nutting having sailed in the 
last packet. However, I intend to make M' Knox acquainted, 
in i}\Q most prudent manner I can, with my sentiments. 

Called on Sir Guy Carleton. 

22ud. — I finished the revisal of my History, to the end of 
my Administration, and laid it by.* 

The wind at east, but the sun very hot. M' Rome, Paxton, 
my son T., and wife, and daughter Oliver, with young Spooner, 
and little Tommy H. — dined. 

23rd. — Set out in [a] postcbaise with S. h after 9, and arrived 
at L'^ Hardwicke's at Wimple Hall, i after 4, while they were 
at dinner. . , 

29th. — ... A goose for dinner on Mich[aelmas] Day, 
occasioned an observation — that otherwise, money would be 
wanted before the year was out. 

October 1st. — Returned to town. . . Nothing can be more 
obliging than their treatment of company while they stay. 
One custom they keep up, which is laid down almost everywhere 
else — they allow their serv^^ to take vails. This is no small 
tax, and I believe they have fewer visitors on that account. I 
left two guineas, besides 4/- to the groom. My servant says 
Lady Grey calls for all the money that has been left while in 
the country, and distributes it among the servants in proportion 
to their rank. They are very numerous — must exceed thirty 
men and women. 

5th. — Nothing remarkable to-day except the news of the 
capture of two French East India ships, which make four out of 

* This then irmst have been the day on which he completed the third 
volume of his History of Massachusetts i3ay, which was published in 1828. 



fi^Jg.] DIABY AND LETTEBS OF TII03IA8 HUTCHINSON. 219 

five, which were expected, there having been advice of two 
taken before. . . 

13th. — Express from Halifax, Sep. 8, that Byron had got in 
there, and sailed, the 4 Sep. with the Cullodeii to join Howo : 
another from jST. York with advice of blocking up Rhode 
Island — 1/ Howe's sailing — D'Estaigne's going ont to meet 
him — two days without engaging. At length Howe, having 
got the weather gage, and expecting in half an hour to begin a 
general action, a storm rose which scattered the fleets — dis- 
masted some — D'Estaigne's squadron gone to Boston — Howe 
said to have followed, and to have got back to Rhode Island. 
Sir n. Clinton went from N. York to Rhode Island with 4000 
men, which caused the Provincials to withdraw. Parker, with 
Byron's ships, arrived Aug. 28 at N. York. All the store-ships 
but one were arrived at York. 

14th. — At M"" Knox's office : confirms the account of yester- 
day. . . 

16th.— A letter by packet from W Walter at N. York of 
Sep. 6, mentions Johnstone, one of the Commissioners, resigning. 
He had wrote to some of the Congress, and taken other methods 
to gain them, which they pretended to be an affront : and upon 
the Commissioners' demand of the delivering up Burgoyne's 
men, according to the Articles of Surrender, the Congress 
declared they would not treat with Johnstone.* He has ex- 
posed himself shamefully, and the nation debases itself more 
than if they left the Americans to enjoy their independence. 

17th. — . . . Six of Byron's fleet lay at New York the 6 
September. . . 

19th. — In the city. Procured freight from W Rashleigh for 
two barrels of beef, and two firkins of butter, a present to my 
brother at Halifax, and sent them by a waterman, on board the 
Adamant, Cha. Wyatt, at Blackwall. 

Returning, met the King in his charriot, and the Queen 
with him, with the Guards and Attendants in Cheapside, going 
to review the troops on Warley Common. The crowd not being 
great, I observed, as I had my hat off, and nobody else [in the 

* This may make us smile, as it is the reward he got for the coimtenance 
he had hitherto given to the Sons of Liberty. 



220 DIARY AND lETTEBS OF THOMAS ITUTCITINSON. [^v'j'^. 

wayj, they each took notice of it ; but \Yhetlicr they thought 
me there by accident, or to see tlie show — can't say. 

21st. — Dined with W Lane in the city, where I found 
Admiral Gay ton, who I knew in America about the time of the 
Louisbnrgli expedition, and wlio married W^ Rawlins' daughter, 
who kept a small shop just by my house. W Gayton died 
since I came to England. It is said he has saved 30 or 40.000£ 
by his command in Jamaica, from whence he lately returned. 
He was poor before. Swears like a fool at G7 years of age. 

Upon 'Change : they talked of war with Spain, and stocks 
fell 1 or 2 p ct. I asked what grounds ? They knew none, 
except that England was sending half a dozen ships to the 
Mediterranean to protect her trade. 

22nd. — M"" La Fontaine, my old landlord at Chelsea, called, 
and dined with me. M"" Clarke and Quincy in the evening. 
They both agreed in an anecdote, which I never heard before — 
That when the dispute between the Kingdom and the Colonies 
began to grow serious, John Adams said to Sewall that he 
was at a loss which side to take, but it was time to determine. 
Sewall advised to the side of Government, and proposed to 
Governor Bernard to make Adams a Justice of Peace, as the 
first step to importance. Bernard made a difficulty on account 
of something personal between him and Adams, but Sewall 
urged him to consider of it a week, or some short time, and 
acquainted Adams the Governor had it under consideration, 
bat Adams disliked the delay, and observed, that it must be 
from some prejudice against him, and resolved to take the other 
side. Sewall was superior to Adams, and soon became x\ttorney- 
General, and one of the Superior Judges of Admiralty. Adams 
is now Ambassador from the United States to the Court of 
France, and Sewall a Refugee in England, and dependent upon 
Government for temporary support. Such is the instability of 
all human affairs. 

26th. — Lord Howe* and Gov. Johnstone arrived. Many 
people had great expectations of something being done by Lord 
H. before he quitted his command, and the disappointment must 

* Lord Howe was succeeded by Adm, GaniLier, and in April 1779 to him 
succeeded Com. Sir G. Collier. 



^] BIABY AND LETTERS OP THOMAS IIUTCIIlNSON. 2^1 

be in proportion. Much of the news lias not 5-et transpired. 
Affairs have a dark aspect. 

27th. — Lord Howe, in the Eagle, was very near being taken 
by two or three French line of battle ships off Scill}'. This M"^ 
Watts tells me, from CoP Sherriff, who was on board. He says 
that Billy Smith, as he is commonly named, one of the Council 
of N. York, who has been supposed to side with the Americans, 
lately came in to New York. Bedford harbour destroyed, and 
Martha's Vineyard put to ransom. All the damage is not 
equal to 5 frigates, 2 sloops, and 30 or 40 transports burnt and 
sunk at Ehode Island, to avoid their falling into the hands of 
the Americans or French. 

Dined with M^ and M" Ellis. 

28th. — The Gazette to-day sets affairs in no promising light 
in America. The French fleets indeed, have been in good 
measure disappointed, but they are secure in Nantasket, and 
our fleet can be of no great use, but upon the defensive. 
Provisions will be difficult to obtain for them, unless some of 
the Ei:!glish transports should fall into their hands, and this 
there is great reason to fear,^ — M"" Rome dined with me. 

31st. — It is said to-day that four French frigates have 
attacked Dominica : that they have carried two of the Forts, 
&c. It is added that the French have published a Declaration 
of War. 

Flucker, Greene, D'' Chandler, Bliss, Gridley, and D"" Oliver, — 
dined. Some of the company mentioned at dinner a circum- 
stance of Gen' Brattle's death at Halifax. He was always a 
great feeder, and being at dinner at a gentleman's table, having 
his plate filled with fish, one who was at table took notice of his 
countenance, and said to him — " You are not well. General," — 
but he went on eating, until it was observed that his mouth 
was drawn on one side, and he was advised to get up, or some- 
thing to that purpose, which he agreed to, and h.id just time 
to say to the servant — " Set the plate by for sujiper." These 
were the last words he spake. An instance of the ruling 
passion continuing to the last, and agrees with Pope's — *' Bring 
the jowl ! " 

November 1st. — At the Old Jewry. . , 



222 niAIlY AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS nUTOniNSON. [f^"^; 

2 lid. — TliG Stocks are fallen 2 or 3 p c'. from the Dominica 
news : report of Declaration of War by Frantic : disappointment 
in the expectations of Lord Howe's following D'Estaigne a 
little closer. When ];' H, knew two of ])'l]staignc's capital 
ships were dismasted, — his own fleet not weakened, except by 
springing a bowsprit in one ship, and a topmast in another, — ■ 
he shonld remain at Sandy Hoolc a whole weelv, — talce no step 
to interrupt D'Estaigne at Ehode Island, — but when he had 
rea.son to suppose he had sailed for Boston, — then to follow, — 
and as soon as he found he Avas in Nantasket, to give over all 
further tlioughts of annoying him, and return immediately to 
England.* 

ord. — In the eily with my son T. and sister [in-law] G. S., 
[Grizel SanfordJ, in tlie coach. ]\Iore captures of the French 
W. India ships. It is said tliat tlie account of a fray at Boston 
is confirmed from Halifax. It looks as if Howe and Johnstone 
would not agree well when J*arliament meets, the latter being 
very free in charging the loss of America to the fault of the 
former. 

5th. — ... It seems agreed that D'Estaigne's Lieutenant 
was killed in a fray between some Privateer's men, as it is said, 
and the French seamen about bread, there being two sorts, and 
the best given to the Frenchmen. 

Gth. — At the Levee, St. James's. A great string of sea 
officers — Sir George Eoduey, Admiral Keppel, Lord Howe, Sir 
liobert Harland, Sir Hugh Palliser, xVdmiral Campbell, besides 
Sir John Lindsay, and other Captains. Many land officers. 
A publication of S'" H. Palliser's in the P. Advertiser of to-day, 
shews that there is not a perfect understanding with Kepj)el, 
and probably must bring on a dispute. 

In the evening at my son's, Brompton Eow, at the Baptism 
of his youngest child William,! by D'' Kippis. 

7th. — The account of the surrender of Dominica, taken from 
the French ace* by authority, appears in the papers of this 
day. 

8th. — At Prince's Street — D'' Kippis. 

* Tliis is sometliing like the Americaii tactics of Lis brotlidi'. 
t My father's younger brother. 



ml'] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTOniNSON. 223 

lOtli. — Took D^"^ Chandler and Cooper in my coach to Ful- 
ham, wliere fonnd the Bp. of London at home, and very 
courteous. He thinks Lord Howe had never seen the King 
since his arrival until Friday last, and that he is much of a 
grumbler. Governor Johnstone complains as much of Lord 
and General Howe. There is no knowing who and who will be 
together v\hen Parliament meets. 

Lord Townshend having sent me a hare and two pheasants, 
I asked W Watts, Chandler, Cooper, Mauduit, Sewall, Major 
Small, Fitch, Hallowell, and Lane, to partake of them. 

13th.— Dined with M"^ Watson, Garlick Hill :— Admiral Ar- 
buthnot, Hallowell, Clarke, Brattle, Cap. Arbuthnot, son to the 
Admiral, has lost a leg, and a M'" Mure — I suppose Hutchinson 
Mure. 

14th. — M*' Combe, a Clergyman, came passenger in one of 
the vessels from N. York to Ireland. He had been imprisoned, 
and at length was banished from Philadelphia for refusing the 
oaths. He says he expects to return next year — that the 
Americans are so averse to the French, that they will break 
among themselves. This is his opinion, but I don't find it a 
general opinion. 

18th. — Auchmuty, Brinley, and N. Coffin, called on me and 
spent half an hour. 

I bought 3 vol. in one of the ReUquiie RomaniB at Hayes's, 
and the Views in Venice, at two Guineas, I think cheap. 
Pridden asked the same price for the Beliquim only — imperfect 
— 9 or 10 prints wanting. 

There is a man in town who left Boston the 22"'^ of Sep- 
tember, arrived 8 or 10 days ago from Halifax. He says he 
saw the funeral of D'Estaigne's Lieut*. He brought a news- 
paper which mentions the death of J^ Eliot, about the middle 
of September : also of Ezek. Lew'is. W Eliot was long my 
friend. One of my last letters from D'" Pemberton, said his 
sentiments were the same they used to be. After Howe left 
the town, he wrote two letters to England which were inter^ 
cepted, and carried to Halifax, and copies given. They were 
very strong in favour of American proceedings. Some thought 
he expected they would be intercepted, and that he desired to 



224 piAIiY AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. [^^Z\ 

liavc it known at Boston tliat lie pulilickly owned the cause. 
ITo said to my son at ]iostoii ho was afraid, or liad reason to 
think his continning in Boston had made him obnoxions to the 
people without the town. Great alk)wanee must bo made for 
the dillienlty of his cirenmstanees : bnt after all, as no man is 
without inlirniity, perhaps his might be a disposition to tem- 
porize, always, I trust, having satisfied himself he was to be 
justified : — but this must be left. Some of tlie Americans 
speak lightly npon the news of his death. I heard the news 
with grief, and wished to see him again in this world. D'' 
Pembertou and he, for many years, were the best neighbours 
I had. 

])'■ Chandler dined with mo to-day, and read his letters from 
I)"" lugob, as late as the 2Gth of September, who thinks the 
new alliance with the French will break the alliance which the 
Americans have formed among themselves. . . 

19th. — I called upon Sewall, at his lodgings, and asked him 

to dine with me. AHev dinner, some mention being made of 

D"" E. — " I have not the least doubt," says S., " that man is 

gone to h — II." " Oh ! " says I, " that's going a great length," 

or something to that effect. " If there is such a place as h — ," 

he repeats it, " I have not the least doubt he is gone there." 

The reason he gave for his declaration was, his opinion of the 

D"^'^ duplicity ; and the instance he gave was his frequent 

meeting S., and joining him in conversation, and appearing to 

disapprove of the measures taken before the 19*'* of April,* and 

of his avoiding him after that, and never saying any more upon 

the subject. I excused him — his dependance being on his 

people, who were now, or after that day, warmly engaged ; and 

HF S. being peculiarly obnoxious to them, being seen with him, 

would make the D'" obnoxious also. This was rash beyond 

anything 1 ever observed in S. before. He is in poor health, 

which occasions, or increases discontent and uneasiness of 

temper — the best excuse I can make for him. God forbid that 

he or I should have our infirmities so strictly marked against 

us. We should not be able to stand. 

* The Battle of Lexington, the first Tattle of the war. It was to Dr. 
Eliot that the Governor sent his books and fossils for Harvard University, as 
mentioned, I. 450. 



Doc. 



78. J 



1 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 225 



23rd. — Visited Lord Huntingdon : very civil and communi- 
cative : had not seen L*^ G. Germaine, but had seen L'^ North : 
seems less unfavorably disposed to the Ministry than when I 
last sa\y him : condemns some of the Opposition, who wished 
the nation's misfortune, for the sake of a change of Ministry : 
says the first motion in the H. of Commons will be to declare 
the seats of the American Commissioners vacant. 

At Gov. Shirley's — left my name, and Sir W. P. [Pep- 
perell ?] 

Eain, and much wind. 

Lord H. thinks Pigot might have done more in obstructing 
Sullivan at quitting E. Island ; and I thought he had heard 
CJinton was of the same opinion. 

25th. — Several transports arrived to-day from N. York; said 
to leave it the 19^*^ of October. Clinton returned : nothing 
said more than that he had foraged successfully. Byron gone 
towards Boston. 

26th. — Paxton came to town last evening with L*^ Townshendj 
who at my request took Sewall in to the H. of Lords to Lear 
the K.'s Speech, which recommends vig. [vigorous ?] exertions. 
The Addresses of the two Houses opposed, as usual. Gov. 
Johnstone supposed 28,000 men enough to conquer America : 
harped upon the old string under another Ministry, and finally 
divided with the Ministry, being 207 against 106. Li the 
House of Lords the majority was 177 to 31. After Lord Shel- 
burne had spoke, there was a stroke of canes as a mark of 
applause, whicli gave such offence that the House was imme- 
diately ordered to be cleared. 

28th. — Lord Galloway stopped me in the street, and in- 
formed me of the arrival of M"" Drummond, S' H. Clinton's 
Aide-du-camp, who left New York the 29*^ Oct''. Grant 
sailed with 5000 troops, and three line-of-battle ships for the 
W. Indies the 27"\ Pigot is also arrived. It is said a body 
of troops Vi'ere gone to the southward. Byron was at sea, but 
rather as a security to the smaller squadron, tban from any 
prospect of annoying D'Estaigne. 

December 3rd.— Left cards at M*" D'Oyly's and Jenkinson's. 
At Lord North's Levee ; mentioned Boylstone's arrival, and 

VOL. IT. Q 



220 DIAIiY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. ffrX 

tlio't he might give iutelligcucc. L'' North said — " If he will." 
Arch-Bp. of York, Bps. of Loiulou and Chichester, Lord Shuld- 
ham, Piilliscr, Young, several of the Nobility, and many 
]\[embers of Parliament. Bather a full Levee. 

Met T. ])oylstone in the street : was at a loss how to greet 
Lim : said I. was glad to see him well, or — hoped I saw him 
well : added — I little expected to see him here. He answered 
— he little thought I should remain so long here. I thereupon 
said — " Since you are here, I should be glad you would call on 
me," — or to that effect. 

At the Levee Gen. Monkton, tho' Governor of Portsmouth, 
and now gratified by Administration, seemed discontented with 
American measures, and said, if they tried another year to 
reduce them, it wonld be in vain. Sir Henry Houghton 
seemed to be for giving up the charges — not being to be borne. 
Strahan said — "You must go forward — you can't go back if 
you would." Sir Henry said — " See what will be the effect of 
to-morrow, w^hen Burke's motion comes on." 

4th. — In the House of Commons a motion to consider that 
part of the Manifesto of the Commissioners, which threatens 
the Americans with prosecuting the war with severity, sup- 
ported with great vehemence by the minority,* who made 
126 against 207. Governor Johnstone supported the JMani- 
festo. 

5th. — Dined with M'" Jackson, Southampton Buildings. 
There I saw Galloway for the first time . . . 

7th. — Called on D^' Gardiner . . . 

Visit to M^' Galloway also, where I found M'' Delany. Gallo- 
way is of opinion the middle Colonies are tired of the war, and 
says, if the army had not moved from Philad., all Pensylvania 
and New Jersey would have returned : and he says, if the war be 
properly prosecuted, they will do it yet. He condemns all past 
measures, there having been no system. I asked him about 
W. Smith. He supposed I knew him to be a sensible man, 
and who loved his interest. I said — " Yes." " It's natural 

* It was only a sliort time ago that the minority were crying out for more 
concessions to the Americans, and abusing the Ministry for not withdrawing 
all the troops from America ! 



^?5jj BIAIiY AND LETTER B OF THOMAS nUTCIIINSON. 22? 

then," he added, " to infer that the American cause was in a 
very declining vray, or he would not have left it." 

Galloway says it can be demonstrated that 50,000 Americans 
have been slain or died in Hospitals by sickness. He says 
they have been often excessively straitened for provisions, when 
the country has been full, and he will have it to be owing to 
the disaffection of the inhabitants, wlio were not willing to 
supply the army. I told him I supposed it must be the bad 
state of their paper currency, but he would not concede to it 
jy Gardiner thinks their crops have been very short this year, 
but Galloway says they have not been remarkably so. 1 
thought it strange, if there was so great a disaffection, that 
bodies of men had not petitioned the Congress to treat when 
such liberal terms were offered. The reason, he says is, they 
are afraid of being put to the bayonet. T think this must be 
exaggerated. 

M'" Galloway was of the first Congress. I do not know the 
special occasion of his quitting that cause. His friends say he 
never intended Independence ; and that when he found that 
was resolved upon, he left them. 

M'' Galloway says the Members of the Congress for Pensyl- 
vania, and all the Members for the Assembly for the Province, 
were elected by 157 votes only, though there are 30,000 
qualified to vote in the Province. 

3tli. — At Lord Hardwicke's, who desired me to bring M^' 
Galloway to see him on Thursday the 10"*. The H. of Lords 
last night divided upon the motion to address the King upon 
the subject of the Coihiss''^ Manifesto — 37 for the Address, 71 
against it; but this is a great minority upon so strange a 
motion. 

A rainy day, and very high S.W. wind. 
9th. — At Kensington Square to call on M'' Lechmere and 
Newton, but both from home. In the evening with Paxton at 
]\P" Copley's. 

10th. — At Lord Hardwicke's, where I saw Sir Charles Cocks : 
—much conversation. L'^ H. saw no way how the war could bf; 
carried on with France and America both. 

L'^ Gage called. He says CoP Gray, Dickens, and G or 7 

Q 2 



228 PIAEY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. [n^». 

officers of the Guards, are ordered to embark for America in the 
fleet now at Portsmouth, and supposes an additional force to bo 
going out. 

Admiral Palliser has lodged a diarge against Admiral 
Keppel, which must bring on a Court Martial. 

W Jenkinsou, Secretary at War, in the room of I.ord Har- 
rington. 

11th. — . . . A.[dmiral] Palliser, having exhibited a charge 
of not doing his utmost, &c., against Ad. Keppel, Temple 
l^uttercll moved in the House of Commons to address His 
Majesty to order an enquiry into Talliser's conduct in not 
observing signals. It seemed chiefly designed to give room 
for debate, the motion being droj^ped. Shnldham and Figot, 
both blamtd Palliser for appearing in the Newspapers, and 
others blamed (he Admiralty for crdciing a Court Martial 
>vithout hearing Keppel. It's an afl'air Mhich threatens a gcod 
deal of trouble . . . 

12th.— D*" Chandler has a letter from Willdns of Oct^ 9'", 
who writes in hopes of seeing peace another year. He adds — 
he hopes to hear H is hanged. 

In the city. M' Frazer says that fome of Byron's squadr( n 
have taken on board the Bawleigh, and a vessel he was sending 
to Martinico, D'Eslaigne's papers, which give an acrount of his 
designs, and that they will be of great use to Byron. Letters 
frcm France say a vessel is arrived fiom Boston, which sailed 
the 4 of Kovember, and that D'Estaigne sailed at the same 
time, but this is not credited. 

14th. — Eichard Silvester, a Custom-House officer, who used 
to be often applying to me for one purpose or another at 
Boston, called on me this morning. He came from N. York in 
one of the transportf — left Boston in June. He married the 
mother of "Will More, who was imprise^ned with others for the 
riot at destroying my house in 1765. Silvester says More was 
Captain of the men who destroyed the tea. I asked him how- 
he knew it ? He said his \\ire, More's mother, told him so. 

Took M'' Galloway in my carriage to Lord Hardwicke's, who 
Avas very inquisitive into his whole history, which was plausible 
enough. M"" G. went into Congress at the earnest soUicitations 



f^fs.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTGHINSON. 229 

of his friends, in hopes to moderate matters. He proposed a 
fair or equivalent state of the claims of the Colonies in the 
first Petition, but a very diffoieut one was carried against his 
opinion, by means of Adams and his adherents, so that of all 
the Colonies there was a majority of members in each for the 
Petition, but Galloway still says there was nothing precise in it 
as to the expectation of the Colonies, and. some things very 
exceptionable : that he then desired to know of Adams whether 
he did not intend Independence ? and he declared he did not : 
but as soon as the affair was over, owned in company he in- 
tended nothing short of it : that it liad been his object 17 
years : that he had made it his business whenever it was in his 
power, to inculcate the principle upon the minds of every 
youth likely to be of any significance. 

When this design was thus made apparent, G-. determined to 
quit. He was chosen by the Assembly of Phil, when he was 
absent, but excused himself; and tho' another was not chosen 
in his stead for three or four months, yet he never met with 
the new Congress. He says ]\P Adams was so enraged with 
him, and enraged the people so much against liim, that he was 
afraid of assassination. The vote for Independence, he says, 
was carried by 7 Colonies to 6. Tho 4 New England Colonies, 
[with] Virginia, Peusilvania, and New Jersey, made the seven : 
that, on the first trial, Pensilvanij, members were against it ; 
but after three or four days Dickenson was brought over, and 
made the majority of that Colony in favour of it, and also 
the major vote of the Colonies. This man, in his Farmers 
Letters, disclaimed any such intention. G. says he is of an 
unsteady mind. He soon after lost the confidence of his con- 
stituents, and has had no share in the Congress nor Assembly 
ever since. 

Debate in the H. upon the army. M"" Jenkinson opened the 
state of it. Lord Barrington having resigned as Secry at War : 
160,000 men voted for the army next year. It is said, in army 
and navy in Britain, Ireland and the dependencies, together 
with the Militia in pay, will amount to 300,000. 

15th.— At M'^ Ellis's. 

W Weekes, Missionary at Marblehead called on me. He 



230 DIAIiY AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS IIUTCniNSOK {['~^%, 

arrived in ono of the transports at Corke : left Boston in July, 
pretending to be going to Bodi'ord, in a small vessel wliich 
fouiid the way to lihodo Island, where he staid during the 
siege, and then wont to York. He says he was tried six 
difleicnt times for offences against the State : has left his wife 
and 8 children ut Marblehead. 

]\r Thompson of Yorkshire called. 

10th. — Dined with W Wray, in Dean Street, Soho — Lord 
Hardwiclce, and Lady Grey, Lady Bet. Polworth, Miss Gregory, 
Bp. of St. Davids, and Lady. 

17th. — At Court— the Queen not there — confined with a 
cold. The King said somewhat about tke weather. [I] ob- 
served that I was more affected by the state of America 
tlian by the weather. I hoped they looked more favorably 
than they had done a year or two past. He thought so too, 
and particularly in New^ England. I did not know but they 
might in Connecticut, but in Massachusetts I thought the 
leaders had as much sway as ever. He asked if they had not 
changed their leaders ? No : they had the same men as at 
first, particularly Hancock and Adams. Hancock, he said, was 
but a weak man : Adams, he had heard, w-as very able. I 
agreed with him, and gave him my opinion of their different 
characters, iSrc. 

Col° Stewart arrived : left N. Y^ork the 18*^ Nov. D'Estaigne 
sailed the 4*'\ Bryon saw part of the ships, but in a storm 
and thick weather lost them. Took a brig soon after, wdiich 
came out with them, and Bryon's ships suffering in the storm, 
put into Newport. This was very unfortunate, and people are 
in pain for the W. Indies, or other parts where that fleet may 
be gone. 

CoP Stewart bro't a copy of a letter wrote by M'" Ethan 
Allen, in behalf of the Green Mountain Men, who refuse to 
acknowledge the Congress, to whom the letter was wrote. 

M"" Jackson, John Pownall, Galloway, D'^ Chandler, Sir 
Francis and T. Bernard, Sir W. Pepperell, and Col. Leonard, 
dined with me. 

18th. — I received two copies of an Act of the State of 
IMassachusetts Bay, passed the 10*^ of October. Each came 



fvTgJ DIABY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 231 

from France under a blank cover; ouo, by the siiperscriptioD, I 
susj^ect to have bean sent from Bostonj tlie other to be covered 
in France. This Act pietcribes above 300 persons, of which I 
am first named : then Gov. Bernard, U Gov. Oliver, Timothy 
Eiiggles, after wliicli they are generally named in al[ihabetical 
order. They, and all others, though not named, who have 
absented themselves from the State, and been inimical to it, 
upon their return to the State, are to be forthwith committed 
to prison, and as soon after as may be, sent out of the State ; 
and if they return a second time, without leave of the General 
Cuurt, they are to suffer the pains of death, without benefit of 
Clergy.* 

Five hundred copies were to be sent to the Ministers at the 
Court of France, to be published, &c. 

Col° Stewart brought another Act, which orders the estates 
of all these persons to le sold ; but this, it was not thonght 
necessary to send to me. 

20th, — . . . An account is said to be received, and is 
credited, that the Somerset, a 64 gun ship, was lost off Cape 
Cod. Where D'Estaigne was bound, is not yet ascertained . , . 

21st. — The account of the loss of the Somerset is from a 
tender of D'Estaigne, taken by the Culloden 25 men were 
said to be lost on Cape Cod — the rest made prisoners. The 
report is, that the French designed for Toulon, but the fears 
are that they are gone to the West Indies. 

22nd. — The Boehuch arrived, and another ship from N. 
York ; — L*^ Carlisle, and ]\F Eden, Commissioners ; L'^ Corn- 
wallis and Gen. Grey of the army. No news of the CormcaU. 
The Somerset, and Zebra, sloop, are certainly lost in the storm. 

23rd, — A visible concern in people's countenances — except 
some of the Opposition, M'" Knox called. He says transports 
are preparing for the first embarkation of 3000 men to sail by 
the 20*'^ of February. 

* " I have read the histories of most of the civil dissentions of which wc in 
the present age of the world have any knowledge ; but I have not met witli 
an instance equally arbitrary, revengeful, and severe, with the Acts of the 
new State of Mass. Baj^ They put my patience to the test, but you don't 
think them worth notice."— The Governor to J. Putnam, Aug. 3, 1779, in 
Letter Book. 



232 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. [^rX 

In the city. Tliey say D'Estaigne went to the W. Indies. 
Byron was not sailed from Khode Ishind tlie 22"'' of Novem- 
ber : had sent for the Monmouth from N. York to join him 
— which made 111 sail. 

24th.— M' Abel Willard called this morning. He says 
his brother Kogers has a letter from Jos. Taylor at New York, 
acquainting him that M'' Blowers* went from llhode Island to 
Boston : that ho was immediately apprehended and committed 
close prisoner, according to the late Act of Massachusetts 
State, and that he was to be sent away, agreeable to the 
provisions in the Act. 

D"" Gardiner called : has a letter from his son, who obtained 
leave to visit his father at N. York, but he was sailed when 
he came there. He writes that he was present when the 
Act of Attainder passed in Boston, and in the Gallery, heard 
the debates : says the persons named in it were much abused. 
The Act however, met with opposition, and was finally carried 
by 61 to '63. Another Bill for sale of the estates passed the 
House, but the Council refused the consideration to December, 
when it is supposed it will pass. 

25th. — A feverish disorder, which gave me a poor night, 
prevented my going abroad to Church or Meeting ; for Christ- 
mas is observed in both, and the streets are more orderly than 
they are on Sundays. 

M"" Weekes, Green, and Bliss, dined with me, with my son T. 
and wife, and D^ Oliver. 

M"^ Weekes says that when the plan of Government recom- 
mended by the House to the towns for consideration, came 
before the town of Boston, Otis appeared, and spake so well 
against it, that he prevented its passing, as otherwise it would 
have done ; and it was put off to another day, w hen they chose 
Otis Moderator, and he spake so well on introducing the 
subject, that it was rejected by a great majority. He dressed 
himself very decently on that occasion, but soon after returned 
to his sordid dress and demeanor about [the] streets. 

26th. — At Lord Hardwicke's. He is much affected with the 
state of things in America, lest D'Estaigne should sweep all 
* Some account of Mr. Blowers is given in vol. i. p. 341. 



\*'^s.j DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 233 

before him, wliicli may cause, he said, such a crash as we never 
felt before. "And yet, my Lord," said J, " tliere are many 
people among us who wisli for it." " There always arc," he 
said, " some who had rather command the wreck of the Con- 
stitution, than that it should be preserved entire under the 
guidance of other pei'sons." 

Warm weather still, like September and October ia America : 
and it's often as cold in May or June in England. 

27th.— At the Old Jewry. 

Dined witli j\P Ellis. Sir Eob*^ Smith only. Balfour, Captain 
of the Culloden, thinks it probable D'Est. is gone to Toulon : 
others, from the same circumstances, think to the We?t Indie?!. 
The fleets which have lain four or five weeks, and part much 
longer, in all 300 sail, sailed from Plimouth to the westward, 
the morning of the 25'^ under a strong convoy. 

The execution of Roberts and Carlisle, two Quakers, at 
Philadelphia, for aiding and assisting General Howe, is made 
certain. Roberts is said to have been worth 20,000£ sterling, 
which is all confiscated. He is a^so said to have left surviving 
a widow and ten children. 

29th. — Dined with ]\P Knox, where I met fur the first time, 
Doctor Eerguson, Secretary to the Commissioners. He is very 
agreeable in conversation, and as unreserved as a prudent man 
can be. I asked where he lodged ? Without informing me, he 
let me know he designed to wait on me. 

30th. — Put a dull day, first meeting ]\P Keene, who soon 
discovered to me the apprehensions of Ministry, from the state 
of Byron's and D'Estaigne's fleets, and the hazard Grant's 
forces, and the West India Islands were in, for he suj^poses it 
100 to one that D'Estaigne went to the W. Indies ; and I found 
everybody else in the Park, &c., going the same way, though 
there is no fresh advices. The prospect is indeed very dark for 
this Kingdom. Wind last night was very high at W. to NW. 

31st. — L'^ Gov. Oliver, Lechmere, Vassall, Rome, Watson, 
Galloway, and Mauduit, dined with me. G. speaks his mind 
very freely of the often repeated neglect of Gen. H. to pursue 
the advantages gained over the enemy ; declares he is utterly 
at a loss for his conduct ia going round to Chesapeak ; that he 



234 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCIIINSOK [Jf^'g, 

(G.) gave bis opiui m against it ; and that Gen. H. asked if he 
thought it a dangerous navigation? and upo.i liis saying "No," 
tlio (u'n(.'ral made no reply. 

Wind very higli all day at .S.W. People in pain for the 
fleet lately sailed. Advice that the Itussell, a 74 gun sliip, 
ran down an outward bound ludiaman in the Channel, which 
sunk, and about 10 only of the crew saved. The Master of the 
Mau-of-war is blamed ; the Russell damaged so as to go into 
dock. 

In the iiight the wiul changed to north, and blew with as 
much violence as anyboly remembers — but it is common to 
say so. 

End of 1778. 

England at this perioci, was in a very critical position, not only 
as regarded the impending loss of the largest and the most 
wealthy of her dej)endencies, but a war with France begun, and a 
Avar with Spain in expectation : and yet, how entirely these great 
national events, and anxious struggles against increasing taxation, 
are forgotten and swept out of memory. When I was in America, 
I found that the subject of England, " the British," and the 
provincial successes in the Eevolutionary war, Avere the constantly 
recurring topics of conversation. I ascribed this in some degree 
to their knowing that I was an Englishman. A lady asked me 
one day whether we were not always talking about America in 
England? I was injudicious enough to smile, and say, wo never 
thought about it : or we miglit casually allude to America as Ave 
might to France or Spain, or any other country, if the subject 
under review suggested it. I was much to be condemned for my 
want of good breeding. I should have pleased her more if I had 
said that Ave had never ceased repenting the loss of the Colonies, 
and that we took all the blame upon ourselves. 

It may be seen by the Diary, that though Mr. Hutchinson had 
many repeated opportunities of conversing with the King at 
Court, the current politics of the day Avere rarely alluded to, 
leaving his Majesty to lead the conversation, and if they were 
touched upon, a passing remark sufficed, as it would be evidently 
inopportune to discuss such subjects in a mixed company. 

The crafty and underhand proceedings of France, in respect to 
their secret Treaty Avith the revolted Colonies, raised a feeling of 
great indignation in England when it became known. So long 



rns.^ DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 235 



177S.J 



ago as fifteen montlas before the period at which we have arrived, 
namely, on the 17th of July, 1777, Walpole wrote — " The open pro- 
tection and countenance given by France to the Americans, in 
come to a crying height." That an ancient Monarchy, proud of 
its long and unbroken succession of Kings, and jealous of its 
monarchical institutions, should so far forget its consistency and 
sound judgment, and be so imprudent as to encourage the people 
to rise in rebellion against their lawful rulers in a neighbouring 
state, and thereby to popularise republicanism, with all the 
excesses of unbridled liberty, was an anomaly that did not escape 
observation. But a terrible retribution soon recoiled upon France. 
Her citizens, thus encouraged, followed the example and applied 
the experiment on their own soil; and by the use of the 
Guillotine, swept away all traces of the ancient regime in deluges 
of blood. It did not end there ; for the force of evil example is 
great, and the Irish Eebellion, with all its barbarities, broke out 
immediately upon it. 

The three Commissioners had now returned from America — 
pretty well snubbed and crest-fallen. Young Thomas Hutchinson, 
writing to his brother Elisha, August 20, 1778,* makes the 
following remarks : — 

" Although I have done with the expectation of returning to 
America, yet cannot help being more inquisitive after accounts 
from thence, than from any other quarter. I don't find Govern- 
ment have rec*^ any despatches from the Commissioners as j et : 
those by the way of France are enough to shew the matter of 
negotiation will end much as was expected. The very few 
Americans that are left in and about London wear pretty long 
faces. Billy is at Yarmouth: he writes me his health is better 
than usual. Daniel and Sylvester [Oliver] are both in the 
country, and it is now become a rare thing to meet a Yankee 
even in the Park. The Gov'' has been very well since his journey, 
and I think is more reconciled to the thoughts of ending his days 
in England than I have ever observed him to be. Necessity has 
no law." 

Governor Johnstone is another instance, among some notable 
cases already aluded to, of a person who, at the commencement 
encouraged the thirst for liberty by his speeches against the 
Ministry and their repressive measures, only to turn round when 
the monster was becoming too strong, and then recommended the 

* Orig. Letters, vol. i. 



23G DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. [fi\% 

application of tho bullet and the bayonet, and thought that 
America could bo conquered with a force of 28,000 men. Governor 
Ilutchinson wont upon a different principle. At the commence- 
ment he used all legal and constitutional repressive measures to 
check the growing fever, but by tho 1st of August, 1778, thinking 
there had been contention enough, he wrote — " Why don't 
Government withdraw its forces, and leave the Americans to that 
Independence which tho Ministry seem to expect they will attain 
to ? " Look on that picture and on this. 

There is printed at page 13 in " Senate — No. 187," among the 
laws of tho General Court — " An Act to confiscate the estates of 
certain notorious conspirators against the government and liberties 
of the inhabitants of the late province, now State, of Massa- 
chusetts Bay ; " and there is there given, a list of the names of 
those who are specially marked out for early manipulation. 

The Keppel and Palliser affair, which caused a great fuss over a 
small matter, had scarcely yet develoi^ed itself, but it was soon 
destined to amuse the community a good deal. On the 25th of 
August, 1778, Walpole wrote — "The papers say that Keppel and 
Palliser have fought a duel : I do not know how truly." 



i 



Jan; 
1779. 



( 237 ) 



CHAPTER VI. 

BEGINNING OF THE YEAR 1779. 

January 1, 177.9. — The new year begins with a dark prospect 
for tliis poor kingdom. A vessel express in 33 clays from 
Jamaica brings advice of their expecting a great French force 
to invade the in. 

Many houses hurt by the wind last night. 

6th. — To Eichmond to Lord Hardwicke's — M"" Galloway in 
the coach with me. Among other things he says, — when D'^ 
Franklyu first arrived from England in America, after the 
revolt was begun, he cime to Galloway, they having been long 
friends ; that Galloway opened his mind to him, and hoped he 
was come to promote a reconciliation : that the Doctor was 
reserved, and kept upon his guard : that the next morning 
they met again, and the D'" said — " Well M'' Galloway, you are 
really of the mind that I ought to promote a reconciliation ?" 
Galloway said "Yes" — and no more passed: that for five or 
six weeks Franklyn kept much at home, [and] people seemed 
at a loss ^Ahat part he would take. S. Adams opened against 
him as a suspicious persoo, designing to betray the cause. At 
length a more full conversation was proposed between F. & G., 
and the D^ read to him three fourths of his Journal while he 
was in England, but company interrupted : that the Doctor's 
natural son, the Gov'" of New Jersey, had told Galloway that 
his father had avoided any conversation with him upon the 
subject of the colonies; but suspecting his father's intention, 
the son said to him, he hoped, if he designed to set the 
Colonies in a flame, he would take care to run away by the 
light of it : that soon after, Galloway and the two Frankly ns 
met together, and the glass having gone about freely, the 
Poctor, at a late hour, opened himself, and declared in favour 



2:;s nun r AND letters of thomas iiuTcnmsoN. [n".;. 

of measures for attaining to Tn(loj)en(lonpo : — exclaimed against 
tlio corruption aud dissipation of the Kingdom, and signified 
his opinion, that from the strength of Opposition, the want of 
union in the i\linistry, the great resources in the Colonies, they 
Mould finally prevail. Ho urged Galloway to come into the 
C!ongress again ; and from that time, united in tlie closest 
connection with Adams, broke off from Galloway, who lost the 
remaining part of his Journal, which probably was the most 
interesting. Gal'oway remembers Franklyn told him a plan 
was laid for stopping him in Englan'l, which a friend of great 
character in the lav gave him notice of, and that he gave out 
he should sail in a fortniglit by the packet, but v»ent off 
suddenly by another opportunity. 

In the late storm one of the back chimnies in Lord liard- 
wicke's house, St. James's Square, was blown down, — went 
through the roof and floors, and the chamber where Lady Mary 
or Miss Grogory wouhl have slept, if the family had not 
removed two or three days before to Eichmond. Two maids 
lodged in the chamber, and one of them, not inclining to sleep 
so near the fire as Miss Gregory's bed was placed, removed it 
to anoth.er part of the room, and escaped without hurt. 

9th. — Called on Col" ]\Iontresor, and left name. On Martin 
Howard, where Paul Went worth came. He says Gov. John- 
stone made a point of it that M*" Temple should go out with the 
Coiniss. — that his passage and all his expenses were paid by 
Government, and his salary paid him from the time he was 
dismissed : besides all this, eighteen hundred pounds of his 
account as Surv'' General was never allowed, and will never be 
demanded. This seems incredible : but the whole plan of the 
appointment of Coinissioners was infatuation. Howard says 
Temple arrived with carriages, and thirty or forty packages, he 
and his family taking up the cabin, and Lord Bute's son, and 
other officers of rank in the steerage : that he talked of nothing 
but Carlisle and Eden : that he had wrote to Washington : and 
after vapouring a few days, set out, to the astonishment of all 
the poor Refugees, for Boston, — perhaps to take possession of 
some of their estates. 

10th. — At the Old Jewry : collection for poor Dissenting 



i7?9j DIABY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTCEINBON. 239 

Ministers. I told Mauduit I came to put ia my mite. He 
said they de-erved nothing from me. 1'hey had behaved 
exceediDg ill. He was a subscriber, and did not think it worth 
while to withdrav/ his name ; but if it was uot there, he would 
not now put it there. The Dissenters were favourers of the 
American revolt, without entering into the merits of it. As by 
far the greater part of the Americans were Dissenters them- 
selves, the Dissenters in England seem for that reason to wish 
well to their civil dissensions also. 

12tl). — A well wrote but severe letter to Sir W. Howe in the 

P. Advertiser, undoubtedly by J\[ 1. He desired me some 

time ago, if I saw anything iu the paper, and anybody sug- 
gested it to be his, to say I knew nothing of it. Indeed, I do 
not know anything of this, but from the style and sentiment. 

18th. — At Court, being the Queen's Birthday — or rather, 
observed as such. She was not out, expecting soon to be 
brought to bed. I saw more of the countenance, air, and 
manner of the Prince and the Bishop than I had ever done. 
Two more amiable persons have rarely been seen. '-'A cold 
e[ay," — as the King observed ; for considering the multitude of 
persons he has to speak to, it's very excusable to make the 
weather the subject of some of them. 

21st. — At Lord North's Levee. 

D'" Berkenhout, who I had never seen before, called on me. 
Ho introduced himself saying Lord North was meditating 
provision for the Americans by grants of lands, and was 
desirious of knowing how far it would be agreeable to them. 
I said I did not imagine L'^ North desired him to apply to me. 
He answered No, but he himself tho't I was most likely to 
know. I replied, I could not judge unless I knew where and 
in what manner the provision was intended. If iu that part 
where I was Governor, it was difficult to find people to go upon 
new lands if given to them. The American Eefugees were in 
general persons of liberal education, not brought up to labour, 
and many of them too far advanced in life to begin the world. 
He did not think New England a proper place, as it was so full 
of people, but talked of part of N. Jersey. I thought such a 
proposal might better be deferred to another year. He went 



240 7)7.-17.^1' AND LETTERS OF THOMAS nUTCniNSON. [^^"e. 

over in the same ship, and under the same encouragement with 
Temple, lie spake as if there had been a misundeistanding 
between them. He seems to be a busy inquisitive forward 
man. 

22iid. — j\[ini8try, its phiin, have some liopes from the Carolina 
expedition. Tliey liave sent to some persons of >S, Carolina to 
go out in tlie next packet. The state of the West Indies yet 
but precarious. 

Garrick's death and character in the papers of yesterday and 
to-day. No actor upon the stage ever attained to so general 
esteem, and he is everywhere considered as the English Eoscius. 

24th. — At the Chapel 8* James's. The King attended 
without the Queen. D"" Kaye, Sub-Almoner, preached. 

In the evening at T>^ Ileberden's — Bps. of Carlisle and 
Exeter, &c. JMuch said of the deceased Garrick, and the 
universal esteem had of him, the great notice taken of him by 
the nobility and first commoners, and the great pleasure it gave 
him : but some of the physicians present tliought it shortened 
his days, as he was very indulgent to his appetite ; a lover of 
high eating, and thougli not intemperate, fond of rich wines : 
liad been long subject to disorders in his kidneys and bladder, a 
stone being found in the neck of the latter, and one of the 
former having wholly perished. From nothing, when he came 
upon the stage in '39 or 'lO, he accumulated above 100,000£, of 
which he died possessed, besideslivingall the time in an expensive 
style. It is not probable that Eoscius or any player between 
him and Garrick ever raised the like fortune from the stage. 

26th. — [M'^ Paxton unwell.] . . . Paxton* seemed much affected 
with the thought of being buried in London. He had seen 
them take the bones up after they had been buried a few 
years, and cast them into a common lieap. I said to him, I 
could not help an inclination to have my bones mixed with, or 
near to those who had been nearest to me in my life ; but I 
asked him if ho should have a bad leg or arm, not to say a bad 
tooth, whether, after it was separated, he would care much 
what became of it ? and what reason there was to be concerned 

* Tlie name of Charles Paxton, late Commissioner of tlie Customs in 
America, occurs in the list of persons mentioned in the Confiscation Act. 



Feb. 
17V9 



.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTOHINSON. 241 



about the other bones, more than about those ? Very true, he 
said : however, he would give 100 guineas to be laid by his 
father and mother under the Chapel in Boston. 

27th. — A drizzling day. There seems no doubt of Hotham's 
arrival, some say at Antigua, others Barbadoes. 

I received letters of Nov. 4 from CoP Wanton at Ehode 
Island. He had not been able to find any tenant for my 
estate, but should make something of the grass sold to the 
army. 

February 1st. — M'' Garrick's remains were buried in West- 
minster Abbey, the procession going by Charing Cross, between 
one and two o'clock. The streets were more crowded than 
when the King goes to Parliament. I called upon M"^ 
Galloway at his lodgings while the people were collecting. 
We both of us chose to go into the city through Holborne, 
rather than remain in such a crowd, and so we saw nothing of 
the show . . . 

5th. — . . . Advice of the taking of a French frigate of a new 
construction, of 36 guns, by the Apollo frigate Cap. Pownal, 
of 32 guns, after a smart engagement : the French — 40 men 
killed, the English — 8 — many wounded — brought into Ports- 
mouth. 

7th.— Old Jewry : M"^ . . . 

Sir H. Houghton, coming from Meeting in my coach, told 
me he thought he had it from good authority, that some such 
offer had been made of mediation on the part of Spain : and 
afterwards at Court, T\P Burrell of the Excise, said he thought 
it probable. He had been assured the Prince of Asturias was 
favorably disposed. What length affairs have gone in Spain, 
is not agreed, but there seems to have been too much smoak 
\sic\ to be no fire ; and it is thought the Prince has taken a 
great share in the government, if the King is not wholly laid 
aside. It has been common in that family for the apparent 
successors to the Crown to be impatient, and for the Princes 
to become unwilling or unfit to continue to reigu. 

Blowers, Upham, &c., are desirous of a Court of Admiralty at 
P. Island. I wrote to Lord Sandwich desiring a hearing upon 
the subject. 

VOL. II. E 



242 DIARY AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS UUTCHINSON. [^79; 

8th.— A packet from New York . . . General Lee, a duel 
uitli young Laurence . . . 

i)th. — I called this forenoon upon Gov' Johnstone at Ken- 
sington Gore. I was desired to deliver him a letter from M"" 
Upham from N. York. I was well inclined to it, having never 
seen him, except in the H. of Commons, where I was much 
abused by him. I found him very civil, polite, and obliging ; 
and as he has altered liis sentiments on American affairs, I hope 
he will alter his opinion of me, liis only charge against me 
being misrepresentation to the Ministry, of the intention of 
Adams, &c., to stir up the people to revolt . . . 

10th. — The news papers of this day mention the death of a 
M"" De Groote, in the Charter House, a grandson of the famous 
Grotius, who died about 1645. I think he must be more 
remote than a grandson, though Thomas Dudley, Gov. of Mass*' 
died in 1651, and his grand-daughter M" Miller, died but last 
year. But Dudley's son, the father of M" Miller, was born but 
a short time before his father, the first Dudley, died, and this 
M" Miller lived to ninety . . . 

Upon reinspecting the newspaper, I find that Isaac De 
Groote is said to be great-grandson of Grotius, and probably last 
of his name. My great-grandfather died in 1675. 

12th. — . . . The city illuminated, and great disorders last 
night, to celebrate Keppel's acquittal. Sir H. Palliser's house 

in Pall Mall much damaged by the mob. Lord George G 

opposite, windows broke, and door burst open, and the mob dis- 
persed by the Guards. Lord North's house surrounded, and 
the Admiralty insulted. Windows broke where there were no 
lights. My housekeeper waked me after 12 to tell me she 
must put candles in the windows, or they would be broke to 
pieces, I)"" Parker's windows just by, being all broke. I gave 
my consent, and she stuck up a few in the drawing-room. 

13th. — Several of the mob carried before Fielding yesterday, 
who committed them ; but this did not discourage a general 
illumination last night. Mauduit never remembered any so 
universal. Every house must have something, but a little 
matter satisfied. I put only 3 candles in each window of my 
drawic!2:-room. There was no mischief, and the streets were 



f,t9.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 243 

quiet sooner than the night before. What made it more 
difficult to restrain the mob, was the general concurrence of all 
orders in the imprudence of Palliser in the prosecutioD, as those 
who stood out would have been charged as approvers of it. 

Even Lord North, Lord George G , Lord Dartmouth, 

Hardwicke, the Bp. of London, &c., &c., put up lights. 1 went 
up to M"" Ellis's about 9 and saw he had none, and I was vexed 
with myself for my own, but soon after his flambeaux were lit. 

Sober people have said that if they were sure of being always 
obliged to conform to such caprices of the people, they would 
chuse to live in Paris, rather than London. Some say there 
must be a third illumination to-night. 

14th. — Quiet last night . . . 

17th. — Illumination again last night upon Keppel's coming 
to tow^n. Almost everybody conformed : Lord George's house 
fuller than before. I kept my windows dark — had one square 
broke after I went to bed. The whole is extravagance. Sir 
Huo-h Palliser, from personal resentment, without consulting any- 
body, brings a charge against the Admiral. The Lords of the 
Admiralty, it seems agreed, could not avoid a Court Martial. The 
Admiral is honourably acquitted. Palliser sinks into disgrace. 

The Opposition triumph as if it was a victory gained over 
Administration, who have had no concern in the prosecution. 
The thanks of both Houses given to Keppel in just such terms 
as the Opposition chose, whereas no victory was obtained ; and 
if no charge had been brought against him his conduct would 
have remained very doubtful. But the Ministry vail to every 
measure to humour the people, and unless they shew more 
spirit, it looks as if the disorders would increase. 

As warm to-day as it is commonly in May. 

18th.— At Lord North's Levee . . . 

21st. — At Prince's Street : a young man preached — his gown 
and his hair a la mode of the young Episcopal clergy. 

Keppel dining yesterday in the city with a Committee, who 
presented him •with his freedom in an heart of oak box, was 
dragged by the rabble from Charing Cross to the London 
Tavern, Bishops-Gate Street; the horses being taken out, the 
coachman removed from the box, and a sailor with a blue flag 

K 2 



24-4 DUET AND LETTEIiS OF THOMAS JIUTCIIINSOK [J^^o, 

put in his place. In the evening the houses in the city were 
{generally illuminated, but not to the ^ est of Temple Bar. The 
mob uhic'h followed him to his own house in Audley Square 
made great slaughter of the windows in their route. I hapned 
not to fall within it, and escaped. M"" Ellis had his windows 
broke, and even Charles Fox, which one of the newspapers 
intimated was a contrivance to lessen the clamour, which the 
friends of Government would make more loudly if they were 
alone. 

22nd. — A prize sent in to Falmouth, taken by Cap. Eden in 
a privateer, brother to Sir Kobert, &c., bound from Guadaloupe 
to Franco. It is said that Hotham and Grant had taken S' 
Lucy . . . 

24th. — Lord North began to open the Budget, which took so 
much time that he referred part until to-morrow. Fifteen 
millions must be raised. Seven millions he had agreed to 
borrow. He hinted his hopes of France's relinquishing the 
American connexions, &e. 

25th. — I called on M'' Eden, who seems to approve of the Court 
of Admiralty at Ehode Island . . . 

26th. — At Lord Carlisle's, to acquaint him with the applica- 
tion for a Court of Admiralty at Newport, which he approves of. 

At Lord Eardwicke's, where was Stewart the Architect, or 
Planner of grounds, who dined at Sir Samp. Gideon's, and C 
Douglas. I went with the latter to St. James's, to enquire of 
Lady Egremont, in Waiting, how the Queen and Prince [blot] 
did ? Much company in the Caudle Room. 

At Lord Huntingdon's, where was his nephew Capt. Rawdon. 
I suppose he who lost his leg, tho' he is so well fitted with 
another that no difference appears. 

At ]\P Ellis's, who has been confined 10 days with a boil. 

Called on M" Burnet and Col° Leland — which is doing a 
great deal for me in the visiting way. 

Often colder in June. 

28th.— At D' Kippis's. At Court. Much talk of Byron's 
arrival in W. Indies, but nothing authentick. Peace between 

the Emperor and K. of Prussia past doubt. Q whether 

England gains or loses ? 



17*79.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTGEINSOK 245 

In the evening at D'' Herberden's. M"" Frampton, a country 
gentleman I don't remember there before. T>^ H. says his ther- 
mometer was at 63 this day at noon : that the mean of the 
mercury for the whole month of February has been 48^ : that 
for 10 years past the mean the whole month of April has not 
exceeded 48 : that the two last months of January and Feb- 
ruary only ^ an inch of rain has fallen : that usually in Jan^' 
and February there falls 4 inches of water. It is remarkable 
that in America and Italy, as far as we have yet heard, the cold 
has been more severe than for many years past. 

March 1st. — The fine weather still continues, and W. wind. 
The cry now is for an E. wind, to bring the troops expected 
from Scotland, and some I suppose from the Continent. 

3rd. — Dined at Lord Dartmouth's — Lord and L. Clarendon, 
and L. Charlotte Hyde, M"" Ord and wife, M' Hopkins, Sir G 
Carleton, and Gov. Legge. 

Wrote to Putnam, "Waller, Blowers, and Wanton. 

4th. — Certain advice of Byron's arrival at Barbadoes Jan'' 
12'^^ — one ship not arrived . . . 

6th. — Green, Thomas Eeeve, Weekes, dined with me, and M"" 
Clark, Missionary at Dedham, lately arrived from New York, 
He was confined on board a Guard ship at Boston two months 
. . . hard of hearing . . . His father was Minister of Salem village 
. . . this son was a preacher among the Congregationalists . . . 
he thought fit to conform, and go to England for Orders ... He 
applied to me for a Certificate of his character, which I gave him. 

8th. — The newpapers mention the death Lord Suftblk at 
Bath. He took great notice of me when I first came to England, 
but I have never yet met with any person who, when I asked 
anvthing for any of my family or friends, would make use of their 
influence in my behalf, which I attribute to a fear lest it 
should be considered as a favour which, if granted at their 
request, would lessen their claims for themselves, or some of 
their connexions. He has left no children. The Countess is 
said to be with child. He has an uncle, his presumptive heir, 
who has only daughters ; and after him the title would go to a 
very remote relation . . . 

11th. — The private letters from N. York say there are more 



rMur. 



246 DTAIiY AND lETTEIiS OF THOMAS IlUTCniNSON. (_i„9. 

than 100 privateers at N. York fitted and fitting, to cruise 
against the Frcncli and the Americans. A letter from Blowers 
to Bliss says the Refugees arc in liigh spirits from an expec- 
tation that the Rebellion will soon be over. Both kingdom and 
Colonies are so much exhansted by it, that it is diflicult to ?ay 
which will, of necessity, give way soonest . . . 

12tb. — D"" Chandler called and read a letter from D"^ Ingolls 
of New York, of Feb. 5th. He says a letter from Silas Deano 
to France has been intercepted, in which he says, unless they 
can be assisted with several millions in specie, they shall not be 
able to go on with the war another year ; and Ingolls adds, 
that he had seen several other letters to the same purpose. He 
says the people in the Colonies are in a consternation with a 
tax of 15 millions of dollars, which they are to pay next year, 
and so every year for 18 years to come : and it is certain 
cither that their paper must continue at its depreciated rate, or 
if it should rise in value, that the burden of so great a tax 
must be insupportable. He thinks, with a little aid from 
England, the Rebellion will be over this summer. Speaking 
of the measures in England, he calls the speech made by Lord 
North the last year — that miserable speech. 

16th. — Accounts received this forenoon of the taking of 
Pondicherry, &c., from the French. This is a great affair ; but 
as on the one hand, by distressing the French, we may hope to 
incline them to reasonable terms of accommodation, so, on the 
other, we are in danger of drawing the Spaniards into the war, 
in order to the relief of their ally. 

18th. — At Lord North's Levee . . . 

19th. — The papers say John Adams is gone back from Paris 
to Boston. It does not appear that he sustained a public 
character. It seems agreed Franklin is now sole Minister from 
the revolted Colonies. M'" Strahan, the King's Printer, and 
now Member of Parliament for [blank] told me what I did not 
know before — that soon after Franklin was of age, he procured 
by his labour, money enough to pay his passage from Phila- 
delphia to London, where he supported himself 18 months by 
working as a Press-man in a Printing house in Wild Court, 
near Lincolns Inn Fields. After Franklin came over Agent 






1JJ9.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTOTIINSOK 247 

for Pensylvania, be proposed several times to Straliau, to go 
and make a visit to his old master Watts, who was then living, 
but something or other was always in the way. 

21st. — At the Chapel, S' James's ; — Bishop of Exeter. He 
was much awed, and delivered his discourse much more grace- 
fully when I heard him at the Kolls. 

At Court. I mentioned to the King what I heard yesterday 
from Halifax, which he had not heard. 

Spoke to ]\P Hele-Hutchinson at Court. 

In the evening at D"" Heberden's. 

I never was more disordered in speaking to the King than 
to-day ; and by his sudden turning and speaking to the next 
person, I think he discovered it. 

24th. — In the city. An airing with W Galloway to Camber- 
well and Peckham, and home by the Greenwich road. He says, 
while the army was at Philadelphia, some pieces taken from tho 
English papers, had been republished in the Philad. papers, 
against the Minority : that Howe sent his Secr^ Mackenzie to 
Galloway, who was a sort of Town Governor, to put a stop to 
all publications of that sort. Soon after, something wrote in 
Philadelphia against the Minority or Opposition was published, 
which occasioned the sending Mackenzie a second time, to 
know whether the orders had been given. Galloway said he 
hardly thought Mackenzie was in earnest. No orders were 
given not to publish anything against the Ministry, The 
printers were sent for, or sent to, by Howe, and required to 
publish nothing against the Minority. 

He says further, that General Howe advised him to make his 
peace with the Revolters, when the King's troops were about to 
evacuate Philadelphia, and to apply to Clinton for a flag of 
truce. Galloway said there was no chance of his obtaining a 
pardon ; but Howe continuing to urge it, Galloway applied to 
General Clinton, who utterly refused to shew any countenance 
to the proposal. He does not scruple to say, there was never a 
week when Howe had it not in his power to reduce America, 
and that he does not believe he ever intended it.* 

* These are remarkable words, and not a little damaging : they are, how- 
ever, in accordance with a few stray remarks made elsewhere. It may be 



248 DIABT AND LETTERS OF THOMAS nUTCHINSON. [n%-. 

26th.— Sir George Kodney met me in the Park, and having 
never spoke to mc before, asked if I had heard the news? No. 
Lord Stormont had just tokl him, from M' Tenn, that not 
only Philadelphia, but the whole Province of Pensilvania, had 
declared for Government . . . 

27th. — Sir G. Eodney's news is come to nothing . . . 
28th.— At Prince's Street. Dined with Strahan, where Gallo- 
way was to have been, but not well. General Peckham there, 
who had served under Prince Ferdinand, and afterwards was 
made a Colonel and Major-General by the K. of Prussia. 

Strahan shewed me the original Advertisement in Franklin's 
hand writing, about his sending the Letters to America, w'^'' 
F. sent to Strahan to be printed in the London Chronicle : 
an extract also from the letter which F. sent to America, 
accompanying the Letters. Of this he promised me a copy : 
the extract is in F.'s hand writing.* 

31st.— A letter from Putnam from N. York, 17 FeV which I 
sent Lord North for perusal. Col° Vassall says he knows that 
young Laurens, son to the late Congress President, has wrote to 
his wife from Philadelphia, that he doubts not matters will be 
accommodated this summer. This is the young Laurens who 
fought a duel with Lee. It is one of the young fellows who 
lodged in the same house with me at Bath, the first year I came 
to England. He married a W. India Merchant's daughter in 
the city, and left her here when he went to America. 

April 1st. — . . . General Eobertson's being appointed 
Governor of N. York occasions much talk. Gage tells me 
Tryon is superseded, not with his consent. Robertson is not 
only old, but has had one, if not more apoplectic strokes, and 
is not popular. 

2nd. — Good Friday . » . 

4th. — Easter Sunday. At the Old Jewry. A stranger 
preached, &c. Eemarkably warm southerly day. D'' Chand[ler] 

sound policy to send out a mutual friend to conciliate, or to try and negociate 
for a peaceful solution of a dispute ; but if the quarrel has past friendly 
negociation, and if the sword must be drawn, then, in that case, a General 
who is a sj'mpathiser with Eevolters, only gees out to assist them. He 
draws the sword to play with his duties, and designedly cheats his Sovereign. 
* These promised extracts are not found among the Governor's papers. 



n^79.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 249 

and son, Bliss, E. H. and bis wife at dinner. M'' Ellis 
called. I observed to bim Lord G.'s declaration in tbe House 
— tbat Grov'^, after tbe Americans bad refused tbe offers, was not 
beld to tbem. He said it was very well, but sucb a declara- 
tion was ill timed. Tbe Opposition sougbt for it to make an 
ill use of it, and Lord Nortb, be said, always gave in to 
Opposition upon tbese points. 

5tb. — A warm soutli wind. Witb M^ Keene and CoP 
Townsbend in tbe Park. Tbe latter bad tbe care of sbipping 
off the recruits from tbe river Med way. He says tbere are 15 
or 1600, and with tbe Guards make about 2,000 ; and tbe 
Scotch troops being 2500, the embarkation will not be 5,000 
without foreign troops, which Keene said would not be good 
for much. 

7th. — In tbe city. Eeport from France yesterday; un- 
favorable from Ireland ; favorable of W. India affairs — all 
vague. I wrote to Judge Browne at Cowbridge, in answer 
to a letter from Inm, to send his son to town ; my taylor 
should make bis uniform; I would give him 10 g^, which 
would be eno' at present for other purposes ; and he should 
breakfast and dine with me while I staid in town. 

8th. — An accident last night furnishes subject for conver- 
sation in a dearth of foreign news. M""^ Bay, who has lived as 
a concubine with L'^ Sandwich for many years, and who has 
several children by him, some well grown, has been at Covent 
Garden Playhouse ; and just as she had got in, or was getting 
in to her charriot, a Clergyman, who it is said, bad made his suit 
to her to be bis wife, and had been refused, came close to her 
with a pistol, and shot her through the head. He immediately 
fired another pistol, with intent to blow his own brains out, 
but failed, and was thereupon secured. It is said he had been 
an officer, and had left the Army or Navy, and tbat his name 
is Hackman. Lord Sandwich, it is said, was waiting supper 
for her return, when tbe shocking news was brought him. 

Captain Bruce, who had been an officer in tbe Train in 
America and at Boston, murdered himself this morning, after 
several attempts by stabbing, cutting, &c., in a cruel, bloody 
manner. 



I TAf. 



250 DIAUT AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. Lf-To. 



AValpole — the accomplished and indefatigable — was not likely 
to allow such a sensational story to pass unnoticed. It is hoped 
that the reader will forgive the insertion of his version of it here, 
which is sufficiently valuable, as coming from his pen. AVriting 
to the Countess of Ossory April 8, 1779, he says — 

" I was interrupted by the strangest story I ever heard, and 
which I cannot yet believe, though it is certainly true. Last 
night, as Miss Ray was getting into her coach in Covent Garden 
from the play, a Clergyman shot her through the head, and then 
himself. She is dead, but ho is alive to be hanged — in the room 
of Sir Hugh Palliser. Now Madam, can one believe such a tale? 
How could poor Miss Ray have offended a divine ? She was no 
enemy to the Church Militant or Naval, to the Church of England, 
or the Church of Paphos. I do not doubt but it will be found, 
that the assassin was a Dissenter, and instigated by the Americans 
to give such a blow to the State. My servants have heard that the 
murderer was the victim's husband : — methinks his jealousy was 
very long-suffering ! Tantsene animis cclestihus irse ! and that he 
should not have compounded for a Deanery ! What trials Lord 
Sandwich goes through ! He had better have one for all . . . 

" The assassin's name is Hackman : ho is a brother to a reput- 
able tradesman in Cheapside, and is of a very pleasing figure 
himself, and most engaging behaviour. About five years ago he 
was an officer in the 66th Regiment, and being quartered at 
Huntingdon, pleased so much as to be invited to the Oratorios at 
Hinchinbrook, and was much caressed there. Struck with Miss 
Ray's charms, he proposed marriage ; but she told him she did not 
choose to carry a knapsack. He went to Ireland, and there 
changed the colour of his cloth, and at his return, I think not 
long ago, renewed his suit, hoping a cassock would be more 
tempting than a gorget — bitt in vain. Miss Ray, it seems, has 
been out of order, and abroad [in public] but twice all the winter. 
She went to the play on Wednesday night, for the second time, 
with Galli, the singer. During the play the desperate lover was 
at the Bedford Coffee House, and behaved with great calmness, 
and drank a glass of capillaire. Towards the conclusion he sallied 
into the Piazza, waiting till he saw his victim, handed by Mr. 
Macnamara. He came behind her, pulled her by the gown, and 
on her turning round, clapped the pistol to her forehead, and shot 
her through the head. With another pistol, he then attempted to 
shoot himself, but the ball only grazing his brow, he tried to dash 
out his own brains with the pistol, and is more wounded by those 
blows than by the ball. 



I 



n'79.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF TEOMAS HUTCHINSON. 251 

"Lord Sandwich was at home, expecting her to supper at half 
an hour after ten. On her not returning an hour later, he said 
something must have happened : however, being tired, he went to 
bed at half an hour after eleven, and was scarce in bed before one 
of his servants came in, and said Miss liay was shot. He stared, 
and could not comprehend what the fellow meant : nay, lay still, 
which is full as odd a part of the story as any. At twelve came 
a letter from the Surgeon to confirm the account, — and then he 
was extremely afflicted. 

" Now, upon the whole. Madam, is not the story full as strange 
as ever it was ? Miss Ray has six children ; the eldest son is 
fifteen ; and she was at least three times as much. To bear a 
hopeless passion for five years, and then murder one's mistress — I 
don't understand it. If the story clears up at all, your Ladyship 
shall have a sequel. These circumstances I received from Lord 
llertford, who heard them at Court yesterday from the Lords of 
the Admiralty. I forgot that the Galli swooned away on the 
spot."— Vol. vii. p. 190. 

Again, April 17, he writes as folloAvs — 

"For the last week all conversation has been engrossed by a 
shocking murder committed on the person of a poor woman 
connected with a most material personage now on the great stage. 
You will have seen some mention of it in the papers. I mean the 
assassination of Miss Eay, Lord Sandwich's mistress, by a Clergy- 
man, who had been an officer, and was desperately in love with 
her, though she between thirty and forty, and has had nine 
children. She was allowed to be most engaging ; and so was the 
wretched lover, who had fixed his hopes of happiness on marrying 
her, and had been refused after some encouragement — I know not 
how much. On his trial yesterday he behaved very unlike a 
madman, and wishes not to live. He is to suffer on Monday . . . 
I shall reserve the rest of my paper till Tuesday." 

Accordingly, on Tuesday he writes — 

" The poor assassin was executed yesterday. The same day 
Charles Fox moved for the removal of Lord Sandwich, but was 
beaten by a large majority ; for in parliament, the Ministers can 
still gain victories. Adieu!" — vii. 193. 

At this day also, the proceedings in the matter of the second 
Court Martial were dividing the attention of all London, and on 
this he remarks — 



252 DIAHY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTOHINSON. [t'm, 

" Though Sir ITugh Palliser's trial has beeu bogiin ixiis week, 
the public does not honour it with the same attention as Keppel's. 
It does not brighten for the A^ice- Admiral." 

Again, ]\[ay 9 — 

"Palliser's trial has ended shamefullj-. He is acquitted toith 
Jumour, of not having obeyed his Admiral's signals, — which is 
termed bhuneable, for not having given the reason why ho did not, 
— and that reason was, the rottenness of his mast, with whicli ho 
returned to Portsmouth, without its being repaired yet." — vii. 199. 

lOtli. — With Judge Oliver, Howard, and CoP Leonard to 
the Bp. of London, at Fulham, to whom I introduced them, and 
he received us with great politeness. 

We came home to dinner, where D"" Chandler, Thomas, and 
my son E. joined us. Chandler, after dinner, mentioned an 
anecdote of D'' Franklin. When Morris resigned the Govern- 
ment, and Denny succeeded, at an entertainment, Franklin 
sat on one side of Denny, and Morris the other. Franklin 
expressed liis wishes to be able to contribute to the success of 
Denny's administration. Morris, in a very audible voice ob- 
served, that no man w'as more able than Franklin to promote 
such success, but you will find he has a heart as black as 

H . This brought to my mind the revenge Franklin took 

after Morris was dead, for in the History of Pensilvania, he 
remarks upon Morris's going out, and Denny's succeeding, that 
according to the Scotch proverb, change of Devils is blithesome. 

11th. — Yesterday at dinner I recollected I had not seen 
Captain Poynton, one of the Massachusetts Refugees, for a long 
time, and enquired of the company what was become of liim, 
but nobody knew anything particular, and supposed he was at 
lodgings near London. This morning a man came to me to 
know if I had heard anything of Cap° Poynton : said his own 
name was Poynton : that he is a peruke-maker, Leicester 
Fields, Orange Court : that they are brothers' children : that 
the Capt*^ used to be often at his house, but sometimes would 
stay away months at a time, but being absent longer that ever 
before, since his being in England, for some time past he had 
been enquiring, but could get no intelligence since the latter 



^^79.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTGEINSON. 253 

part of July last, when he left his lodgings at Eltham, and 
carried his baggage, &c. to Charing Cross, which he went with 
from thence in a Hackney coach. 

It is odd such an enquiry of me, so immediately after my 
accidental enquiry, without any suspicion of anything amiss. 
There is reason to fear something bad has hapned, — that he 
has been destroyed for the sake of his baggage, or at least, 
that he died, and his death has been concealed for the sake of 
what he left. 

At S* James's, K. and Q. . . . 

12th. — In the city, and rec** a year's interest of Bank Stock. 
In the evening Johannot* being at my house to drink coffee, I 
asked him about his message to Washington when the troops 
left Boston. He says the Select-men, all but Austen, applied 
to Howe for leave to send out a Flag to Washington, to let 
him know, that if the King's troops should be molested in 
their embarkation, Howe would certainly set fire to the town, 
&c. Johannot says Howe made a difficulty, but finally con- 
sented. Austen, the Selectman said in Johannot's hearing, he 
never would be concerned in such a message : there was no 
need of it : the troops would not be molested : the town would 
not be fired. Being asked how he knew ? he answered " Very 
well,'' but did not say how. The two Generals understood one 
another : but whether he discovered this by his sagacity, or had 
any eyidence of a communication, he did not say. 

Johannot and another went out, and after waiting a long 
time in a snow storm, before the Flag was answered, Col° 
Leonard and some others appeared, and after receiving the 
message, comunicated it to the officer in command at Roxbury, 
but Washington being at Cambridge, Johannot and the other 
returned without any answer at that time ; but soon after, 
whether on that day or the next, or what day I did not enquire, 
an answer was given — that General Washington would take no 

* Mr, Danforth, writing from London, Nov. 8, 1779, to Elisba Hutchinson, 
then in Birmingham, says — " Probably you saw in the papers an account of 
the death of Peter Johannot. The funeral was attended by Mr. Gray and 
myself. Has been blind about 5 years." The following occurs in the Diary 
of Dr. P. Oliver : — " 1809, Aug. — Peter Johannot dyed this month in London 
aged 79." Perhaps this latter was a son of the former. 



25-1 DLinY AND LETTEliS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. [^^'9. 

Dotioe of such an application. But Joliaiiiiot says everybody 
was easy, and looked upon themselves as secure from any 
attack upon the troops, and from tiring the town, as if a 
Treaty had been made in form. 

By the letters from New York, it appears that Livingstone, 
the New Jersey Governor, had a narrow escape at Elizabeth 
Town, the bed where he lay being warm, when the King's 
troops entered his house. Two of his daughters had not left 
the house : one of them was extremely frightened, and ran to 
the top of the house, but recovered herself upon polite assur- 
ances from Lord Cathcart, of protection. But it looks as if the 
skirmishes made at different places had been of no service, and 
that the Americans will boast of their bravery in repelling the 
King's troops. 

13th. — W Galloway, who returned yesterday from the 
country, brought me his letters from New York. In one of 
them it is said Gov"" Hutchinson had wrote confidentially to a 
friend, that Government was disposed to give up its claim to 
America, if it could be secured against the injuries from 
America, when inimically disposed — or to that effect, which he 
blames tlie person who rec'' the letter, for mentioning, I have 
not the least remembrance of giving the least pretence for 
such a report, and rather think some other person may have 
written to that purpose ; and upon a suggestion that such a 
letter was received, it might be reported I was the writer. 

14. — I wrote to day by Major Small to M"" Walter and 
Putnam to inform them of the letter I had seen yesterday ; — that 
I had given no foundation for such a report ; that I had wrote 
to no persons except them in New York ; and I desired them to 
vindicate me, and to enquire how such a report took its rise. 

19th.— Cap" Hyde Parker and CoP Campbell arrived in 
town from Georgia: confirm the account of a second battle 
there, which they call a smart one — 1000 said to be killed, 
wounded, and taken — most of their ofiScers included in this 
number, and one General. Nine vessels taken with provisioEs : 
the communication with S. Carolina said to be cut off, which I 
don't well understand. Another account says there is great 
desertion from the rebel army in S. Carolina. 



ing.] DIABY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 255 



20th. — No Gazette yet to explain the news of yesterday. 
The action is said to have been between about 1000 of the 
King's troops, under Sir James Beard, and 1500 Provincials : 
the provision vessels bound to D'Estaigne at Martinico. 

Dined at Lord Hardwicke's — Galloway, Auchmuty, and his 
nephew. 

21st. — The Gazette of last evening, though it is more favor- 
able with respect to the loss of the English than was feared — 
only 5 privates and no officers being killed — yet it makes the 
American loss less than reported — about 350 only, killed and 
taken prisoner.^, and an uncertain number drove into the river 
and drowned ; but it gives no intimation of any further pro- 
gress expected. 

22nd. — At Lord North's Levee . . . 

29tli. — After long waiting compleated taking out the Com- 
missions for a Court of Admiralty at Rhode Island, and left 
them with M' Stephens, desiring him to forward them under 
cover directed to Sampson Salter Blowers Esq. at New 
York. 

oOth. — Wind changed to the eastward, and it is expected the 
fleet will sail, but Lord Cornwallis was in town last night 
waiting the result of Gen. Howe's motion for an Enquiry, 
which was rejected by the House of Commons ; Lord Hard- 
wicke, in a note to me says — in an awkward and undignified 
manner. 

May 1st. — No account of the fleets sailing . . . 

2nd. — Old Jewry . . . Adm. Gambler says that about 10 
days before he sailed, Gen. Clinton proposed an attempt upon 
Providence to destroy the shipping, and Clinton went to the 
E. end of Long Island, and Gambier went in his own ship to 
Newport, from whence he was to advise Clinton of the state of 
Providence ; that in a dark night one of Gambier's boats rowed 
up to Providence : saw there were only two hulks, which had 
been designed for fire-ships to burn the BaisondbJe, and an old 
brig hauled up ; all the rest of their shipping having got out 
when D'Estaigne was at Ehode Island. Not content with 
this, he hired several Refugees who, in disguise, went to 
Providence and returned, confirming the other account : upon 



256 niART AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCniNSON. [?7*^ 



779. 



Avhic'li ho gave advice to Clinton, and went back himself in his 
sliip to New York. 

old. — An Express arrived about noon from Adm. Arbuthnot, 
who sailed from Portsmouth, Saturday the 1st Ins* with the 
fleet for America, and the next morning met an Express boat 
from Jersey with intelligence that on Friday 5 men of war 
and ."jO transports had made a descent on that Island, and he 
thereupon determined to sail immediately thither for its 
defence. It's unlucky the fleet to America should be diverted ; 
but I don't hear Arbuthnot blamed for going there without 
orders. 

4th. — Called on M^ Jackson, Southampton Buildings, who I 
fuund very friendly and obliging. Last night the House of 
Commons resolved to go into an enquiry upon Howe's motion. 
Lord North spake against it, but there was no division. This 
aftair causes a great jumble. I think it probable Howe him- 
self who made the motion was content it should rest; but 
Charles Fox, hoping to bring Lord George into trouble, would 
not suffer it. On the other hand M'' Rigby and some others, 
exp(!ct to set Howe in a bad light, and fell off from Lord 
North ; or possibly Lord North himself did not care much if 
an enquiry should be made, provided it does not come from 
him. 

Nothing more from Jersey. 

Dined at General Gage's, with a great number of Americans. 

5th. — A rainy day : I don't recollect so much in a day since 
Christmas. It is said Arbuthnot did not reach Jersey until 
INlonday afternoon : success still uncertain. 

Sir Hugh Palliser honourably acquitted. 

6th. — Nothing yet from Jersey except the first letter, Satur- 
day the 1"^ in the afternoon, advising that the French had 
attempted to land, and been repulsed ; but as several ships 
were in the offing, supposed to be a reinforcement, it was 
expected a fresh attempt with a reinforcement. General 
Conway, Gov'' of Jersey, went out of town Monday night at 
eleven o'clock for Portsmouth, and sailed next day for Jersey. 

7tb.— Everybody anxious for news ... Sir Hugh Palliser's 
acquittal published in the newspapers. No publick rejoicing. 



1779.] DIAEY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 257 

The sentence does not leave him without an imputation of 
negligence in not acquainting the Admiral with the state of his 
ship. 

8th. — . . . Advice of the French being repulsed from 
Jersey before Arbuthnot appeared, and that he was gone to 
join his ships, which went to Torbay. 

9th.— At D^ Kippis's. Called on M-^ Galloway, who dined 
with me. He says that upon L'^ Cornwallis and General Grey 
giving their opinion that the reduction of America was im- 
practicable, a Cabinet Council was called yesterday, and it was 
moved to let the enquiry before the House rest where it is : 
that L*^ Cornwallis called W Eden out of the Council 
Chamber, and advised to it : that the Council are to meet 
again to-morrow. 

10th. — It is said Arbuthnot joined the merchant vessels at 
Torbay. 

A rumour at the Treasury that there is an insurrection in 
Ireland. 

I was an hour and more with Lord Hillsborough. He is 
strong in favour of an Union with Ireland, upon the plan of the 
Scotch Union . . . 

15th. — Doctor Gardiner and CoP Pickman called on me 
from Bristol, and dined— with two Auchmutys, CoP Chandler, 
and Treas" Gray. They are all anxious to return to America, 
except Gray. He and Ch. Just. Oliver, and Secretary Flucker, 
wish to have some provision in England, and never much 
think of America. I can see reasons which are personal for 
each of them. I have more of the old Athenians in me ; and 
though I know not how to reason upon it, I feel a fondness to 
lay my bones in my native soil, and to carry those of my dear 
daughter with me. 

19th. — Installation of Knights of the Bath. I had no 
curiosity even to see the procession, and went into the city. 
General H. was one. The evening before, the enquiry into his 
conduct was going on in the H. of Commons, and to-day he 
appears with his Star — a mark of approbation for his signal 
conduct at Long Island, which is now one principal part for 
which, by the public voice, he is censured. 

VOL. II. S 



258 lUAliY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. [n,\j' 

20th. — At liOrd G. Gorinaine's lievec. I thanked him for 
his patronnp^o and piiblick avowal of the cause of the American 
liofiigoos ill the House of Commons. He seemed pleased with 
it, and said it was no more tlian they were justly entitled to. 

I expressed my concern lest the Opposition should spin out 
the time in examining Howe's and Bnrgoyne's witnesses. He 
did not doubt he should have three or four days left to examine 
others. 

"NA'hile I was waiting, Cumberland, Secr^' to the Board of 
Trade, said he was astonished the Americans could bear the 
abuse offered them by Gen. Grey at his examination in the H. 
of Commons, when he declared the Americans were disloyal 
almost to a man. He wondered they did not join in an 
Address to the King, and a declaration of their motives to 
leave* their country estates, friends, &c. When he was gone, 
some who sat by me asked what I thought of the projjosal ? I 
said I never chose to give an opinion suddenly upon a matter 
of that importance. 

June 2nd. — Talk of a rupture with Spain : disturbance in 
Ireland, &c., &c., and Bank Stock falls 2 p, c^ ; — about a month 
ago was at 118; has gradually sunk to 110. 

3rd. — At Lord North's, and Lord George's Levees . . . 

4th. — The King's Birthday. I have attended every Birth- 
day, except when my dear daughter was in her last illness ; 
but I had no spirits to-day. 

Dined with Col" Vassall, in a company of Americans. Gal- 
loway shewed me a long letter from New York, from M"" Cox, 
a Pensilvania Counsellor, whose wife remains at Philad., and 
corresponds with him. He says the Indians are come down on 
the back of the Colonies. He expects Gov. Franklin will 
soon go into New Jersey, and assume his Governm', and has 
flattering expectations that peace will be restored this summer. 
Bui-goyne's witnesses finished yesterday in the H. of Commons. 
It is expected Lord George will call his Tuesday next the 8*'' 
Instant. 

5th.— At Lord Townshend's. S'" Jn° Blaquiere was there— 

* Instead of " to leave," the sense of the passage seems to suggest that the 
words " for having left " would make a liurriedly written sentence clearer. 



^""fl DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 259 

just come from Ireland. He says La Mothe Piquet returned 
to Brest, and that he is not sailed again ; but that four frigates, 
Jones Comm'" [Commodore?] sailed the middle of May, or 
sooner, with troops — some say 600, some 2000 : that there had 
been no account of them since. He adds that upon a recom- 
mendation of the Congress to France, that if they could not be 
supplied with 500,000£ sterl. they must submit. Application 
was made to Spain, France not being able to advance the 
money, and that Spain had advanced it, the money having 
been actually paid on a day he named, to one Spence [?] for 
the use of the Americans. Whether Spain lends it to America, 
or France borrows it of Spain, and lends to America, he does 
not know. 

7th. — Dined at Sir Eichard Sutton's: Mauduit, Galloway, 
and Knox, Galloway said that at the desire, and in behalf of 
the Magistrates of Philadelphia, as well as for himself, he 
applied, as soon as he heard the city was to be evacuated, to 
gr -^m Howe, to know what was to become of them ? He 
advised them to make their terms with Washington, and to 
apply to Gen. Clinton for a Flag of Truce. This was grievous 
advice. Galloway found access, and communicated it to 
Clinton, who did not refuse a Flag, but advised them not to 
ask it, assuring them they had no reason to desj)air : he did 
not doubt America would be reduced, and encouraged them 
their salaries should be continued, — and they remained with 
the army. 

Another affair was mentioned which hapned in the Jersey;?. 
Galloway had proposed to the General, (Howe), with a troop of 
Light Horse, Americans, to surprize Livingstone and his Council, 
and the Assembly of New Jersey, all convened at Trenton, and 
Howe approved of it, only, some of the Eegulars were to be 
joined. All at once, just as the business was to have been 
executed, the General sent Balfour, his Aide-du-camj), to 
Galloway, to let him know the General had altered his mind : 
that as there would be a cartel in a few days, it would only 
make a few more prisoners to exchange. 

Both these matters, S' Eichard doubted whether it would 
not be best to ask no questions upon. The first, he said, if 

s 2 



200 niABT AND LETTERS OF THOMAS BUTCniNSON. [i^i'l 

proved, AYOiild amount to Treason, and Ministry wonld bo 
abnscd for concealing it, and not bringing Howo to trial. Tho 
second, Howe would find some way to evade, and say be had 
otlier reasons he did not think proper to give to Galloway. 

Besides, Sir llich. Sutton added, that it was not the design 
of ]\Iinistry to bring an accusation against Howe, but merely to 
vindicate themselves from a charge of not having made 
sufficient provision, or not given proper orders for tho reduc- 
tion of America. 

9th. — General Eobertson was examined yesterday in the 
House. The minority endeavoured to prevent it . . . 

10th. — Robertson again in the House last night, and further 
examination ordered to-day . . . 

11th. — Eobertson still under cross-examination by the 
minority, most, evidently, for the sake of taking up the time 
and preventing, if possible, Galloway and others from being 
heard ; and the further examination of him w-as put off to 
IMonday. Eobertson was asked — not when at the Bar, but by 
some of the members in a circle, and I suppose not in the 
House, — whether he thought it practicable to attempt the 
works on Long Island ? He said — If, upon a chase, anybody 
had been stopped by them, he should have thought him a very 
bad huntsman. — Eain all day — scarce any cessation. 

12th. — Darby returned yesterday with the ten ships which 
accompanied Arbuthnot. It is said the Brest fleet are out, 25 
sail of the line, and that orders are gone to S"" Cha. Hardy to 
sail immediately. S"" W™ Meredith made a motion last night 
to address the King to grant a new Commission for treaty Avith 
the Americans, which was rejected without a division. 
14th. — Called on Sir Eichard Sutton. 

Prince William* set out this morn^ at 4 o'clock for Ports- 
mouth, to embark on board Admiral Bighj, without any 
servant — his tutor accompanied him — he is about 14. 

16th. — The Spanish Ambassador this morning before the 
Levee, was at Lord Weymouth's, and presented a Eescript 
from his Master, Avhich is called a Manifesto, and is said to 
amount to a Declaration of War. This was communicated in 

* Afterwards King William IV. 



June 
1779 



:] DIARY Al^t) LETTERS OF TEOMAS EUTGHINBON. 261 



substance, in the afternoon, by L'^ Weymouth to the Lords, 
and by Lord North to the Commons. In the latter, great 
abuse of the Ministry, but the consideration referred until 
to-morrow, when it is said the Manifesto ^Yill be translated and 
brought before Parliament. A great consternation. 

M"" Galloway at the Bar of the House of Commons, examined 
from 7 o'clock to between 11 and 12, and not finished. 

17th. — The Grand Fleet under Sir Charles Hardy sailed 
yesterday from S'^ Helens : the E. India ships which had sailed 
were recalled, and are gone out under one convoy of the Grand 
Fleet. 

Stocks not so much affected to-day as was expected. It's 
thought the Fjench fleet is gone to Cadiz to join the Spaniards. 

18th. — Tiie Opposition are in a sad hobble. They forwarded 
an enquiry into Howe's conduct, but intended to produce such 
witnesses only as would vindicate him. After they had been 
heard, and Lord George G. proposed to call witnesses, they 
would have stopped ; and I have it from such authority as 
satisfies me, offered to forbear moving for a vote of thanks or 
exculpation, but Lord G. insisted on going on. They tried to 
perplex old General Kobertson, but he was too cunning for 
them, and sometimes turned the laugh upon them by his 
answers. liast night, when Sir Ric'* Sutton was putting 
questions to Galloway, Burke stood up and asked if he was not 
a Member of the Congress? Galloway answered — "Yes;" 
then followed — " Have you had your pardon ? " — the answer— 
" No ; " and as Galloway was giving a reason, viz., that he had 
been guilty of no offence but for his loyalty, was pronounced 
by the Congress a capital offender against the new States, 
there was a cry — " Withdraw ! withdraw ! " and by means 
thereof two hours of the short remains of the session were 
spent, and all the charge which would have been bro't against 
Howe in that time avoided ; and then Galloway was called to 
the Bar again. 

Cool, or west wind. 

19th. — The Bishop of London called and spent some time. 
He laments the deplorable state of the nation. He says all is 
owing to the Opposition, and the Opposition is owing to Lord 



262 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS nUlCUINSON. [JZ^. 

r>uto iu the beginning of this reign, whose imprudence in 
turning so many out of ofiice, and his timidity of conduct 
iiftorwards, put all into confusion. I observed that I had a 
curiosity to see him, but had never been able. lie surprized 
me by saying he had never seen him in his life ; which is very 
extraordinary, as the Bishop has been so many years in the 
House of Lords, and so often at Court . . . 

2l8t. — A gentleman who knew me, and asked how I had 
been since he last saw me, informed me Saturday morning as I 
was taking my walk, that he went to Aylesbury a day or two 
before, and tliat Sir Francis Bernard died Wednesday night 
tlie 16"', which has been since confirmotl. 

22nd. — A warm debate last night in the House of Commons. 
Lord North proposed a Bill to enable the King to encrease 
the I^Iilitia, not exceeding a number equal to those already 
established. This was generally agreed to, but it occasioned 
bitter reflections on the IMinistry, and Lord North in particular, 
who was reproached with the places he had provided for himself 
and family. He vindicated his conduct, but shed tears, and 
declared he had long Avished to resign, but had been prevented. 

An express from New York — letters to 25 jMay. An ex- 
pedition to Chesapeak, it is said had succeeded as well as 
could be expected : many vessels destroyed w"' great quantities 
of tobacco, also magazines of provisions, and military stores 
laid up for Washington's army : two towns burnt, &c. Query, 
as to the last article ? 

23rd. — At Lord George's office. Mentioned to M'" Knox 
what I heard from D'' Chandler, — that one of the American 
privateers, under British colours, had brought to — a Spanish 
despatch boat, — broke open the packets, and passed for one of 
King George's subjects, and came into Boston, and bragged of 
the exploit. This [story] John Gray, son to the Treasurer,* 
brings from Boston. Knox seems to be much pleased with the 
accounts from New York. 

24th.— At Court, where I had not been for near two months. 

* Harrison Gray the Treasurer, is mentioned in the Confiscation Act, as 
Rmong the " notorious conspirators," whose estates in America were to be 
seized. A biographical notice of him in Sabine's ' Loyahsta,' vol i. p. 488. 



i:^g^ DIARY And letters of THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 263 

The K. took notice of the favorable appearance in America, 
particularly the dissatisfaction of many parts with the Congress : 
asked about Laurence, who I said was now out : he asked who 
was in his room ? I told him Jay. Who was he ? A lawyer — • 
lie had a brother in England. "What," says the K., "a 
Doctor — where is he?" 

" Somewhere in England," I said. 
" Not doing any good, I believe." 
" No, I believe not." 

lie mentioned the wickedness of Opposition. I answered — 
" I detest them." 

" I am sure you do," was his reply. 
The Queen all goodness, asked how I had my health ? 
" As well as the times will admit. I use exercise, temper- 
ance, and try to keep my mind in an easy state." 

" Ah," she replied, " there is no happiness without tran- 
quility of mind. The health of the body depends much upon 
the mind." 

26th. — I enquired of John Gray, Avho informed me that when 
he was in Boston, several of the Privateers which came in 
there were reported to have stopped Spanish vessels and 
plundered them, informing them they were under the King's 
Commission, and that two Masters that came from Boston 
with him in a carteel [?] ship, were on board the Biiuher's 
Hill, an American privateer, when she met with a Spaniard, 
which they boarded and plundered. The privateer carried 
English colours at that time, and informed the Spaniards she 
■was fitted out at Bristol, but he says nothing of opening packets. 
One of those Masters, he says, was named Storer, and is since 
arrived at Wiiitehaven . . . 

27th. — At D*" Kippis's. Danforth and Bliss dined. A cold 
north wind like IMarch. It is said S'' Cha. Hardy was left in 
the lat. of 48, but he had heard nothing of the French or 
Spaniards. 

There are great endeavours speedily to man more English 
ships. An Act passed suddenly to invalidate all protections 
against a Press^to look back to the 16*'\ A stratagem was 
made use of the 23*"*^ in the evening* No seamen appearing 



264 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. \\f-^y 

anywhere, the Tower was lighted up, and a report was spread 
that the Kin^ had removed Lord North— that he was in 
custody, and that he was bringing down to tlie Tower.* Many 
thousands collected upon Tower Hill, expecting him. Care 
was taken to block up the avenues with sufhcient guards. Ten 
or a dozen different Tress-gangs came on suddenly and secured 
several hundred, among whom were many masters and mates of 
colliers and other vessels, who were sent immediately down to 
the Nore. Some have proposed pressing the crews of all 
privateers, in which service it is computed 70,000 men are 
employed. 

30th. — Judge Sewall came on a visit from Bristol last 
evening, and dined with me to-day, w"' Danforth and Bliss. 
Expected Paxton from Pangbourne, that we might begin our 
journey to-morrow^, but he has failed. Galloway and Mauduit 
in the evening : the former very angry with Lord Howe, for 
comparing him to the Apothecary in Romeo, whose poverty 
had driven him to say what he did not think : desires to 
publish his own examination. 

July 1st. — People seem alarmed to-day with the debate of 
yesterday in the House of Lords. Upon the Militia Bill the 
minority proposed an amendment, and Lord Weymouth, with 
Lord Gower, voted and argued with them : Lord Chancellor 
and Lord Sandwich against them : and the amendment was 
carried by three quarters of the Lords. I met M"^ Keene of 
the Board of Trade in the Park, much dejected. Lord T. told 
Paxton Lord North must go out. 

2nd. — Left the town with affairs in great uncertainty ; but 
I have no concern with them in town more than in the country. 
About two began a journey with Paxton, and about 8 reached 
Guilford, thro' Fulham. 

4th. — Poor lodgings at a poor Inn. [at Wickham.] Went 
to church and heard M"^ Eashleigh ... A monument of the 
Earl and Countess of Carlisle . , . Dined 6 or 7 miles from 



* It is hard to imagine liow persons in authority could have lent themselves 
to the perpetration of such a disgracefid trick. Soldiers and sailors will 
voluntarily enter the services if they are fairly paid, fairly looked to, and 
fairly provided for in case of injury in their country's defence. 



\^ll] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 265 

Wickliam with Admiral Montague at Widley . . . Went on 
5 miles to Portsmouth . . . 

5th. — Called on Sir Sam^ Hood . . . Sir Thomas Pye, 
Admiral of the Port . . . 

6th. — . . . Went through the dockyard. T\\q Saint George, 
a 90 gun ship, having all her timbers in, from bottom to top, 
I went into her hold, wliich struck me more than I imagined 
with the grandeur of it . . . 

7th. — . . . We came to Eumsey, about 30 miles from Ports- 
mouth. This is a considerable market town : a largo old 
church. An apple tree grows out of the tower, which came up 
by accident, and a supply of earth has been afforded it, so that 
it bears fruit, wliich is carried about as a curiosity . . . 

9th. — We went from Poole to Wareham . . . The Eoman 
Amphitheatre, [near Dorchester,] and especially the Poman 
Camp, are the most curious works of antiquity I have seen in 
England . . . 

10th. — We rode 8 miles to Weymouth ... In the afternoon 
we went to Bridport ... 

11th. — In the forenoon we went to the Presbyterian Meeting. 
... In the afternoon at the parish church . . . 

12th, — Set out early on horseback and rode to Lime [Lyme] 
to breakfast — a watering place where a few families were 
collected. An old man upon the beach shewed us where the 
Duke of Monmouth landed, and told us his uncle was hanged 
for being one of the men who rowed him ashore. At the 
George Inn, where he lodged, they have a room which they 
yet call Monmouth's room. 

We went up a very long bad hill from Lime town, and went 
do\\n one as bad into Sidmouth. From the top of the last 
hill, [Salcombe Hill] Paxton descryed the fleet lying in 
Torbay, but I could not then see them, but afterwards with 
a glass, had a view of the ships, but imperfect, from the top of 
the house where we lodged ; and in the afternoon saw very 
plain, a long ship, which we made no doubt was the Terrible, 
going to join the fleet. 

]\ly principal design in going two or three miles out of my 
way to Sidmouth, was to shew my regard to M'' Smith the 



2C6 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS IIUTCniNSON. [j^^l 

Presbyterian JEinistcr lately settled there, but unfortunately 
he had gone from homo this morning to see the licet at 
Torbay. 1 found unexpectedly, Sam' Sewall from Bristol. 

►Sidmonth is a town convenient for smugglers. One Cap. 
Follet, one of W Smith's congregation, who long used the 
Newf'land trade, was very polite to us. 

It may be remarked in a note here, but not in so degraded a 
place as a Foot note, that Mr. Isaac Smith, the Minister of the 
rresbj'torian or Unitarian Chapel at Sidmouth, was an American 
Eefugoo who had struggled through many trials till he found a 
rest in a remote country town in England, where Ave should 
scarcely have expected to have found him. The Chapel was 
founded in 1710 at the top of High Street, and in the angle 
formed by Mill Lane, now called All Saints Road. He was 
appointed in 1778, and continued until 1784. Writing to Dr. 
Eliot Sep. 1-i, 1778, the Governor says in his Letter Book — " I took 
jjleasure in the acquaintance and frequent visits of your friend 
M' Smith, while he continued in London. He has been for more 
than five years preaching to a Dissenting Chnrch at Sidmouth, 
and was ordained last summer, and is unusually esteemed." 

Salcombe Hill, that rises on the east side of the valley of the 
little river Sid, is about 500 feet high where the road passes over 
its brow ; and though it is twenty miles from this spot to Torbay, 
it is possible that good eyes on a clear day could discern large 
ships lying there. The house where the Governor and his friend 
lodged was probably the London Hotel, the York not having been 
built till the commencement of the present century. Some old 
people have said that the Hotel once stood across the street, where 
there is now an open space of ground ; but this assertion requires 
further proof. The Follet family, now wholly faded from sight, 
long flourished here as merchants and shipowners. The ground 
occuj)ied by York Terrace was then covered with dockyards. The 
ships built there, and destined for the Newfoundland cod fishing 
trade, were launched over the open beach in calm weather, and 
taken to Exmouth to be completed for sea. The south coast of 
England lying extended opposite the coast of France, was so 
favourably situated, that the smuggling of French brandy was 
carried on to an enormous extent ; but the lowering of the duties 
has rendered this illicit trade now unprofitable, so that it has 
almost died a natural death. 

The Governor's eldest son Thorn as j -with his wife Sarah (Oliver) 



ma.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTCEiNSON. 267 

settled down at Heavitree near Exeter, and there they rest ; and 
one of their sons, Andrew, with his wife Anne (Parker) in the 
later years of his life, bought a small property at Sidmonth, 
which I now have. 

13th. — Left Sidmouth at ten o'clock and went to Exeter . . , 

1-lth. — I viewed the Cathedral ... A large Library behind 
the Altar I think must have some books of value. I took 
down a thick folio Concordance, printed in 1650, the author 
Samuel Newman, Teacher of a church at Kehoboth, N. England. 
With some improvement, this laborious Avork has been re- 
printed from time to time, and the name of Newman is now 
lost, and it is called the Cambridge Concordance . . . 

After dinner we went about 20 miles to lodge at Ashburton, 
a large old town with but indifferent buildings, tlie streets full 
of people. About 250 French were then there, — Masters and 
officers of vessels, which had been taken, and who were sent to 
this town from Plimouth, and were at large, only not to walk 
more thnn a mile from the town. 

A man came to us by the name of Dolbear, a brazier, to 
enquire after his relations of that name. Dolbear, who was 
many years partner with Jackson in Boston, went from 
Ashburton in the last century, and settled at Boston. 

15th. — Excessive hot. We travelled very slow, and reached 
Plimonth . . . My father spent some time in Plimouth in the 
year 1696, and had been many weeks befoie in Portsmoutli, 
waiting for convoy to New England . . . 

16th. — In the forenoon waited on Lord 8huldham, the 
Admiral of the Port, who rec'^ us with great civility ; and as he 
Avas to dine Avith Cap. Hartwell, made us his guests. We saw 
two Captains and some other officers of two Swedish men-of-war 
which put in to Plimouth for water, as pretended, but his 
Lordship suspects them to be spies for the French. One is a 
two-decker of 4J: guns ; the other a frigate of 28. The Apollo 
frigate, of 28 guns, looks as if she was a match for the largest 
of them. The officers' uniform was fantastick — a white sash 
round the arm, a short blue coat, a cap with a white feather 
on one side. At dinner, Sir Hyde Parker, and Cap" Gambier, 
we had known in America; Col° Parker, Member for the 



268 DIARY AND LETTEttS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. \^^\l 



Ll77i). 



county, and Col° of a Devonsh. llegiraent, said to have 14,000£ 
a year, but rather reserved, and gave Lord Howe for his toast ; 
a W llartor, [?] witli Cap" Oury, [?] the Coinissioner, Cap" 
Garnier, and C;ip" Harvey, besides Lord Shuldliani, Cap" 
.Hartwcll, Paxton, and T. PI. 

Li this county I observe pack horses employed for carrying 
liay, faggots, stones, coals, wood, water, earthen ware, and many 
other articles usually carried in carriages with wheels, in other 
parts of England : scarce anything carried on trucks, except 
barrels, hogsheads and such things as cannot be divided into 
quantities small enough for horse burdens.* 

17th.^-Walked round the Catwater, and had a view of the 
Sound, Harbour, &c. Dined at a sumptuous entertainment 
with Lord IShuldham. W Bastard said to me to-day, that 
Hartley the Member, told him that when he was notf last in 
France, he thought from what he observed, if Franklin's 
schemes should succeed ill, he would be made a sacrifice [ofj, 
and in a note to F. he advised him to take care of himself. 
Franklin sent him an answer, that the caution brought to his 
mind the common language of a mercer — " It's only a remnant, 
and therefore of little value." t 

18th, — Lord Edgcumbe arriving yesterday from London, we 
made a visit to Mount Edgcumbe . . . 

19th. — Having been most politely entertained by Lord 
Shuldham, &c., at Plimouth, we took leave of it this forenoon^ 
and dined and lodged at Ashburton, on our return to London. 

20th. — . . . Enquired at Exeter for our countryman Curwen, 
who had been in town from Exmouth that day. I left a card 
at his lodgings. At Exeter met with the London Evening of 
18"\ with the Act of Massachusetts Bay for confiscating 
the Estates of Gov. Bernard, Hutchinson, the Mandamus 
Counsellors, and the Crown officers, declaring them aliens, &c. 

From Exeter went on and lodged at Collurapton. 

* Except tlie main arteries, the roads iu the remote and hilly counties of 
Devon and Cornwall were rough, stoney, narrow, and steep ; but the great 
improvement in them during the last fifty years, has rendered the employment 
of pack horses wholly obsolete. 

f The " not " is in the original, but it appears to be unnecessary to the 
sense of the passage. 

X This occurs in Franldin's Correspondence, ii. 25. 



■Aug. 
1779 



] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 269 



22nd. — We had most of the way rain to Bridgwater . . . 
The rain ceasing, we went on to Glastonbury. . . Soon after 
I arrived I went up the Mount to the Tower, but the ground 
being wet and clayey, and the hill sharp as the roofs of most 
houses, it was a most fatiguing walk for a man so near 70. 
I went into the Tower, which has suffered but little injury. 
I have scarce ever seen so grand a prospect, certainly in no 
part of England I have been in. 

23rd.— [To Wells and Bath.] 

24th. — Left our own carriage and servants at Buth, and took 
a post chaise to Bristol. Called on L* G. Bull, Oliver, Lech- 
mere, Sewall, Simpson, Waldo, Barnes, Faneuil. 

Dined with Simpson and Waldo, and returned late to Bath, 
near ten o'clock. 

29th. — ... At two o'clock the 29"^ came to my house in 
Sackville Street, and in the evening had the satisfaction of 
seeing all my children well, to drink tea with me . . . 

August 1st. — At the Old Jewry . . . 

2nd. — . . . William Apthorpe, who I saw with his wife last 
year at Cardiffe, went soon after to New York, and from thence 
to Boston. He arrived there the day W^ Timmins left Boston, 
and as soon as he landed was apprehended and sent to prison. 
He, and most of his connexions have always favoured the 
American cause. 

3rd. — Went into the city : many long faces : account at 
Lloyd's of the taking the island St. Yincent by the French . . . 

5th. — At Court. The K., enquiring about my journey, asked 
who went with me? I said Paxton, an American, one of the 
Commiss" of the Customs. He said I should be very careful 
who I took with me. There was one lately come over, I 
answered, I should not chuse to have trusted. " Who's that, 
T. ? what's he come for ? " I did not know : I fancied he 
was willing to secure both sides. " That's bad," he said, and 
turned to somebody else. 

Lord Hillsborough kissed the Queen's hand on his going to 
Ireland. He told me Lord North desired him, when he was 
going to take leave last week, desired him* to defer it, he 

• * The repetition of the words " desired him" seems to have been unintentional. 



270 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON, [f^"^; 



having mentioned him to the K. for Secr^ of State, but as the 
Iv. had said nothing; to him, he took leave of him yesterday at 
the Levee, lie said he could not account for the K.'s backward- 
ness. I said I supposed some were soUiciting who he did not 
chuso to offend. Lord H. said to me it was not a thing to be 
desired — the Ministry never was so disunited. They woukl 
not speak to one another upon publick affairs. 

10th. — Advice of the arrival of a vessel at Gkxsgow — sailed 
from N. York the 12"» or 13"^ of July. And. Pepperell, M"- 
Cutler, and a young Simpson, passengers. They had advice of 
Prevost's retreat to James Island ; that he thought himself 
secure until he could be reinforced. On the other hand, the 
enemies to Government boast that there are accounts arrived 
in France of his having been attacked on this Island, and as 
they say — Burgoyned. It is astonishing there should be 
Englishmen suffered publickly to express a pleasure in the 
defeat of the King's forces. 

11th. — . . . There seems to be no authority for the report of 
a vessel at Glasgow from New York the 12'*' July. Cutler left 
it the 6"\ at the same time with S"" W™ Erskine, and he says 
the advice from Prevost was rec'^ the night before. 

12th. — S'' W" Erskine, who was said to come with Gen. 
Jones in a vessel to Milford Haven, is not arrived, but went in 
a vessel bound to Cork, where some of the fleet are said to bo 
arrived. It is reported to-day that Prevost has retreated to 
Beaufort, and that letters from Greenock mention it as part of 
the intelligence from N. York ... P. of Wales 17 years old : 
day observed at Windsor. 

loth. — No kind of news. M"" Abel Willard* informed me 
that somebody, and he thought W Gore, had a letter from 
Boston, in which the writer mentions the Acts passed in Mass. 
Bay for sale of delinquents' estates, in w'^'' it is said that though 
they passed, yet nobody professes to approve of them. 

14th. — . . . Besides Temple, three other Americans are come 
to London — Jos. Cordis, Oliver Smith, and W™ Greene, son of 

* He ■svas one of the Barristers wlio signed the farewell Address to Governor 
Hutchinson, and an obnoxious Loyalist. He left America in 1776, was 
proscribed and banished, and died in England in 1781. — t'^abine's ' Loyalists.' 



^"5:] DIABT AND LETTERS OF THOMAS nVTCHINSON. Til 

Rufiis Greene, all from Boston, and professed subjects of the 
new State. They appear f>ublickly, avow their principles, and 
no notice is taken of them, when the estates of all sucli as have 
left America and taken shelter in England are confiscated by 
Acts of Government, and their persons are liable to be im- 
prisoned, and perhaps worse treated if they return. 

16th. — A Boston woman, ]\P* Johnson, came with a Petition 
to me, recommended by Lane & co.. Cap" Scott, &c., to put her 
in a way for relief. Her husband, a ship Master, came with his 
family to Bristol in 1775 ; has since sailed out of England ; 
was taken and carried into Boston 16 months ago. I advised 
her not to think of applying to the Treasury. 

In a Boston newspaper my estate is advertised to be sold. I 
liave not yet seen an account of the sale. It is said the 
Massachusetts new State claims all the territory within the N. 
and south lines of the Charter, between the western settlements 
of New York, and the south sea. I hope the ingratitude, as 
well as the extravagant cruelty of this act will appear hereafter 
for the benefit of my posterity. It is entirely owing to me that 
any claim remains to this territory ; for when the Coihissioners 
from the two Colonies met at Hartford in 1773, those on the 
part of Massachusetts would have consented to relinquish all 
claim to it, and declared to me their willingness, but I prevented 
them, and encouraged them to risk the breaking off the Treaty, 
which the N. York Commiss""^ pretended would be the con- 
sequence of a refusal being signified, the. N. York Coiniss''^ no 
longer insisted on their demand. 

17th. — An express to-day from the Marlboro' of 74 guns, 
bound out to join Sir Ch. Hardy ; that she met the French and 
Spanish fleet in the Chops of the Channel ; that he was chased, 
together with the Isis, Southampton, and Cormorant, within 4 
leagues of Plimouth, when they gave over chase, and the 
Marlborough sent the Cormorant into Plimouth. They counted 
G3 sail. The BamilUes sailed before the Marlborough, and it 
is feared may be taken. The fleets were seen Saturday the 14^'\ 

18th. — Another express to-day from Falmouth, that the 
combined fleet was seen from thence on Monday morning the 
16'''. It is said at the Treasury, there is advice of the arrival 



272 BIAIiY AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON, \trif. 

of 11 East India ships at Cork, and that Sir Cha. Hardy mot 
tliom, and carried them in. This will account for the two 
fleets not seeing one another. The Marlboro' said to have gone 
into Falmouth. Great anxiety. Wind fresh easterly. 

19th. — The report of the E. India ships come to nothing. 
No news of Sir Cha. Hardy. Alarmed all day with expresses, 
without being informed of the intelligence they bring. Agreed 
— that the fleets are seen off Plymouth ; said to be off the 
Rame Head — 63* sail of the line — 100 in all. Upon 'Change. 
Bridgen told me they were in an half moon, and 100 sail of 
transports within them ; and he did not seem pleased at my 
doubting it. The anxiety is great in many : I wonder it is not 
in more. I wrote to Lord Hardwicke, and to Mauduit at 
Cowdray — Lord Montague's. 

A letter from T>^ Murray. A young man there from Provi- 
dence, Eh. Island, tells him the people abuse me as much as 
ever. This is my misfortune, as I wished for the esteem of 
none so much as of my own countrymen. I think it is not bias 
which satisfies me that what Tacitus observes was natural in 
his day is the cause — Odisse quern Iwseris.1[ 

East w — fresh. 

20th. — No other intelligence than that the fleet on Wednes- 
day the 18"' had not advanced. The wind probably prevented. 
It is said the English fleet was off Mounts Bay, but no certainty. 
The dock at Plimouth is thought to be the object of the enemy, 
and that they intend to land a little below the Eame Head, 
and to cross over and burn the dockyard, &c. The wind here 
continues fresh, near N. East. It is generally believed the 
Ardent of 64 guns, mistaking the enemy for the English fleet, 
is taken. 

21st. — East wind continues. Accounts, if any, received by 
Government, not made publick. A letter of the 18'^ from 
Plimouth says the Arde7it is taken, but a postscript to it says 
that she is since got in much shattered. Many think notwith- 

* Adolphus says 66. — iii. 193. 

t To hate the person whom you have injured. 

X The uncertainty about tlie fate of the A^-dent is set at rest by Hume's 
Continuator and others writing some time afterwards, who say she was 
taken. 



iVro:] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTOHINSON. 21 o 

standing, that she is taken. She \Yas a very swift sailing 
ship. 

Jabez Fisher says a friend of his has rec'' a letter of July 7, 
from CaroliDa, which says Prevost had retreated 80 miles 
towards Beaufort. The reports from Holland are that he had 
surrendered. . . . 

22nd.— At Jy Kippis's. 

xin express last night says the French fleet was out of sight 
on Thursday. It's thought they are gone to Brest, and will 
bring the forces which, it is said, in a great number of trans- 
ports, are to embark there. Wind still E. The Ardent seems 
to be given up, as the express says nothing of her being in 
riimouth. 

23rd. — Not one word to-day from the fleets, nothing having 
been seen or heard of them at Plymouth. Letter from Lord 
Hardwicke, and another from Mauduit, both of which I answered. 
Mentioned the difference between 1588 and the present time. 
Everybody then alive and active in every part of the kingdom ; 
supine and motionless now, though we have as much to fear as 
they had then.* 

24th. — Admiral Gambler called. He says the market women 
went off in boats from Falmouth with vegetables, &c., supposing 
the fleet to be English : that they were on board the French 
Admiral who, after many questions about the fleet, the forces, 
&e., sent them ashore to bring more refreshments. 

No advice of any sort, the wind still between east and north, 
and something rather inclining to W. of north. I went into 
the city and expressed my astonishment to several, that the 
merchants did not fit out every ship capable of assisting the 
British fleet. It is said ten or a dozen East India ships now 
lye in port which may be made equally strong as 36 or 40 gun 
men-of-war, and upon an emergency might be of infinite 
service, 

Blackburne told me to-day, that meeting M"" Temple in the 
street, he said to him — " Why, I have not seen you for a long 
time." Temple answered — " Six weeks ago I dined with 
General Washington." 

* This of course refers to the expected attack fruiri tlic Spanish Armada. 
VOL. II. T 



274 PIJIiY AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. [r"f,: 

2.")th. — Tho wind at east ngain. Not a word of Sir Chailis 
Hardy wliicli can be depended upon. It is said the combined 
fleets were seen on Saturday from Falmouth, but no official 
accounts. 

Besides Sir I). Ijiudsay, Gen' Grey and Col° Roy are at 
riimoutl), the latter, I hear in the Park, has wrote that they 
can stand a siege of two months from 20,000 men. 

26th. — The Captain of the T/te^e's frigate from Lisbon, came 
to town — saw Sir Cha. Hardy's fleet Wednesday the 18"', 
[blank] leagues SW. of Scilly. The Hector, o.io of the fleet, 
spake with the Thetis ; mentioned Eamillies and Marlboro' 
having joined ; and Cap" Gell of the Tlietis saw a ship going to 
join, wiiicli it's thought was the Jupiter; to avoid the enemy 
Cap. Gell stood for the Bristol Channel. It is doubted whether 
the enemy's fleet is not yet in the Channel. 
The wind fresh at east, but fine weather. 
27th.— Called upon M"- Strahan. He says W Blunt, who I 
took to be 'W Stevenson's daughter, or Stevens, the woman at 
whose house D'' Franklin lodged many years, received about 
two mouths ago a letter from him, in which he says he hopes 
to see her at her hut in Kensington. Preparations w ere then 
making in France for an invasion, and his hopes must be founded 
upon the success of it. 

IM"" Ellis called. I told him my estate was sold to a rich 
Sears.* He says he hopes I shall have it again. 
29th.— At D^ Kippis's. 

Dined at Lord Mansfield's at Caen Wood : only Lord Piob. 
Manners besides the family. My Lord, at 74 or 5, has all the 
vivacity of 50. Lord Pob* is only brother to the Duke of 
Kutland, and is now Lieutenant of the Alcide. My Lord 
predicts he will be one day Admiral and Commander-in-Chief 
of the British Navy : bad him make a minute that he foretold 
it. He gave me a particular ace' of his releasing two Blacks 
from slavery, since his being Chief Justice. A ship belonging 
to Bristol was upon the coast of Guinea. The two nations of 

* The word looks like Sears. At Nov. 14, 1775, however, lie sjicaks of his 
IMiltoii property as reported to he sold at Vendue ; aud at Bejit. 30, 1779, that 
'• one Erown of New Yorli " had purchased it. 



k"!:] diary and letters of THOMAS HUTCHINSOK 27.") 

North and South Callibar had a controversy — I don't recollect 
what it was about, but they agreed to leave it to the English 
Captain, and they came aboard his ship to the number of 250. 
He made them all slaves — carried, or sent them to IMartinico, 
where they were sold. By some means or other these two were 
sent to Virginia, being brothers, and sons to the chief man of 
one of tlie nations, and called by Lord M. Princes. After 
liaving been 6 or 7 years in Virginia, they absconded from 
their master — hid themselves in the hold of a ship bound to 
Bristol, and were not discovered until the ship was upon her 
voyage. Upon her arrival at Bristol, they found a way to 
make their case known, and to apply to Lord Mansfield for an 
Habeas corjnis. Upon enquiry, there was full evidence of the 
fact, the Master of the Bristol ship being in England, and 
witnessess who were in Guinea at the time ; but there was a 
fair purchase by the Virginia planter, and the Master of the 
ship in which they had escaped, kept them confined in order to 
return them, and to avoid the penalty to which he would be 
liable by the laws of the Colony, for bringing them away. His 
Lordship thought the case was not without difficulty. How- 
ever, the Writ issued, and I think they were brought up to 
London. They acknowledged the two nations were at war, and 
that captives were made on both sides with design to sell them 
for slaves ; and if they had been taken and sold, they would 
have disdained seeking relief. The whole transaction was 
beyond sea, and they had never been ashoar [sie] until he 
brought them ashoar by the Writ of Haheas corpus. Under all 
these difficulties, he says he would have found a way to deliver 
them. After waiting some considerable time, the Master of the 
ship who had thus kidnapped them, with others, at Bristol, 
thought it advisable to make up the matter, and to engage to 
send the two Princes home to Guinea. How the Virginia 
planter was satisfied his Lordship did not say, but he seemed 
much pleased at having obtained their relief. The rest of the 
250 probably are dead in slavery, and the villain who capti- 
vated them* has escaped the judgment of man. 

* Took them captive. Another iiistance of tlie change in sigmfication of a 
word in the space of one short centiuy. 

T 2 



276 J)JJJ!Y AND LETTERS OF THOMAS JIUTCJ/JNSON. [n"!;: 

D' Fiaiikliu beiug mentioued, my Liord said that lie carried 
his <xraiidsoii* to Voltaire, who paid to the boy — " Love God 
a)uJ Lileriijy I observed to his Lordship that it was difficult 
to say which of those words had been most used to bad pur- 
poses. He seemed pleased with my remark. 

Lady Mansfield must be about 80 — has the powers of her 
mind still firm, without marks of decay: her dress perfectly 
simple aud becoming her age — is said to be benevolent and 
charitable to the poor. Lady Say, of the same age, I saw at 
Court with her head as high dressed as the young Dutchesses, 
iS:c. What a carricature she looked like ! How pleasing, 
because natural. Lady Mansfield's appearance ! 

A Black came in after dinner and sat with the ladies, and 
after coffee, walked with the company in the gardens, one of 
the young ladies having her arm within the other. She had a 
very high cap, and her wool was much frizzled in her neck, but 
not enough to answer the large curls now in fashion. She is 
neither handsome nor genteel — pert enough. I knew her 
history before, but my Lord mentioned it again. Sir Jn'' 
Lindsay having taken her motlier prisoner in a Spanish vessel, 
brought her to England, where she was delivered of this girl, 
of which she was then with child, and which was taken care of 
by Lord M., and has been educated by his family. He calls her 
Dido, which I suppose is all the name she has. He knows he 
has been reproached for shewing a fondness for her — I dare 
say not criminal. 

A few years ago there was a cause before his Lordship 
bro't by a Black for recovery of his liberty. A Jamaica planter 
being asked what judgment his L''ship would give? "No 
doubt," he answered, " he will be set free, for Lord Mansfield 
keeps a Black in his house which governs him and the whole 
family." She is a sort of Superintendent over the dairy, 
poultry yard, &c., which we visited, and she was called upon by 
my Lord every minute for this thing and that, and shewed the 
greatest attention to everything he said. 

I took occasion to mention that all the Americans who had 

• The Editor has here omitted a few words iu a parenthesis. They concern 
genealogy rather than history. 



ijtI] diary and letters of THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 2l'7 

brought Blacks had, as far as I knew, relinquished their 
property in them, and rather agreed to give them wages, or 
suffered them to go free. His L^'ship remarked that there had 
been no determination that they were free, the judgment (mean- 
ing the case of Somerset) went no further than to determine 
the Master had no right to compel the slave to go into a foreign 
country, &c. I wished to have entered into a free colloquium, 
and to have discovered, if I am capable of it, the nice distinc- 
tions he must have had in his mind, and which would not make 
it equally reasonable to restrain the Master from exercising any 
power whatever, as the power of sending the servant abroad ; 
but I imagined such an altercation would rather be disliked, 
and forbore. 

I observed the report, that Lord Hillsborough had left to go 
to Ireland, and been sent for back, and that he was to be 
appointed Seer^ of State. My Lord said he knew nothing of 
it : he thought however, nothing more likely. At parting he 
hoped next time we met, it would be in better times. 

oOth. — The hottest day at noon I have felt this year, and it 
would have been thought very hot in Boston. Wind about 
SSE. — very little of it. It's not improbable the fleets may be 
in sight of each other, and too little wind to meet : but fur 12 
days past we know nothing of them. 

olst. — At M"" Ellis's, Twickenham — dined with — no company. 
Returning — just on this sideTuruham Green, between sundown 
and dark, I thought the wheel of the coach on the opposite 
side to that on which I sat, went over a round log or stone, but 
finding no consequence, and the road full of carriages passing 
both ways, I did not stop the coachman. Soon after, I saw 
people run by the coach, and some one cryed — " A man is run 
over ! " The coachman then looking back, missed the footman, 
and stopping, said to me — " Patrick is not behind," and imme- 
diately turned the coach, and after driving a few rods, perceived 
the footman held up by several people. As soon as I came up 
I desired them to carry him into an Inn or ale-house a few 
steps distant, where a country fellow at my desire, put a lance 
into his arm, and took away 8 or 10 ounces of blood, but I had 
little hopes of his life, and he himself said it was not possible 



278 UIAnr AXD LETTEliS OF THOMAS IIUTOIIINSON. [ma'. 

he should live. I had him earried into the coach, and brought 
liiin home. The wheel, of not a light coacli, went over his 
shoulders and breast, but havino; a strong: chest no bone broke : 
the flesh was much bruised, and the most favorable circum- 
stance of all, there are no symptons of internal hurt. If he 
recovers, it is one of the most merciful escapes I have known. 
Perhaps there is no part of his body where he could have 
received so little hurt. If he had fell with his face downwards, 
the wheel would have gone over the upper part of the spine, or 
back bone, which was the case of a Negro servant belonging to 
me above 20 years ago at Milton, driving a cart. He fell 
luider tlie wheel on his face, and passing over his shoidders, he 
never had any feeling afterwards in any part of his body, and 
died after a few days languishing. He can give no account of 
his falling, and it is ditficult to account for his falling before 
the wheels. As both legs are scraped, it is probable he fell 
asleep, and pitching forward, might be entangled, and come 
to the ground before the wheel.* 

M*" Ellis came from M"" llobinson's of the Treasury, at Sion 
Hill, and says Government advices stand thus : — The 17"^ Sir 
Cha. Hardy was about 6 or 8 leagues 8W. of Stilly. He had 
rec'' advice of the combined fleets being in the Channel by the 
Southampton frigate, which he dispatched immediately to give 
intelligence, ordering the Captain to send a cutter into port, 
and to cruise in the frigate oif the land. The Southampton 
beat [about] till the 26''' and then sent ashoar. The east wind 
blowing strong, the two fleets probably lost ground, and a 
Dutch ship on the 24'^ sailed through the combined fleets, and 
the Skipper was examined by the French or Spanish Admiral, 
concerning the English fleet, of which he could give no 
account : but what is remarkable — the combined fleets, on the 
24:"^, were just in the same station or cruising ground, which 
the English fleet was in the 17"', and all the intervening 
time both of the fleets were cruising at a small distance, 

* ]S^ot^\•ithstandi^g this attempted explanation, it seems hard to imagine 
how a footman up behind a carriage, could fall so far forward as to get before 
the wheel. In spite of his injuries, in due time he recovered. This man 
Patrick Kyley, or Reily, as he wrote it, came with the family from America ; 
and when the Governor swcKmed and died, it was he who caught him in his 
arms and su]ipurtcd him. 



nis."] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTQIIINSON. 279 

without the one seeing, or being able to gain intelligence, of 
the other. . . . 

September 1st. — Autumn begins with one of tlie hottest days 
this year. It is said the thermometers in the hottest part of 
such days are at 81, 82, 83, in the shade. . . . 

M*" Flucker tells me he saw a Boston newspaper dated in 
November, with an article, that Gov. Hutchinson, in August 
before, had wrote to Jy Franklin in Paris, for leave to go to 
Boston to settle his estate, and when that was done, to return 
to England. And it was added — that his estate was settled to 
his hand. I suppose this to be wit. I wrote to T)^ Lloyd in 
August, and sent liim a Power of Attorney, &c. 

2nd. — Produced no other iutelligence than Sir Cha. Hurdy's 
being seen off Scilly. 

3rd. — Alarming news I Sir Charles's Secretary arriving in 
town at one or two o'clock in the morning. He left the 
English fleet ofi" Plymouth the first, the enemy then off Ushant, 
and said to be above 60 sail line of battle, the English but 
about 40. Whether they will go up to S* Helen's, or wait to 
fight the enemy, is made a question upon which there are 
different opinions. We are in a more critical state than any- 
body living has ever known. 

4th. — Intelligence of the arrival of Sir Charles Hardy's fleet 
at S* Helen's, or, as others say, at Spithead. Where we shall 
firat hear of the enemy's fleet is extreme doubtful and uncertain, 
but we have scarce any room to hope for any favorable account. 
Wind fresh, but not violent, at about S. to SSW. I wonder at 
the small degree of perturbation in so great a part of the 
people at a time of such imminent danger. 

5th. — Fleet at Spithead certain. Lord Sandwich, gone to 
Portsmouth. Various opinions : prevailing opinion that Sir 
Charles has done right : begin to open more freely against 
Keppel for suffering the French to escape him last year, when 

he had them in his power. Some say K 1 and P r both 

deserve to be h * 

6th. — No account yet of the enemy's fleet. In a letter from 

* The intelligent reader must try to fill \\\) the blanks. I had rather let 
it alone. 



280 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. \f-X\: 



|_177». 



]\Iaudiiit of yesterday from Midhurst, he seems to think they 
will bkx'k up the Channel between ]^(>vcr and Cahiis, 'and 
land in Essex and Kent. The fleet from the Downs near 
3[idhurst conld be seen at Spithead. He says a large ship was 
then standing in, which I suppose is the Blenheim from 
riymouth. I think it moro likely for the combined fleet to go 
with the transports to Ireland. 

Alarmed to-day with Byron's being worsted by D'Estaigne — 
said to come from Holland ; and, as if that was not enongh, 
soinbody has inserted a plausible account of the taking of 
Halifax. This is a deplorable state. 

7th. — More bad news. Harrington come home in the Ariadne 
frigate from the W. Indies — supposed dissatisfied and com- 
plaining. The Granadas taken by the French. D'Estaigne's 
fleet much superior to Byron's : the latter came off, as the 
vulgar saying is, second best, in an action between the two 
fleets, the particulars not yet abroad. Not a word yet of the 
combined fleet. Wind strong SW. last night and to-day. My 
Banker said to me in the city, that he nor I had never seen 
such a day. Strange^that stocks were hardly anything affected 
— not more than ^ p c*. 

Sth. — No official accounts from the West Indies. The 
arrival of eight E. India ships at Limerick is some alleviation ; 
but all the W. India islands are considered as in the most 
imminent hazard. Possibly the advantages in the east may 
bear such a proportion to the disadvantages in the west, as to 
bring about an accommodation. But man proposes, God 
disposes, and the events which time is to bring forth we are to 
wait for, and cannot conjecture what they will be. Never was 
the state of the British dominions more chauo:ed in so short a 
lime, and all contrary to all human appearances. 

9th. — M'' AVhite of the Old Jewry dined with us. His mother 
was a near relation to Lord Harrington. Nothing further of 
Admiral Barr°. 

10th. — Admiral Harrington arrived yesterday evening. His 
business here does not transj^ire. It is said he lays no blame 
to Byron : that the French fought badly : tliat their whole 
fleet of 2G sail was engaged with 7 of our ships : that Byron, 



^S^^;] DIABY AND LETTERS OE THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 281 

with 16 ships, was becalmed two or three miles to leeward, and 
could afford no assistance : that in the 7 ships 138 men were 
killed, and 243 wounded — among the latter Cap° Faushawe of 
the Monmouth, and two Lieutenants : that the French had 900 
men killed, and 1500 wounded, many of whom were officers. 
Probably this account is exaggerated, but it has raised the 
spirits of the people. 

My son Billy went to Margate about 2 o'clock. Yesterday he 
spat blood, which alarms us all and him exceedingly, he having 
long been troubled with a cough which threatens his lungs.* 

AViud at N. People now begin to think the invasion over. 

And so they began to breathe somewhat more freely. Such a 
scare had not spread so much consternation in England since the 
days of the Spanish Armada. Its true magnitude is little dwelt 
upon by our historians — first, because the period of greatest alarm 
did not last long ; and secondly, because the writers coolly recorded 
the circumstances of it after the danger was over : but the 
CTOvernor was writing at the dark moment, with a sort of sword of 
Damocles banging over his head, and in continued expectation of 
hearing that slaughter and death had stepped ashore upon some 
unprotected part of the coast, and that England would then be in 
the hands of France and Spain. Stedman, ii. 161, writes as 
follows : — 

" The British fleet, under Sir Charles Hardy, who was appointed 
to the command upon the resignation of Admiral Keppel, was by 
this time also at sea. It consisted of thirty-eight ships of the line, 
with something less than its due proportion of frigates, and cruised 
in that part of the sea which in nautical phraseology, is called the 
chops, or mouth, of the Channel. The great superiority of the 
combined fleet in the number of ships, guns, and men, seemed to 
jiistif}^ the forebodings of those who prognosticated the ruin of the 
British Empire ; and to add to the dangers of the present moment, 
j)reparations were made on the French coast, and an invasion of 
Great Britain, was threatened under cover of the combined fleet. 
On the other hand, every precaution was taken by the British 
Government which prudence suggested, for defeating the expected 
altack. A Proclamation was issued, ordering the cattle and draught 
horses to be driven from those parts of the sea coast on which a 

* Billy was going clown liiiL very fast, and destined .soon to follow his 
sister. 



282 DIARY AND LETTEIiS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON, [f??.*; 

laiuliiig should be (.'ffectccl ; tliu Militia Avas embodicHl ; ;uul 
nuinoioiis cruisoro wore stationeil in the narrow seas to wateh the 
enemy's motions. All these efforts of the Government were nobly 
seconded by those of private individuals ; for such energy had the 
national spirit acquired nnder (he prospect of the difficulties that 
surrounded, and the dangers that threatened, that meetings were 
held in most of the prineipal towns, and voluntary contributions 
made to raise men for the defence of the nation. 

" About the middle of August, Count D'Orvilliers, with the coju- 
1 lined fleet, passed the British fleet under Sir Charles J lardy, in the 
mouth of the Channel, without either fleet having discovered the 
other, and proceeded on as far as Plymouth, taking in the way the 
Ardent, a British ship of war, on her passage to join Sir Charles 
Hardy. The Count D'Orvilliers made no attempt to land, but 
continued for several days parading with the combined fleet in 
sight of Plymouth, until a strong easterly wind set in, and com- 
l>elled him to quit the Channel. As soon as this abated, he returned 
to the coast of England, and cruised off the Land's End. The 
t'ume easterly wind had also driven the British fleet to sea ; but on 
the last day of August Sir Charles Hardy regained his former 
station, and entered the Channel in full view of the enemy, who 
did not attempt to molest him. He now endeavoured to entice 
them into the narrower part of the Channel, where their greater 
suiieriority in number would have less availed them ; and they 
followed him as high as Plymouth, but chose to proceed no farther. 
Their crews were said to be sickly : their ships to be in bad con- 
dition : and the season for equinoctial gales was fast approaching. 
They therefore soon afterwards quitted the English Channel, and 
entered the harbour of Brest. Thus, all the apprehensions which 
had been raised were quickly dissipated." 

In those days it was considered a duty in an English sailor to 
hate a Frenchman, and by an inevitable corollary, to treat him 
accordingly ; and as next-door neighbours proverbially disagree, 
the narrowness of the Channel will explain causes and effects. As 
for Spain, it was not forgotten that Philip had married Queen 
]\Iary, and that he had not succeeded in gaining the affections of 
his adopted subjects — and perhaps he never tried, and after he had 
returned to his own country, there had been no love lost on either 
side. .Hence, as Adolj)hus says : — " A Spanish war was never 
unpopular." Speaking of the fleets, iii. 158, he remarks : — " The 
enemy insulted the Channel with an irresistible force." D"" Cormick 
informs us : — " The two fleets amounted to more than sixty sail of 



irTy D I Alt Y AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 283 

the line, with nearly an equal number of frigates and smaller 
vessels." In his Private Correspondence, i. 446, Franklin, writing 
from Passy, near Paris, October 4, 1779, betrays disappointment : 
— " We had reason to expect some great events from the action of 
the fleets this summer in the Channel, but they are all now in port 
without having effected anything." From a remark on the next 
page we learn that the military forces are congregated on the 
opposite shores of France, ready to be transported across for the 
hostile landing. It runs thus : — " The sword ordered by Congress 
for the Marquis de la Fayette, being at length finished, I sent it 
down to him at Havre, where he was with the troops intended for 
the invasion." 

Considering on the one hand the comparatively destitute con- 
dition of England, from the fact that the greater part of her navy 
was distributed on foreign stations, and on the other, the over- 
whelming power of the combined fleets, supplemented by the troops 
and transports congregated on the coast of Normandy, at a period 
too, when there were still some weeks of summer weather to run, 
it may indeed seem strange that the whole affair ended in nothing. 
The summer rarely breaks uj) on the south coast of England, to be 
succeeded by the first signs of autumn, or the equinoctial gales to 
make themselves felt, until some little time after Michaelmas Day. 
An energetic Admiral would not haA'^e allowed such an oj)portunity, 
favoured by two or three fortunate circumstances, to slip through 
his fingers as the French Admiral did. 

The Diary next gives the account of an unhappy accident to 
Lord Temple — 

13th. — . . . The Newspapers give an account of Lord 
Temple's death, Saturday the 8 at Stowe, having been thrown 
out of a phaeton, and his skull fractured. He has held out to 
68, with a crazy frame, and for a year or two past seemed 
rather less feeble than formerly, and is come to his end by a 
sudden violent stroke. 

14th. — Eain until 4 o'clock, except a short time in the 
morning. For a month or two past my catarrh seems to have 
abated. I have been very regular in my diet and exercise ; 
have drank very little, and some days no wine ; have eat no 
milk ; and for near a year past have constantly cat about two 
ounces of honey with my breakfast of Soushong tea, and but 
little butter. At dinner sometimes drinlc porter, and some- 
times toast and water. 



284 DIAItY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSOlJ. [f??J; 

15tb. — Robinson the new appointed Governor of New York, 
left town yesterday or to-day to embark at riimoiith. D"" 
JoiTries and younj^ Willard go in the same fleet, which is to be 
made up at Cork. It is again asserted that the Ariadne spake 
with Arbutlmot. She failed some time in July from S^ Ivitts, 
and miglit be oft' Bermudas the 5 of August. Wind W. to-day, 
and wo may soon expect news from America. 

16tli. — About nine set out with Reily* in a post chaise for 
I'lirle. Stopped at W Apthorpe's, Croydon ; went into the 
church and looked upon the grave of my dear child ; enquired 
whether there was room for me, and was informed there was. 

The time spent here, and post horses one of the stages, kejtt 
us from reaching Furle before sunset. 

17th. — At Lord Gage's; found no company except Cap"^ 
Kemble, brother to Gen' Gage's lady, and W Wilmot, a 
lawyer, Coiiiiss'" of Bankruptcy, and relation of S"" Eardly \V. 
Taxton came in this forenoon from East Grinsted, where he 
lodged last night, coming to town yesterday morning from 
Tangbourne, an hour or two after I set out. 

We walked about among Lord Gage's tenants. 

18th. — Went to Lewes; saw Count Bruhl, Lady Amelia 
Carpenter, itc, from Brighthelmstone. A A'cry high west 
A\ind. Sir Jn" Lockhart Eoss, and a small squadron gone over 
to S* Maloes ; it is said are expected back to-night to Ports- 
mouth. 

A letter from my son Billy at Margate ; had a return of his 
spitting blood, but was better when he wrote. 

19th. — Paxton and I were at church. Lord and Lady Gage 
to Lewes. Firle [hitherto Furle] affords but a poor congrega- 
tion. The Clergyman not much esteemed. They have been 
quarrelling about singingf ever since I was here 4 years ago. 

2Uth. — At Simson [?] a little village three or four miles 
from Furle, where there was a fair, chiefly for cattle and sheep, 
but booths for haberdashery, and variety of other wares. We 

* This is the man that was run over, and thought to have been fatally 
injured. He must have recovered very rapidly, for the accident took place 
only seventeen days ago. 

t Delightful! That is just what they do in the present day. Truly, 
history repeats itself, and there is nothing new under the sun. 



nTJ:] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 285 

went to the house of a wealthy young farmer — C'aldicut, or 
a name like it — and were entertained with wine, tea, and 
coffee. 

I am now entering my 69"^ year.* 

21st. — Dined at Coneyborough with M"" D'Oyley, a young 
Clergyman — married a Yorkshire lady w*^ 40,000£, and has 
livings of 1000£ a year. He lives in a house of M"" Medley, 
1^ Gage's colleague for Seaforth : has a park, and could well 
afford us a haunch of venison and elegant dishes besides, with 
a dessert of excellent fruit : five or six ladies in company, with 
M'' Fuller, of Lewes, Member of the last Parliam*, besides Lord 
Gage's family. Fuller seems to have been a dissatisfied man 
when in Parliament, and not content now with Opposition. 
AVe made it near ten before we came home. Coneyborough is 
about 3 miles from Lewes towards London, but the house not 
seen from the road, tho' at a small distance. 

This day was one of the darkest I had seen — ITTT.f 

22nd. — General Paoli and Comte Genteli came from Bright- 
helmstone and dined with us, and returned in the evening. 

23rd. — • ... In the evening the whole family went to an 
assembly at Lewes, and returned soon after eleven. Lord 
Pelham's and Lord Gage's families were the most respectable, 
tho' there were many other very fashionable people. My relish 
for such meetings is intirely over, and I went merely to avoid 
being singular. Paxton, who is three or four years older than 
I am is still highly delighted with them. 

24th. — On horseback thro' Glynde into the London read, 
and so home by a corner of Lewes. 

Sir Sampson and Lady Gideon came from London : bro't 
this day's Extra. Gazette. It seems the project of Penobscot 
had been prosecuted, and a L* CoP Maclean w*^ 600 men, had 
taken possession ; but before they could compleat any works, 
they were followed by a naval and land force from Boston, of 
which S"" G. Collier at New York, having intelligence, he 

* He made the same remark Marcli 9, 1778. He entered it on the 9th, 
O.S. In most families children have their birthdays impressed on their 
minds at an early age, by the yearly recurring plum cake, or a juvenile tea- 
party. 

t Second anniversary of Peggy's death. 



286 DJAny AND letters of THOMAS IfUTCNlNSON. [kt'. 

suileil w"' the liaisoiiidh', jviul four or fivo more,— arrived above 
a fortnight aftei-, — ^_just as they were about to attempt to storm 
th(^ im]>erfeet fortifications ; and destroyed, or obliged the 
rebels to destroy, their whole naval force which ha<l been 
drawn up the river Penobscot; and the landmen and seamen 
marched thro' the woods towards Boston. 

At New York a fort on Hudson's Kiver had been surprised 
and carried, and the garrison made prisoners, but was soon 
after recovered. On the other hand Tryon, with above 2000 
men, under convoy of a number of small men-of-war, which 
Colyer [Collier ?] commanded, had landed in the Sound — 
destroyed the vessels and stores in N-haven harbour, and 
burnt the towns of Fairfield and Norwalk, and a small town of 
Greenfield, — and returned to New York. 

Arbuthnot said to be arrived. The Greyhound w*^'^ carried 
L*^ Cornwallis, bro't the dispatches from Penobscot. 

It must be a heavy stroke upon the Americans the loss of so 
much of their navigation ; but it appears that the attempt to 
settle Penobscot was very hazardous, and the arrival of Collier 
was critical, and a delay of a day or two might have been fatal 
to the Penobscot settlement. Besides, it is difficult to conceive 
any advantage we can reap from it. 

25th. — A solitary walk to the Windmill, to take a view of 
the Channel. 

In the evening a letter from my son W. at Margate : his 
complaint of shortness of breath is new to me, and gives me 
great concern. 

2Gth. — "Wrote to my son, and to Mr. Clarke at Margate. 
No church — breakfast being delayed until some time after 
service began. In the evening service at home as usual, 
W Wilmot read the church service: Lady Gage the sermon. 

27th. — All dined at Lewes with M"^ Fuller, Member for 
[blank] the last Parliam*. In the evening I returned w"' Lord 
Gage to Firle. Sir Sampson Gideon, Paxton, "Wilmot, and 
Kemble, went to Brighthelmstone. 

An account at Lewes that Paul Jones, an Irishman in the 
French service, had taken a 40 gun and a 20 gun ship, off the 



n;9.] BIAHY AND LETTER'S OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 287 

Humber, with a number of colliers — Jones in a 50 ^\m slii]» 
with a frigate or t\YO.* 

28th. — I took ray leave of the family last night, and set ont 
early this morning for London. My own horses met me at 
East Grinsted, and I came to town about 5 o'clock : found my 
son at home from Margate before me, his ill state of health 
increasing. 

29th. — A vessel from Boston, which had been carried in 
there, but claimed as belonging to Bermuda, and the owners 
not enemies to the American States ; and upon that claim 
discharged, and suffered to come to England. This is a very 
odd state of things. It seems she left Boston but about 25 
days ago. Seven or eight Jamaica ships taken and carried in 
there. Goes a great way towards retrieving the loss of their 
fleet at Penobscot. 

30th. — M"" Blowers writes to M'" Bliss of June 30, that one 
Brown of New York had purchased my estate at Milton for 
38,000£ lawful paper money. 

Lord Sandwich asked me in the Park whether I heard any- 
thing from America? said there was a report, but he hoped it 
was not true, that D'Estaigne, with 16 sail, was gone to New 
York. 

[Wrote] to Lord Gage and Lord Hardwicke. 

October 1st.— Called on L* Gov. Ball, and M' Livius. The 

ship the latter was going in to Canada, laden with stores, 

military, &c., on account of Gov*, is taken by Paul Jones, and 

sent in to France. 

* Briefly — a fleet of merchant vessels, returning from the Baltic, convoyed 
by the Serapis, 44, Cap. Pierson, and the Countess of Scarborough, 20, 
Cap. Piercy, fell in with a squadron imder the command of Paul Jones. This 
person was a native of Galloway, though, by association, sometimes accounted 
an Irishman. " No7i uhi nascor, sed uhi pascor." Being off the coast of York- 
shire, Cap. Pierson signalled to his merchant vessels toesca] e, and run for the 
nearest ports, whilst he commenced an action against a greatly superior force, 
which consisted of the Bon Homme liichard, 40, a frigate called the Pallas, 
y2, another called the Alliance, 36, the Vengeanre brig, and a cutter. The 
Countess of Scarborough had 4 killed and 20 wounded, and the Serapis 49 
killed and 68 wounded, when they succumbed. The liichard lost 336 in 
killed and wounded, according to Adolphus, whilst Stedman saj^s 306, but it 
maybe suspected that the middle figure has slipped out; and she was so 
shattered that she sunk two days afterwards. Paul Jones Avas in the service 
of the hostile allies, for he was decorated by the King of France for this 
battle, and thanked and promoted by the Congress of America. 



288 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS JIUTCIIINSON. [n*,;,. 



2nd. — A severe Edict of tlio now Governor of Granada, 
discharging the estates there of all debts due to British 
subjects, and even to the Dutch, because they suppose British 
subjects are a collateral security to the Dutch, 

Galloway, D^ Chandler, Leonard, Hallowell, Bliss [dined 
with him]. 

;hvl. — OKI Jewry. Livius and Bliss. 

Very cold day — began our fires. 

4th. — Arrival of General Grey from New York, and a fleet of 
transports at Cork. Arbuthnot's fleet arrived Aug. 24'" after 
13 weeks from Portsmouth, said to be all well. No remarkable 
occurrence yet transpires. 

.'jth.— A letter by way of Cork from M' Walter, of Aug. 23. 
No news then of the fleet. He says S"" H. C. [Clinton] was 
preparing for an expedition, and it was whispered eastward, as 
soon as Arbuthnot arrived, and if true, I might probably hear 
from him next from another quarter. 

6th. — Dined at Amen Corner, D' Douglas's : — M"" Knox, 
S"" Jn° Eliot, and Strahan. S^ John upon a merry pin. Q — 
whether Strahan or he most of an Infidel ? Both, especially 
the first, rather too free with religion to consist with politeness 
at the table of a Divine, and who appears to have a sense of 
religion himself. 

From INF Knot, things look but indiff*erently in Georgia, and 
S"" James Wright is in poor spirits. Clinton's going to Boston 
was intimated ; and Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain men 
said to have entered into alliance with Clinton, and Brandt to 
have been within a few miles of Sullivan's Magazines. But the 
f^r^pat concern is the destination of the French fleet, said to 
have sailed from Martineco, and to have been seen off Crooked 
Island the latter end of August. 

11th. — From London to Lord Hardwicke's, Wimpole Hall : 
set out ^ after 8, arrived rather before three.* 

12th. — Find no company but the family, and none expected 
until the last of the week. A long walk in the Park and 
Gardens, and the rest of the day in the Library. 

* " The Gov. set out tbis mornincr on a visit to Ld. Hardwicke at Wimpole 
Hall, Cambridge Shire."— Elisha's Diary. 



n79.] DIARY AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 289 

13tb. — On horseback to a little village about 5 miles off, 
called Great Eversden . . . 

14tb. — A ride again — to Caxton and back. This is my 
Lord's publick day, but only D"^ Plumtree and family, and M"" 
Baynes, a Clergyman wbo was 12 years in the East Indies, and 
lately returning, is forced to take up with about 60£ a year, 
and to do the duty of three Curacies in this neighbourhood. 

A letter from my son T. with no favorable account of B.'s case, 
and discouraging account of D'Estaigne going to America. 

15th. — My ride to-day was to a small village of Bourne . . . 

16th. — A rainy windy night and cloudy day w*^'^ kept me 
from riding. 

17th. — The family at church. D"" Plumtree, Master of 
Queen's, has the living, and preached from — " Evil communica- 
tions corrupt good manners."* 

18th. — I rode to Bassingdown, a more considerable village 
than most in this neighbourhood, about 4 miles from Wimpole : 
a large church, but poor living — about four score pounds : 
about a mile beyond to Lithington, a larger, but worse built 
village, and excessive dirty roads. 

fSoon after I returned. Lord Polwarth and his Lady came to 
make some stay, and M' Charles Yorke with his son, being 
expected to-morrow, I purpose to decamp in the morning, 
know it must be most pleasing to the family to be without 
strangers. 

Lord H., speaking of L'^ Bockingham said — "He owes my 
brother Charles and me above four score thousand pounds, the 
interest of which is paid out of his Irish estate." 

Lord P., speaking off who lives at L*^ G. G.'s, called 
him " That scoundrell : " — wondered at L*^ G., that he >vould 
give such cause for the world to insinuate such things of him. 
I was astonished at the freedom with which he spake of what 
it's shocking to think of. 

19th. — Left Wimpole at \ past 8, and was at home, having 
p*^ for 48 miles post chaise, \ before three. i 

* 1 Corinthians xv. 33. 
f Indistinct — possibly on purpose. 

\ " 19tli. — After dinner walked to Sackville Street, where I found the Gov., 
who had arrived a few hours before from Ld. Hardwicke's." — Elisha's Diary. 
VOL. II. U 



290 lUAllY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON, [k!;,. 

Nothinf^ can be more polite than my entertainment has 
been. The oeconomy is too steady, or has too much sameness, 
to please for a long time together. The Library is always 
open to everybody. The first appearance of my Ijord and 
I^ady is in the breakfast room exactly at ten. Breakfast is 
over about eleven : everyone takes care of himself, and does 
just what he pleases until half after three, when all meet at 
dinner : between five and six the ladies withdraw : the 
gentlemen generally go into the Library — some chat, others 
take up books ; at eight a call to one of the drawing-rooms 
to tea or coffee ; which over, if there is company disposed to 
cards, any who don't like them converse, or take their books : 
exact at ten tlie sideboard is laid with a few light things upon 
it, that anybody disjDOsed to supper may take it : and exact at 
eleven, as many servants as there are of gentlemen and ladies, 
come in with each of them two wax candles, and in procession 
we follow to the Gallery^ at the head of the great staircase, and 
file off to different rooms. This is high life : but I w^ould not 
have parted with my humble cottage at Milton for the sake 
of it. 

20th. — In the city : received dividend at the Bank — at 
Gines's, &c. Eec'^ my brother's salary, \, to 5 of July lust, 
from M"" Eowe. 

In the evening at Brompton to visit the late L*" Gov. 
Oliver's daughter Louisa, arrived from Halifax, where she had 
been ever since the evacuation of Boston by Howe.* 

Called at Lord George's office. M"" Knox said I \\as the 
only man to go Governor of a new Colony at Penobscot, and 
that Yf Caner should be the Bishop. I shewed him a letter 
I had received from M'' Weekes, which speaks in pompous 

* Under date Oct. 15, we read the following in Elislia's Diary. — "Walked 
out with M" H. and called on M" Willard. I walked to Sackville (Street : 
met M' H. Gray, who acquainted me that our cousin Louisa Oliver was arrived 
from Halifax. I afterwards met my b[rother] Tommy and his wife, going to 
bring her from the city, where she arrived last evening, having slept at M' 
"Watson's, in whose vessel she came, having had a passage of 5 weeks." 

She was the Lt. Governor's youngest child, hy his second wife Mary 
Sanford, born June 16, 1759, but I have no record as to whether she married, 
or when she died. At this period she was 20 years and four months old. 
Elisha's Diary shews that she lived occasionally with her uncle the Ch. Justice 
Oliver at Birmingham. 



nj9.] DlAllY AND LETTEll^ OF TIIUMAS IlCTflllNSON. 291 

terms of the benefits from the possession of this country. He 
was much pleased, as it is his own scheme, and few people 
here think well of it. I said to him I thought we had better 
stay until we heard more of D'Estaigne before we thought any 
further on measures for restoring peace to America. 

21st. — At Court : remarkably thin Drawing-Room — about 
18 ladies, including the Queen, and two or three of the Bed- 
chamber. The Prince of Anspach, and the new Russian 
Minister were there. The King inquisitive where I had been. 
I mentioned Lord Hardwicke's. He asked whether he was in 
spirits ? thought he generally failed : then enquired after 
Lord Polwarth : mentioned Lord March mont as weakly. 1 
thought he had done pretty Avell, being above seventy. 
The Queen made enquiry also, &c. 

Rainy from noon. 

22nd. — East wind. It is said the fleet are ordered to sail 
from Portsmouth. 

I am astonished at seeing so little concern upon the minds 
of so great a part of the people — I might almost say all, when 
it ajjpears to me that the nation is in such imminent hazard 
of some grand convulsion. The enemy's naval force threatens 
destruction : then — Ireland seems upon the verge of revolt : 
the French and Spanisli fleets are much superior to the British 
in Europe : the enormous National Debt must stop in a short 
time the raising any further sums, or a general bankruptcy 
must destroy the public credit. The latter may happen : and 
tho' individuals in vast numbers be ruined, the nation may, 
by means of part only of the present taxes, raise enough every 
year for a defensive naval war against all Europe. 

25th. — Account of the fleets sailing from Portsmouth, Friday 
the 22nd. It is said the Danes have restored a ship bound 
to Quebec with Gov*' stores of great value, and another ship — 
both taken and carried into Denmark by one of Paul Jones's 
squadron. 

26th. — I have a bad cold, with a cough, and nurse at home 
to-day. 

A very kind letter in the evening from L*^ Hardwicke : — 
says I may lodge in a more magnificent house, but in none 

u 2 



rNov 
292 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. Lnjo". 

where I can be more ^Yeleome. He is not very free Avith 
compliments. 

28tl). — A heavy gale at abont 8W., and rain most of the 
day, bnt the wind ab;ites at afternoon. In some pain for the 
fleet, Avliic'h pas.^ed by Plim"' Sunday night. News of the 
arrival of a fleet from Quebec, but nothing yet of D'Estaigne. 

Lord Stormont kissed hands yesterday — 8ec^ instead of Lord 
Suffolk.* 

29tli. — ^Vind NW and fair day. Nothing from sea. M' 
Clarke's letters from Quebec of 16"' Sept. say their last 
ace* from Butler not favorable : had been worsted in several 
skirmishes, and retreated to Niagara : had sent for more 
men : Sir J. Johnson gone with 500 troops, and ordered to 
collect all the Indians he could. Sullivan said to have 7000 
men. 

31st.— At D' Kippis's. Col° Chandler and Bliss d. [dined.] 

A fire in the evening began in a hop warehouse by London 
Biidge: burnt the Water Works, which I heard the Collector 
of the tax say, would cost about 5000£ to repair — but he 
added, they were insured. 

November 1st. — A dull heavy air, natural to November. 
Colds have been epidemic last week, and some time before. 
I have had a share, but have not confined myself, except Avhen 
it rained. 

The East and West India ships which were in Ireland, are 
all heard of in the Downs. India stock one p c* only advance : 
others stand. My Broker says they fall upon good news, and 
rise upon bad — contrary to all sense and reason. 

2nd. — Danforth d., Johannot in the evening. IMauduit 
called, and took in writing from Johannot the particulars of 
the message with which he went from the Selectmen to 
^Vashington, to let him know that Gen' Howe had declared 
he would set fire to the town if the troops were molested in 
embarking ; and to intreat that Washington, to satisfy the 
minds of the inhabitants, would engage not to molest the troops. 
The form of the message was shewn to Howe by Caj). Balfour 

* Walpole writes Oct. 31. — " Lord Stormont ]ias got the late Lord Suffolk's 
Foals of Secretary." — yii. 260. 



Sg:] D I Alt Y AND LETTERS OP THOMAS nuTQHINSON. '293 

his Aid-du-Camp, and approved of, and Johannot went out with 
it under Howe's Flags. 

3rd. — In the city. M"" Campbell, Broker, sold my Bank 
stock, 2300£ at 11 Of, to be transferred this day fortnight . . . 

4th. — The news of the day, that Jamaica is taken . . . 

5th. — . . . The Jamaica news questioned. Some however 
believe it. 

7tb.— At the Old Jewry. 

D' Chandler, E. H. and ux. [uxor ?] d. 

An article in yesterday's Morning Post, conjectured to be 
put in by Temple : — " Boston — not Hely Hutchinson, upon 
report that Governor Bailing would quit his Government of 
Jamaica, has modestly hinted that he would not refuse that 
appointment. Dean Tucker is his friend, and will endeavour 
to engage the interest of the laudable Society for Propagating 
the Gospel. This may account also for a late visit to the 
Bishop of London." 

8th. — In the city. Met the new Lord Mayor, Aldermen, 
&c., in procession from Guild Hall, where the Mayor had been 
sworn. 

9th. — No curiosity for seeing the pageantry of Lord Mayor's 
Bay, though the pleasantest weather of any I had seen upon 
this day since I have been in England. 

This day three years my dear daughter took the cold 
which held her until the Qn. Birthday, and which she then 
so increased, as to fix upon her lungs, and prove fatal to her. 

In the evening Mauduit mentioned what he had heard 
of Gen^ Grey. )Some of his friends enquired whether the 
papers gave a true account of his examination before the 
H. of Commons, and in particular, whether he was really of 
opinion the Americans could not be subdued ? he was backward 
in giving an answer ; but at length being pressed, he gave 
this answer — " Let us see a change of Ministry, and then we 
will shew you what can be done with them." 

12th. — Bliss has a letter from Van Shaack * at Bristol, who 

* Peter Van Scliaack, of Kinderbrook, New York, an eminent lawyer 
and estimable man. Banished, and driven from America during tlie war be 
returned afterwards, and died in 1832. — Sabine's Loyalists, 



201 J) I An Y AND LETTERS OF TTIOMA.S JIUTCinNSON. \_ml'. 

sa3's a man is arrived there from America, who came in a 
nentral vessel, and was pnt aslioar at Weymoutli, and spake 
with, or was on board, an American privateer which left 
Salem the l"' of October, when an express had arrived from 
Washington with an acconnt of the arrival of tlie French fleet 
at Sandy Hook. 

Dined at ]\rand ait's with IM'' Ironmonger, his son, and W 
Lethioulior, and Galloway. 

15th. — Met Lord Barrington in Hanover Square. He says 
D'Estaigne was not before New York the 2"^' of October : that 
Ministry has this advice from Halifax : and that he had seen 
the Circular Letter to the several offices with this account. 
Eain most of the day. 

16th.— In the city. Called upon M"^ Watson. He says 
the ship, (speaks of but one,) left Halifax the 18 October: 
that a vessel arrived there from N. York the 8^^: that the 
troops for an expedition to the southward had embarked ; but 
upon news of the French fleet being bound there, disembarked : 
that it was said in Halifax, D'Estaigne, with 9 ships, arrived 
in Boston Sep. 28. 

17th.— Dined with M' Ellis— Lord Hillsborough and Lady, 
Lord Fairford, Lord and Lady Crauborne, L'^ Barrington, 
M"^ Stanhope, Baraber Gascoyne, and M"" Agar. 

Much weioht on L'^ H.'s brow. He is come back from 
Ireland — been to the Levee. Nothing seems settled. 

18th. — At Court : very cold. As soon as the King spake to 
me, I came home. Lord and Lady Shelburne presented on 
account of their marriage many months ago. He looked not 
very pleasant. The Dutchess of Bedford was at Court. Lady 
Shelburne is her niece. In 1740 I was at the Foundling 
Hospital, at the first Christening, when the Dutchess, with the 
Duke of Bedford, was there, but I see no remains of the person 
I saw then. 

19th. — At Lord Hillsborough's. He does not know what 
he is to be. When he went to Ireland he was to be, he says, 
Secretary of State : he was surprised to see Lord Storm ont's 
appointment. He esteemed L*^ S. very much, but did not 
know what to make of it. However, he was content : — he had 



i^nl':] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS BlTTCIimSON. 296 

got rid of a great deal of trouble. Now he is returned lie 
finds a vacancy is to be in the Secretary's department (Lord 
Weymouth), and in the place of Lord President ; — this inti- 
mated as if it remained to be settled which he was to fill : 
complains, no elasticity. I hoped there would be more when 
he comes in. I asked how the afftiir with Ireland could be 
settled ? *' No way but by Union." Much was said about the 
terms of union : differs from Scotland. He proposes 44 
Members in all, to be added to the H. of Commons : a number 
■ — 16, 20, or what shall be agreed, and the King shall a])point, 
of the Irish Peers to be created Peers of G. Britain : the re- 
mainder to enjoy all the honour and privileges they now enjoy, 
and no new Irish Peers to be created. 

He says the major voice is for it in Ireland. Lord North 
wishes it of all thiugs : no plan laid for effecting it. L^ North 
cried when he talked upon it. This caused L'^ H. to say there 
was no elasticity. 

28th. — Only my two sons E. and W. [At dinner probably.] 
In the evening a letter from Sir Sam. Hood,* advising that 

* Afterwards Admiral Lord Hood, who gained glory as a brave and a 
skilful sailor. He had a very large nose. At the period of the Diary to 
■which we have arrived, his name had scarcely come forward, but he was a 
rising man : so was Nelson then a rising man : so was Sir John Jervis : so 
was Captain William Parker of the Audacious at the affair of the first of 
June, '94, after which he was made an Admiral, and being in command of 
five sail of the line in February, 1797, he was so fortunate as to join them 
just before the action to Sir John Jervis's fleet, and after the Battle of St. 
Vincent he was made a Baronet, and Sir John was elevated to the Peerage. 
He was Parker of Harburn : and though there were three Baronets of this 
name then afloat, (Sir Peter, Sir Hyde, and Sir Wilham,) and all Admirals, 
they were not related to each other. Sir WiUiam had a house on Ham 
Common, where he lived with his wife, (iiee Jane Collingwcod,) and his 
family, when he was on shore, and one day Lord Hood was expected to call 
on some business connected with their profession. Hereupon the mother 
admonished one of her children, (Jane, in due time the wife of Captain 
Eoberton, 11. A., and secondly Captain Cocks, II. N.,) and warned her that a 
gentleman was going to call who had a very large nose, and that if she should 
happen to be in the room at the time, she must remember not to look at it, 
because that would be very rude and unlady-like, and she should be angry 
with her if she did. Not long after this Lord Hood was announced. Sir 
William and Lady Parker were in the drawing-room, and the little girl, 
having received her lesson, took good care to be m the room too, to see what 
was to be seen. The enfant terrible is an object much to be dreaded in most 
houses, and philosophers have never told us whether it is better to instruct a 
child what it ought or ought not to do before strangers, or leave things alone 
and hope fur the best. During a rather prolonged visit, the mother was 



2D6 DJAIiT AND LETTEliS OF THOMAS IIVTCIIINSON. frng 



\_\ii9. 



the fleet sailed from Torbay the 16"' : does not believe tliey 
will meet the combined fleet, tlio' ho \vishcs it. 

21th. — At Lord Jluiitinpdon's iipoii his return from the 
country. He is quite altered in his opinion of Sir H. Clinton : 
says he is utterly uneaqual to his post : unsteady, capricious, 
regardless of discipline, <fcc. Lord Eawdon, ho says, resigned 
his post of Adjui*^ General merely because he would avoid all 
share in the blame which by and by must be charged some- 
where. There seems to be a perfect dearth of men fit for 
service by sea or land. Gov* has failed in all its measures, 
merely for want of fit officers to carry them into execution. 

25tli. — Parliament meets. Some say Lord Slielburne is 
Secretary in the room of Lord Weymouth, some, Lord Hills- 
borough. At Lord H.'s yesterday : it seemed to be a doubt 
whether Lord N. would carry his votes. This the Of>position 
have often boasted at the fii-st of the Session. No Session has 
opened when the public affairs have been in a more distressed 
state. 

Two or three vessels are arrived from Halifax, which came 
out the 26*'' of October. They bring vague reports of 
D'Estaigne's fleet being scattered in a storm, but nothing to be 
depended on. It was said yesterday at Lord H.'s, that Lord 
Stormont was of opinion that they were very much afraid in 
France, some disaster had befallen him. 

26th. — Before the King went to] the House of Lords yester- 
day. Lord Bathurst, (if not before), kissed the King's hand as 
President of the Council, and Lord Hillsborough, as Secretary 
of State, instead of Lord Gower. 

Lord Gower was in Parliament, but did not speak. Lord 
Weymouth went into the country. Whether one or both will 
join the Opposition, remains to be determined. In the Lords 
41 opposed the Address, and proposed an amendment: 90, 
including 8 Proxies for it. In tlie Comm-ons 233 for the 



horrified at seeing tlie child's eyes constantly fixed upon Lord Hood's nose ; 
and as soon as his Lordship had left, she took her severely to task for her 
impropriety, but the only answer she got was — " La, ma, I couldn't help it." 

I have often heard my mother, (who was another daughter of Sir W. P.) 
tell thLs story with great glee. 



Nov. 
1779, 



•] DIART AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTCfflNSON. 297 



Address, 134 for Amending.* L'' Hardwicke ^vould have made 
91 in the Lords, if he had not come off after 11 o'cdock. The 
Lords sat until between one and two, which is longer than 
usual. 

Card from W. Palmer, that he had paid in £1000 to Gines 
and CO. 

While I was at Lord Hardwicke's this forenoon M'' Yorke 
came in, a young gentleman who is son to M"" Charles Yorke, 
the late Lord Chancellor for two or three days, and is now 
Presumptive Heir to Lord Hardwicke. 

27th. — Letters to the Admiralty yesterday of Ocf 8^^' by a 
packet from N. York, that D'Estaigne arrived upon the coast 
of S. Carolina Sept. 2"'^ : that he sent ashore letters to the 
Congress : that being at anchor off the bar of Charleston, a 
storm came on the 4"' at night, and the whole fleet slipped 
their cables and put to sea : and that they had no intelligence 
of them at N, York since. It is said, but how the intelligence 
comes is not known, that a number of the ships arrived at 
Porto Kico.f 

Livius, Hallowell, Fitch, Leonard, Paddock, Gore, — dined. 
Kain all day. 

28th.— At D'^ Kippis's. 

I hear from Galloway that Ehode Island is to be evacuated : 
that 2500 men were going from New York under L"^ Corn- 
wallis, and 5000 under Clinton : the first said to be intended 
for the W. Indies, the other for S. Carolina ; but the certain 
destination was not known, nor is it probable they will sail 
until they hear more of D'Estaigne. 

Lord Littleton, a man of great parts, but of a most profligate 
publick, as well as private life, after dining yesterday in gay 
company, went home and died last night about 11. It is 
said, in a fit. 

* Adolplius says there -were 41 for the amendment, and 82 for the Address, 
not noticing the 8 Proxies, which would bring the sum up to 90, as above. 
In the Commons, he has the same figures as the Diary. 

t Nov. 28 Walpole Avrites — " Fortune has shewn us some partiality. 
D'Estaigne's fleet of twenty-two ships has been dispersed, and probably 
suffered considerably, by a terrible tempest that lasted for three days off 
Carolina." 



298 i>iAny am> ij:m:ns of tiiomah nuTcniNSON. [^79. 

29tli. — A duel this morninp^ between Charles Fox and M"" 
Adam, both JMembcrs of tlio House, for words in debate. Fox 
slightly wounded. A'lani, it is said, fired a second pistol ; 
and some say there will be a second combat. 

Sir George Collier arrived from New York, passenger in the 
Dapline frigate, sailed the first of November. No further news 
of D'Estaigne. Some here doubt whether he ever intended to 
go to New York. It's very difficult to account for the un- 
certainty what is become of him. All the intelligence of his 
being off Carolina is from a letter in a rebel newspaixn-. I 
have letters by tlic packet from W Walter, Putman, John 
Prout, T. Goldthwait, lately arrived at N. York from Penobscot, 
and Tho. Oxnard. ]\P Walter mentions the death of Major, or 
Jo. Goldthwait, and of Will'" Apthorpe. Three Regiments, one 
British, and two Hessian, bound from N. York to Quebec, met 
with a violent storm : most of the transports dismasted : the 
Benown man-of-war, the convoy, and five transports returned ; 
one taken and carried into Delaware — the rest missing. 

Brook Watson has a letter from Joshua Winslow at Halifax. 
Pie was one of the tea Consignees, and made his peace, and 
remained quiet at j\Iarshfield ever since -74, but lately left 
them ; the 30"' of September he was at Boston, and says they 
were then in a deplorable state, but I do not understand what 
that means. 

Dined at Lord Huntingdon's, where I saw General Vaughan 
the first time, and had much conversation with him upon 
American affairs :* think he will go out again. M"" Lovel 

* General Yauglian was brotlier to Lord Lisbuvnc of Mamhead uear 
Dawlish in the county of Devon, whom the Governor occasionally met in 
London. Anionc;; the papers I see a memorandum of October 22, 1793, to 
the effect that Thomas Hutchinson the younger, who bj^ this date had settled 
down at East Wonford House, in the parish of Heavitree near Exeter, lent 
Lord Lisburne the sum of £5,000 for the residue of two terms of 500 and 1,000 
years, by way of mortgage, secured with interest, on lands in Cardigan, and 
recitino- previous instruments, in which appear the names of the Rev. Kutcombe 
Nutcombe, John, Andrew, and Jane Quicke, Andrew Jelf, Messrs. Leigh and 
ytokes, and Stephen Hawtry. 

Twenty-two years after this, however, namely, in October 1815, the three 
sons of the lender, who had deceased in 1811, joined in an application to the 
Court of Chancery in order that the mortgage money should be paid off. 

l^Iamhead passed through the hands of several owners, and now belongs to 
Sir Lydstone Newanan. Bart. It was in the picturesque grounds of this place. 



ml] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 299 

Stanhope, Stanley, Sir Harry East, Col. Hastings, — of the 
company. 

31st. — . . . The duel of yesterday was from Almon's having 
printed in Charles Fox's speech expressions reflecting on INP 
Adam, who thereupon demanded of Fox whether he had used 
those expressions ? He denied having named, or had reference 
to M"" Adam in particular in any part of his speech. But M"" 
Adam applied a second time, and required M"" Fox to sign a 
paper, charging Almon with falsehood. He gave his reasons 
against it, renewing his do(daration that he did not intend W 
Adam, who again a,ppeared content. But upon further consider- 
ation he apph'ed a third time, and declared that M'' Fox must 
either sign such a paper, or meet him. They accordingly met 
yesterday — both fired — Fox was scratched by -the ball in one 
side of his body. M"" Fitz Patrick, Fox's Second, then asked or 
said to Adam he hoped he was satisfied ? He said — *' No, not 
unless W Fox would sign the paper he required," and fired a 
second time — missed Fox, who thereupon fired his pistol into 
the air. 

Those who are most acquainted with the absurd notions of 
honour which now govern great part of the world, blame 
Adam's conduct. 

December 1st. — Called upon General Vaughan : afterwards 
Sir Eich*^ Sutton. I wondered at the freedom before M** 
Hayes of the Customs, an old Gent, who seemed to be a 
citizen, and myself, of Sir Eichard in saying that he heard 
Admiral Keppel's Secr^ died some time since, and left one IVf 
Minifie, a Clergyman, his Executor, who found among the 
Secretary's papers, his Journal, in which he has minuted the 
day before the action with the French, that the Admiral said 
— " I think we may beat the French fleet, but if we should, it 
will be the rivettiug of this damned Ministry." Sir Eichard 
said he would go to the bottom of the story, and endeavour to 
make it publick, let the consequence be what it would. 



that Mrs. Nightingale met her death, and was caught by her husband, as 
represented in white marble in Westminster Abbey by l^onbilliac, in his 
strange, but beautiful monument, wherein Death, in the lineaments of a 
skeleton, is striking at her with a dart. 



800 7)7.1 7? r AND LETTEliS OF THOMAS nUTCHINSON. [ 



Dec. 
1779. 



3rd. — The wind continued violent all night. I called upon 
M'' Knox, imagining Collier had brought more news than 
]\Iinistry chose to publish ; but-lie will own nothing except that 
llhodo Island was evacuated, and the troops, &c., all arrived at 
N. York. He wondered he had no private letters brought to 
bim from some of the Americans. I told him I could not find 
that any had been received. He says there are no accounts of 
D'Estaigne since his being put from his anchors in the storm, 
or none upon which depen dance can be had. 

Strahan told me yesterday — and believes it — that one of our 
Surgeons, who had been prisoner at Brest, and is now in 
London, reports that 123 Surgeons, who attended the French 
seamen in their sickness, and all the nurses died, as did 
23,000 of the fleet. This must be exaggerated; but all 
agree that the mortality has been so great as to be rarely 
paralleled. 

4th. — Chandler received a letter last night of the 27"' Ocf 
from N. York by the Daphne, which says — the Perseus arrived 
last night from Georgia, where all was well. They had heard 
nothing of D'Estaigne since the storm. As nothing is said 
of Sir James Wallace it is feared he was not arrived. It 
is strange there should be no accounts of D'Estaigne. Gen' 
Vaughan is ordered out immediately to the West Indies. He 
and Sir Eich'' Sutton, Sir W. Pepperell, Livius, Galloway, 
and D'' Chandler, dined with me. 

Y^oung Goldthwaite, son of T. Goldthwaite,* now at New 
Y'ork, called on me. He tells me Epes Sargent of Glocester, 
and his wife, are both dead the last year: that he was firmly 
attached to the old government : that his son was largely con- 
cerned in privateers, and had made a great fortune, which 
caused such an alienation of the son from the father, that he 
once said to young G., he should not be sorry to see their two 
fathers in the cart together. 

Wrote by packet to T. Goldthwaite. 

* Thomas GoldtliAvaite of Chelsea, Mass., had a grant on the Penohscot, 
which was confiscated : was a Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, and 
Colonel of Militia. Early in the war he embarked for Nova Scotia, was ship- 
wrecked and drowned.— Sabine's Loyalists. 



Dec 
1779 



J DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS nUTGIIINBON. 301 



As we shall have but few opportunities of again seeing the name 
of Sir William Pepperell in these pages, it will not be inap- 
propriate to introduce here a few remarks relative to his family. 
Several writers have given full accounts of the early members of 
it, from whom we learn that William Pepperell, of Tavistock in 
the county of Devon, removed to America in or about the year 
1675, and settled at Kittery Point in Massachusetts, where, by 
industry and good management he realised great wealth, which 
was cherished and added to by his son of the same name. This 
son, as Colonel of the local Militia, proved himself to have been 
possessed of superior military genius, inasmuch as by his skill 
in conducting the siege of the strongly fortified city of Louisburg, 
which the Fi'ench had built at the north-east point of Cape Breton, 
that place surrendered itself to his forces in the month of June 
1745, upon which event he was created a Baronet b}^ his Majesly 
King George the Second. His only son predeceased him, but his 
honours were revived in 1774 in favour of William, the son of his 
daughter Elizabeth, who had married Colonel Nathaniel Sparkawk. 
He assumed the name of Pepperell. It was this second Baronet 
who, like many other Eefugees, was now living in London, 
anxiously watching the signs of the times, and speculating on the 
fortunes of war. Lorenzo Sabine, in his Sketches of Loyalists of 
the American Ee volution, at page 170, thus speaks of his wealth 
and of his immense losses : — 

" In 1778 ho was proscribed and banished, and the year following 
was included in the Conspiracy Act. In May 1779, the Committee 
on confiscated estates offered for sale his ' large and elegant house, 
with the out-houses, gardens, and other accomodations,' &c., 
' pleasantly situated in Summer Street, Boston, a little below 
Trinity Church.' His vast domain in Maine, though entailed 
upon his heirs, was confiscated. This estate extended from Kittery 
to Saco on the coast, [some 30 miles,] and many miles back from 
the shore ; and, for the purposes of farming and lumbering, 
was of great value ; and the water power and mill privileges, 
rendered it, even at the time of the sequestration, a princely 
fortune." 

For the following particulars of the later branches of the family, 
I am indebted to Edward Walford, Esq., M.A., one of the repre- 
sentatives of it in the female line. The second Sir ^Villiam 
Pepperell, having lost his only son in his lifetime, unmarried, 
died at his house in London in December 1816, when the title 
again became extinct. He left three surviving daughters — 



302 VJAliY AND LETTKliS OF TJIOMAS /fUTrUINSON. [n,',;. 

I. ELIZABETH liOYALL, of whom presently. 
II. llairiet, xn. in 1802, Sir Charles Hudson, afterwards Palmer, 
Bart., of Wanlip Hall, Loicestorshiro. — See Burke's Peerage. 
III. JMary Hirst, m. AVilliam Congreve Esq., of Congreve Hall, 
CO. Staflord, and of Aldormastou Park, Berks. Ob. s. p. 
ELIZABETH ROYALL, (as above), m. about 1792, iho Rev. 
Henry Hut ton, D.D., Rector of Beaumont, Essex, who died in 
1832. She died 18:)G, leaving issue,— 

I. Charles Henry, D.D., Fellow of ]\ragdalen College, Oxford, 
and afterwards Rector of Great Houghton, co. Northampton. 
Born 1794, ob. coel. Feb. 12, 18G2.— (See Gentleman's 
Magazine for May 18(52 for particulars as to the Huttons and 
Peppcrells.) 

II. Henry, M.A. Rector of Filleigh, North Devon, m. 1823, 
Elizabeth Sophia Beevor, and left issue — 

1. Caroline Sophia, born in May 1824, m. August 1845, the 
Rev. Abraham William Bullen, Rector of Great Baddow, 
Chelmsford, Essex. 

2. Henry, born in May 1825, m. in Nov. 1848, Caroline, d. of 
Dr. Atherstone, of Table Farm, Grahamstown, South Africa, 
and has, with other issue. Peregrine William Pepperell, 
Lieut. R.N., eldest male representative of Sir William 
Pepperell, m. 1885 his cousin, the eldest dau. of the Rev. 
A. W. Bullen, (see above). 

3. Charles William, born July 1820, m. in March 1852, 
Elizabeth, Maria Henrietta, eldest d. of Sir Andries Stocken- 
strom, Bart., of Maastrom, near Grahamstown. 

4. Emily, born Nov, 1827. 

5. Julia, born Aug. 1829, m. Nov. 1864, Carl Frederick 
Joubert Watermej'er Esq., of AVynberg, near Cape Town. 

6. Louisa, born in April 1831, ob. coel. 

7. Frederick, bom Sep. 1832, died an infant. 

8. Sophia, born July 1834. 

9. Anne, born March 1836. Ob. coel. 

10. Augustus Fortescue, born June 1838, m. April 1872, Ellen, 
d. of Captain Preston, R.N. (retired.) 

11. William Pepperell, born Jan. 1840, m. Jan. 1885, Margaret 
Maria, d. of Frederick Damant Esq., of Humansdorp, Cape 
of Good Hope. 

12. Elizabeth Fortescue, born April 1843, m. March 1867 
William Henry Brewer Esq. 

III. William Palmer, M.A., of Trinity College, Dublin, and 
Incumbent of St. Peter's, Chester; m. but ob. s. p. 1856. 



Dec. 
1779 



] DIARY AND LETTEItH OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 303 



IV. Thomas Palmer, M.A., of Magdalen College, Oxford, late 
Vicar of Sonipting, Sussex, born 1805, m. firstly, Mary, d. of 
James Drummond Esq. of Strageath, co. Perth ; and secondly, 
1853, Maria Elizabeth, d. of Edward Wingfield. Dickenson 
Esq. of Dosthill House, Warwickshire, and had issue by his 
first marriage — 

1. Henry Edward, M.A., of Balliol College, Oxford, and 
Assistant Master at Harrow, born 1838, m. firstly, Edith 
Maria, d. of George Harris Esq., of Harrow, who d. 18G7, 
and secondly, 1869, Lucie Adele, d. of Mons. Th. Piquet, of 
Geneva, and of Millieres, Bourbon Lancy, France. 

2. Edmund Forster, born 1832, late Eector of Aylmerton and 
Euncton, co. Norfolk, m. Maria, d. of the Rev. Cremer 
Ciemer of Aylmerton, and has issue. 

3. Thomas Palmer, born 1832, formerly in the Carabineers, 
ob. eoel. 1857. 

4. Mary Beatrice, born Dec. 16, 1836, m. 1858 Colonel A. 
Piquet of Geneva, and had issue Mary, Edmund, Beatrice, 
and Frank. The Eev. Thomas Palmer has, by his second 
marriage, Stewart Yates, Ealph Thicknesse, Eeginald 
Ernest, and Herbert Eoyall Pepperell. 

V. Elizabeth, m. 1818, the Eev. William Moreton-Moreton, of 
Moreton Hall, Cheshire, who d. about 1837, having had issue 
two sons who died young, and two daughters, Frances 
Annabella, who m. John Craigie Esq. of Jedburgh, N.B., 
(Eesidence, Moreton House, Pan, Les Basses Pyrenees,) and 
Elizabeth, a Sister of Mercy at Clewer, near Windsor. 

VI. Mary Anne, b. April 1796, ra. 1822, the Eev. William 
Walford, M.A., of Oriel College, Oxford, of HatBeld Place, 
Essex. He d. 1856, and she d. 1872. They had issue— 

1. Edward, M.A., formerly scholar of Balliol College, Oxford : 
b. 1823, m. firstly, 18-i7, Mary Holmes, younger daughter 
of John Gray Esq. of Clifton, near Bristol. She d. 1851, 
leaving a daughter Mary, who m. Colin Campbell Wyllie 
Esq. : and secondly, 1852, Julia, daughter of the late Hon. 
Sir John Talbot, Admiral, and G.C.B., and has issue — 

Edward Arundell Talbot, b. 1860. 
Moreton Philip, b. 1861. 
Julia, m. P. H. Conron Esq. 
Edith, m. F. Waddy Esq. 
Ethel Mary. 

2. Henry, M.A., of Wadham College, Oxford ; Rector of 
Ewelme, Oxon; b. 1824. 



304 lUAliY AND LETTEliS OF THOMAS EUTCUINSON. [{^j. 

3. John Thomas, M.A., of King's College, Cambridge ; late an 
Assistant Master at Eton, now a Jebuit Priest ; b. 1834. 

4. Cbarles, M.A., of Brazenoso College, Oxford ; b. 1835, a 
Chaplain at Bombay, m. Miss Moberly, niece of tho Bishop 
of Salisbury. 

5. Frederick, b. 1836. 

6. Mary Aune, died an infiint. 

7. Jane, m. tho liev. Daniel Trinder, Vicar of Highgate, 
Middlesex. 

8. Frances Mary. 

9. Caroline, died an infant. 
10. Emma, d. 1844, aged 14. 

VII. Louisa, m. in 1824, the Kev. Thomas Parrj', Archdeacon of 
Antigua, and afterwards Bishop of Barbadoes, who d. about 
1870. They had issue — 

1. Edward St. John, M.A., Balliol College, Oxford, and formerly 
Principal of Leamington College ; b. 1825, m. a sister of Sir 
Henry Tyler, 3LP., and has a large family : his son Reginald 
St. John, b. 1861, is Fellow of Trinity College, Cambiidge. 

2. Henry Hutton, D.D., Bishop of Perth, Western Australia, 
b. 1820, m. firstly, Miss Bessie Thomas : secondly, a widow 
lady, and has 2 sons and a daughter. 

3. Keginald, Colonel in the army, retired ; m. Miss ilorant, 
and is a widower with 2 children. 

4. Herbert, died young. 

5. Louisa, m. Gen. Nicols, and is dead, leaving 4 sons, and 2 
daughters. 

6. Charlotte, m. Gen. Chamberlain, and has one daughter, and 
2 sons who d. young. 

7. Amy, late a Sister Xurse in King's College Hospital. 

8. Emily. 

9. Caroline, m. Colonel Dalyell, and has a large family. 

10. Beatrice, a Sister in the Protestant Sisterhood at Clewer, 
near "Windsor. 

11. Blanche, m, tlie Eev. Arthur Hardy, (J'haplain in India, 
and has a large familjy'. 

12. Maude, m. in 1884, the Eev. Charles E. Freeman, Vicar of 
West Malvern. 

VIII. Anne, died unmarried. 

IX. Harriet, m. the Eev. D. T. K. Drummond, of Edinburgh : 
she survives as his widow : they had a son who d. an infant, 
and a daughter who married a Clergyman, and is now a widow. 

X. Frances. 



Dec. 

1779, 



] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 305 



5th. — Old Jewry. Called on M"^ Green. He has a letter 
flora T. Brattle* at N. York, who has petitioned the Assembly 
at Boston to admit him — which was to be considered in 
September. 

Gen^ Vanghan said yesterday at dinner, the charge of the 
navy last year was seven millions. His brother L'' Lisburne is 
one of the Lords of the Admiralty. 

Willard,! Bliss,t and Porter, [dined uith him.] 

6th. — Gov. Bull called : the Bishop of London. The latter 
says he has been in the neighbourhood of Lord Siielburne — ^I 
suppose at Bath ; and that he knows that for a fortnight Lord 

S 's friends and family depended on his being Secr^' of 

►State. He mtimated that they expected Lord Gower's 
difference with Lord North would terminate in bringing Lord 
Shelburne in. This looks as if Lord Shelb'^ alliance with the 
Bedford family would connect L"^ Gower with him in political 
matters, though L"^ Gouer as yet has voted with the ministry. 

The Hussar frigate has taken a rich Lima ship, and sent her 
in to Portugal. The Tartar, one of Gov. Johnstone's squadron, 
has taken a Span[ish] frigate, which took out part of the money 

* Thomas Brattle, of Massachusetts. He was bom at Cambridge ia 1742, 
graduated at Harvard University in 1760, and received the degree of A.M. at 
Vale and at Xassau. In 1775 he went to England, and he was included in 
the Proscription and Banishment Act of 1778. While abroad, he travelled 
over various parts of Great Britain, and made a tour through Holland and 
France, and was noticed by personaj,es of distinction. Eeturning to London, 
he zealously and successfully laboured to ameliorate the condition of his 
countrymen, who had been captured, and were in prison. In 1779 he came to 
America, and landed at Ehode Island. In 1784: the enactments against him 
in ]Massachusetts were repealed, aud he took possession of his imtrimony. He 
died Feb. 1801. — Sabine's Loyalists. 

t Abijah AVillard was appointed one of the Mandamus Counsellors in 1774 : 
he was captured, and was on his way to prison, when he freed himself b}' 
signing a Declaration aud asking forgiveness. He went to Hahfax with the 
Eoyal Army in 1776, but eventually died in Massachusetts. 

Abel Willard is described by Sabine, as having been one of the Barristers 
and Attorneys who were Addressers of Hutchinson ; who withehew to Halifax 
in 1776 ; was proscribed and banished ; and died in England in 1781. 'there 
was also a Levi Willard, who retired temporarily to England, but Abel ia 
probably the person mentioneel in the Diary. 

t Four gentlemen of the name of Bliss are mentioned by Sabine, of whom 
Daniel, born in 1740, a lawyer, and one of the Addressers of Hutchinson, on 
his leaving, is the one spoken of above, or Jonathan, born in 1742, a lawyer, 
a Member of the General Court, and proscribed in 1778. Revolutions make 
great havoc among families, A glance at Sabine's two volmnes is enough to 
convince us of this. 

VOL. II. X 



306 T) TART ANT) LETTERS OF THOMAS nUTCTTTNSON. P^'g. 

of the Lima ship's cargo, and landed it at Ferrol ; and coming 
out again, was taken by the Tartar. Notliing more of 
D'Estaigne. The prevailing opinion is that Wallace is taken. 

'I'he Bp. of liondon says L'' North has ongnged all the money 
he wants, and that ^Ministry is determined to carry on the war 
in America with vigour. 

7th. — Upon a motion last night by Lord Ossory in the House 
of Commons, to charge the Ministry with neglecting the affairs 
of Ireland, M"" INFacdonald, who married Lord Gower's daughter, 
moved it might be Minister instead of Ministry; for that all 
was chargeable upon Lord North, and attacked him in very 
illiberal language — called him *' whimperer," " whiner," &c. 

Lord North excused his tears once when he had been blamed 
for his absence, which, for an excuse obliged him to mention 
the death of a child. 

The motion was rejected by a majority of about 90. 

Called upon Sir Geo. Collier, 

^fy son T. H., wife, and Louisa [Oliver], Sylv.[ester Oliver], 
Flucker. 

8th. — In the city with my son T., but learn no intelligence, 
except the arrival of many ships from different parts. The 
very few captures which have been made since the French war 
began keeps up the spirits of the merchants there — enables 
them to lend all the money Government wants, and the good 
terms upon which they lend it makes them more quiet under 
the amazing debt whicli is brought upon the kingdom in 
general. 

9th. — The estimates for the present year passed last night in 
the H. of Commons. Lord George [Germaine], on being asked 
whether the American war was to be continued, answered, tliat 
the Ministry had no thoughts of withdrawing the forces from 
America. This would give great advantage to France and 
Spain, but he was not able to say in what manner the war 
would be carried on there, and if he knew he should not think 
it proper to mention it. 

10th. — Yesterday Lord North opened to the House what he 
proposed [to do] to satisfy Ireland — to take off the restraint 
upon woollen manufactures ; also upon glass ; to allow a free 



[i^g.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTCHINSON. 307 

trade to the British Colonies and Africa. Regulations would 
be necessary to be made by the Irisli Pari* in each of these 
articles. He thought this would be satisfactory to Ireland. 
Sir George Young asked whether he thought it wonld be 
satisfactory to England also ? 

11th. — In the city. Blackburne asked if I thought there 
would be a change of Ministry ? I did not know where they 
would find a Premier. Lord Gower, he added, had expected 
it. He had it so that he was sure of it. Lord Carlisle sought 
one of the Secretary's places. This country is ruined by party. 

In the House of Commons last night, the Minority moved 
the affair of L*^ North refusing the Chiltern Hundreds to W 
Byng. L*^ N. exculpated himself by saying he had said to 
M"" Byng that he had promised them to Col" Tuffnel ; but if he 
did not insist upon it, M"" Byng should have them. The motion 
obtained ; and upon another motion, a Bill was ordered to be 
brought in to make the Member eligible to any vacant county 
or borough, notwithstanding their former election, which they 
are to be allowed to vacate. 

Copley, Stanton, and my children, [presumably, at dinner.] 

12th. — At Prince's Street. M"" Thompson, a middle aged 
man, said to have no congregation. Rainy all day. No 
account yet of D'Estaigne. D'" Chandler, Bliss. 

Copley yesterday, (who spent a year in Italy), made a remark 
which occurred to him upon seeing the loaves of bread taken 
entire out of Pompeii. He says they are exactly the shape of 
our loaves, (not bricks) ; that the letters of the bakers' names 
are still plain. He wondered this practice of stamping their 
bread, never put them upon the same sort of stamps for letters 
and printing. 

The surprise of M^ Copley may be shared by others. That they 
did not do so shews how people will sometimes stand for centuries 
on the brink of a great discovery without making it. Instead of 
saying a new discovery, we might in this case rather sa}', a new 
adaptation of old materials. The stamps they had : and why not 
stamp paper with ink, as well as loaves without ? 

The Copleys will not now be mentioned much more in the 
Governor's Diary, if mentioned at all. In the fragmentary Diary 

X 2 



308 DIAin- AXD LETTERS OF THOMAS IIUTCIHNSON. [^^g. 

of his Bon Elisha they are several times spoken of; but as the 
recorded facts have only been written on sheets of note paper of 
diftcrcnt sizes, Avhich have never been sewn together, and many of 
fhem lost, it is diilicult to arrange tliem iii chronological order ; 
and tlie difficulty is iiK-reasod by tliu absence of the year and the 
nn)nth, except at rare intervals. Though the entries contain no 
Aaluable information, perhaps it would be an omission to ignore 
tliom altogether ; and it would be a slight> to degrade them to the 
l(.»w level of a Foot Note, so they shall have an intermediate place, 
like the long extracts that have been given before. 

From the Diary of Elislia Hutchinson. 

"18th. [summer time, 1777 or 1778?] Fair, warm, and 
pleasant. Eain in evening. Walked to Brompton. Tommy and 
w'ife, Louisa, and 3 of the children dined with us. After dinner 
Mr. Clarke, Copley, and Mrs. Copley, and two of their children 
joined us at tea." 

" 2oth. — . . . After dinner with Mrs. H. and Mr. Willard jun., to 
Mr. Copley, who with Mrs, Copley and two of the children, we 
walked to Buckingham House, and were two hours going through 
the rooms, and viewing the paintings, after which we returned 
and drank tea at Mr. Copley's." 

"20th— [1778?] Called on Mr. Hallswell : with Mrs. H. to 
Copley's : afterwards to the Treasury, and received a quarter's 
allowance to the 10th." 

" 19th [April, 1779 ? ] Fair, warm, and pleasant. Walked into 
the city and called on Mr. Mauduit, who seems to be as hearty and 
well as I have known him to be. Called on Mr, Lyde. Mrs. 
Esdaile dined with us. Mr. Clarke, Mr. and Mrs. and Betsy 
Copley at tea." 

"14th. [May 1779,] Walked with .Mrs. H. to Pall Mall, and 
spent about two hours very pleasantly at the Exhibition Eooms of 
the Eo} al Academy. Mr. Copley has not exhibited any piece this 
year. We drank tea at the Doctor's, [Dr. P. Oliver's,] with Mr. 
and Mrs. Copley, and Mr. Pelham." 

" 9. [July, 1779,] Walked to the Exchange and to Lombard 
Street. On my return stop'd at Mr. Copley's, where I met Mrs. 
Galloway and Mrs. H., who came to see Mr. Copley's picture of 
[blank]* and other pictures. We then went — Mr. and Mrs. Copley, 
and my brother Bill, with us — over to S"" Joshua Eeynold's, where, 

* Perhaps Lord Chatham's illness m the House cf Lords. 



Dec, 
1779 



.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 309 



among a multitude of fine paintings, I thouglit none better 
executed than one just taken, of Admiral Keppel. On our way 
home we called on Mr. West, whose rooms were principally filled 
with portraits of the King, Queen, and Eoyal Family : but what 
most engaged our attention was, a full length portrait of the King, 
which was not quite finished, and he told us was designed for the 
Queen's Palace — a most striking likeness, in the King's military 
dress. Lord Amherst, and Lord [blankj at a distance on horseback, 
and the prospect of the Camp, the King in his boots, as having 
just dismounted his horse." 

"4. [1779?] Fair, early in morning: afterwards cloudy and 
rain. Went in coach with Mr. G. [Galloway] at 7 o'clock to Mr. 
Copley's, Leicesf Fields, where, after waiting till nine o'clock for 
the coach, we walked to o Kings, Piccadillj', and finding the coach, 
after waiting an hour, (and not being able to find Mr. 0., throu' 
mistake in the direction), had gone forward, Mr. 0. took a post 
chaise, and with Mr. Clarke set out to overtake the coach, and I 
returned home to breakfast." 

"2nd. Aj)ril, [1781?] Fair, moderate, and pleasant. AValked 
out to Edward Street. Called on Mr. Willard, and on Mr. West." 

'* 3rd. Walked with Mrs. H. to Leicester Fields, and left her at 
Mr. Copley's." 

"3rd. May, [1781?] Fair morning — afterwards rain. Miss 
Galloway called and took Mrs. H. aad Betsey an airing as far as 
Islington. I then walked to Spring Gardens with Mrs. H. to see 
Mr. Copley's Exhibition, and called at Mr. Copley's, Leicester 
Fields." ' 

" 14. [May, 1781 ? ] Cloudy morning and some rain ; afterwards 
fair and pleasant. In coach as far as St. Clement's Church, and 
met Mrs. H., who came in coach with Mrs. Galloway, at the Exhibi- 
tion of pictures in Somerset House. After viewing the pictures 
we walked to Leicest" Fields, and called on M'' Copley : from 
thence came home to dinner. We drank tea at Mr. Galloway's — 
Mr. Hale there." 

"August 27. [1781 ? ] Met Mr. Mather, who tells me he has a 
letter from his father, and another from a man who married his 
sister Hannah. His mother Mrs. M.* died about 2 years ago, of 
which he has but lately been made acquainted with. Col. Fry I 
likewise met with. I then walked to George Street, Hanover Sq., 
and dined at Mr. Copley's, who has changed houses to great 

* She was one of the Governor's sisters named Hannah, born in 1714, and 
married to the Piev. Samuel IMather. 



310 niABY AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON, [f^'^%, 

advantage, the rent being nearly tlie same ; but the house is 
eh'gant and well finished, and well calculated for his living." 
" August 29th.— Called ou Mr. Copley, George Street." 
" October 1st. [1781 ? ] Fog in morning, afterwards warm and 
pleasant. My brother went to ride. I walked to George Street 
and called at M' Copley's, who, with Mr. Clarke and Mrs. Copley 
Inee Clarke,] were gone down to Gravescnd to see Mr Startin set 
sail for Boston, on board of Cap. Callahan." 

It is hoped that this long interpolation, dedicated to the Copleys, 
though fragmentary and of small historical account, may be 
alloAved to pass without censure. The painter removed from 
Leicester Fields to George Street, Hanover Square, — to that 
house on the east side, in short, so long known as the residence of 
his son Lord Lyndhurst. 

13tb. — Steady warm rain, like an American day. Old Cap" 
Bruce who used to trade between London and Boston many 
years, called on me. He brought part of the tea which was 
destroyed : pretends he should be afraid to go to sea, for fear 
of being- taken, and ill treated by the Americans, and is 
petitioning Government as a Kefugee. John Kowe* owned a 
quarter of his ship. I believe, says Bruce, he knew very well 
the design to pull down your house. There's Doctor Chauncy 
and Doctor Cooper, I have heard M*^ Eowe say he knew they 
both used to write in Thomas's paper — The Massachusetts Spy. 

14th. — A cold clear day. In the city. Dined at ]\P Ellis's, 
who is very anxious to hear of D'Estaigne : says the papers 
taken in the Spanish packet mention D'Estaigne intending 
first for the southern part of the Continent, then to New York, 
Ehode Island, and Halifax, but in what order I do not recollect : 
and he Avas to detach some ships in order to take in Bermuda. 

M"^ Livius, Ch. Just, of Quebec, met me in the street. He 
had just seen one of his acquaintance who was in the fleet under 
D'Estaigne, the 25 or 26 of August, when off Long Island, one 
of the Bahamas, or near them, where the fleet divided, and part 
steered for France, where this person, I suppose a prisoner, 
went ; the other part, under D'Estaigne, for America. Seven 

* There is a kind and characteristic letter by John Row to the Consignees, 
printed in the first volume at page 97. 



n'gj DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCEINSON. 311 

days after parting, a violent storm came on, and lasted threa 
days, first at N. Bast, at last at S. East. This person thinks it 
probable that many of D'Estaigne's fleet must have been drove 
to the Straits of Bahama. 

Strange, there is yet no account of them ! 

15th. — At L'^ Hardwicke's, and then L** Huntingdon's, where 
I saw his L'^ship's nephew Cap" Eawdon. He says the 
Americans have hanged the late Ch. Justice of Detroit, with 
whom he was well acquainted — his name Deshon — and that Col° 
or Cap" Hamilton, the officer made prisoner in the spring, is in 
a dungeon, and in irons. Many stories undoubtedly are false, 
and many facts exaggerated. I saw Galloway afterwards, and 
advised him to write to his friends, and collect the instances of 
capital and cruel punishments, which were fully authenticated, 
or so notorious as not to be denied, and he promised he would. 

Dined at D"" Heberden's : — M"" Crofts, Member for Cambridge, 
and lady ; M'' and M"^^ Wray, M"^ Bryant, a man of fortune and 
learning, Maudnit, and the Doctor's family. 

16th. — Eainy day and evening, but still very moderate as to 
cold. Bliss d. The wind being east, it is expected the fleet 
under Kodney will sail. Gen' Vaughan left town Sunday the 
12*^^. He is to take the command of the land forces in the West 
Indies. Never was the kingdom in such a state. The cry is — 
There are no men fit to command the Army or the Navy ; and 
it is certain that all the distresses of the nation are owing to the 
unfitness of officers both by sea and land.* Byron has retired, 
and is pitied. Poor man — he did what he thought best, but is 
a weak man. Keppel's enemies will not allow weakness to be 
his only failing, but say he did not wish to destroy the French 
fleet, lest he should establish the present Ministry. As for 
land Generals, Howe has no advocate to undertake his cause in 
print, and Clinton they say, has lain still all the summer, 
merely from indecision, and a fluctuating state of mind. 

* When things come to the worst they begin to mend ; and it is certain 
that within twenty or thirty years after this date, the glory of the Navy, at all 
events, had grown to such a pitch of brightness, as that, by the commence- 
ment of the present century, England had as good reason to be proud of her 
sailors, as her enemies had to be afraid of them. The period of Nelson and 
his compeers is now looked back upon as the bright spot in the annals of the 
British Navy. 



312 DIARY AND LETTERS OF" THOMAS HUTOIIINSON. [^fsj. 

ITtli. — In the city. The wind round again at S. West. No 
arrivals. Everybody wonderinf^ there is nothing certain yet of 
D'Estaigne. A vessel is arrived at Fahnouth from Boston, which 
sniled as late as tlie 13"' November. She was bought by some 
persons who had been taken prisoners, and obtained leave to 
come to England. The passengers say they had received no 
account of D'Estaigne. 

18th. — The news to-day is — that Cap" Moore, who was taken 
prisoner at Granada, and sailed in a merchhiian of D'Estaigne's 
lleet, is arrived in town. He says they met with a violent 
storm Sept. 10 : that he saw that day and the next, five sail of 
the French men-of-war sink, and 14 or 15 merchant-men, in 
lat. o'^, and long. GO : that his own ship, or that he was in, was 
lost at Fayal in their way home. He gives no account of the rest. 

Prickman, Van Schaack, Waterhouse,* Frye, E. H., Gardner, 
Perkins, [dined.] 

19th. — At Gray's Inn Chapel, and heard D'' Stebbins-^and 
an excellent preacher — sensible, serious, and christian. 

In the evening at Lord Mansfield's, Chancellor's, and D*" 
Heberden's. The accounts of D'Estaigne thicken. Moore's 
account cannot be true, seeing Lieut. Atkinson came to France 
in one of the S* Domingo ships, and the Protedeur was his 
convoy, and botli arrived at Eochelle : but he agrees in the 
storm the 16, and thinks a 50 gun ship and a frigate, were 
lost : but he says D'Estaigne and all the men-of-war except 
five, parted from the fleet the 25 Aug., and steered for America, 
so that Moore must have supposed some of the large merch*men 
to have been men-of-war. Lord North thinks the account of 
D'Estaigne's arrival in France is to be relied upon. 

John Adams, with F. Dana for his Secretary, are coming 
from Boston to France in the characters of Ambassador and 
Secretary to the Court of Great Britain ; but before they come 
over, Independence is to be allowed them. 

20th. — Everything in American affairs happens contrary 

* Samuel Waterhouse of Boston, Mass., described as " tlie most notorious 
scribbler, satirist, and libeller in the service of the conspirators against the 
liberties of America." He withdrew to Halifax, and then to England ; was 
proscribed and lianishcd ; and was in London in 1779, a Loyalist Addresser cif 
the Kinjr. — Sabiue. 



Dec. 
1779, 



] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 313 



to probability. An officer arrived to-day from Clinton. 
D'Estaigne, who was supposed to be lost in a storm, and many 
of his ships, remained on the coast of Carolina till late in 
October. Wallace fell into his hands. D'Estaigne landed his 
troops, and joined Lincoln, and made an army of 8,000 — enough 
to have swallowed up the British troops in Savanna, where they 
all retreated : but notwithstanding his numbers, and all that 
sea force, after two attempts he left the coast, and came with 
part of his ships for Europe : the rest he sent to the West 
Indies. It is said the French and rebels, between them, have 
lost 3000 men : the British not above 40. This I had from 
S'" Eich'^ Sutton, who brought it to M'^ Mazeres in the Temple, 
where I dined with Mauduit, Galloway, W Townsend, &c. 

21. — Au express to-day from Georgia confirms the account 
of yesterday, with many circumstances not then mentioned. 
The French fleet had left the coast, except three frigates, 
which remained at Charlestown, S. Carolina. 

22nd, — The letters from New York by the packet mention 
advice from diftereiit quarters that Adm. Hyde Parker had 
taken a uumbei' of French men-of-war. It is reported here 
that several victuallers were taken, which seems to be the most 
tijat can be expected.* 

23rd. — A dull day to me, from reflection upon the occurrence 
of yesterday, and perplexity what step to take. 

24th. — My son W. had incautiously accepted a draught from 
Cap" Dougla=, an E. India Captain of his acquaintance, at two 
years sight, for more than 500£. He says the Captain was to 
secure him, and went away without doing it ; but as it was not 
payable in less than two years, he has all along flattered 
iiimself the Cap" would be home to discharge it himself. And 
now the tiiue is up, and the demand of payment made. His 
illness adds to his and my distress. I hear this afternoon 
eight or nine ships from India are arrived, but am anxious lest 
Douglas should not be among them. 

25th. — By my paper this morning Douglas is not among 
the ships, and 1 give up all hopes of relief from him, and 

* Then follows some shnrthand referring to an incn.utious act of his son 
Billy, who had accepted a Bill for £500, at two years, now come due. 



314 DIARY AND LETTERIS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. [nVij. 

expect to be obliged to pay the iDouey. I went to luy son 
[ThomasJ at Brompton, wbere be is at loilgingf^. By bis 
Newspaper Douglas is one. Wbicb to believe, 1 am at a loss, 
and am still in suspense. 

A very cold day, and tbis trouble kept me I'rom cburcb, as 1 
intended. 

All my cbildren, S. O., Louisa 0., and young Spooner, [at 
dinner ?] 

D'Estaigue is certainly arrived in France : no certainty of 
any other part of tbe fleet wbicb was at Georgia. 

26tb. — At D' Kippis's. Cold in tbe morning, but abates 
afternoon. Wind N. 

27tb. — In tbe city witb my son T., wbo went to Lloyd's, 
Avbere be is assured tbeir list may be depended on, and if so, 
Douglas must be arrived, and I bope tbat will relieve me from 
tbe trouble wbicb tbe imprudence of my son W. would have 
brought upon me, as well as upon himself', who is in a very 
feeble declining state, and unable to bear trouble. 

Tbe men-of-war for Gibraltar and the West Indies sailed 
yesterday. Fresh wind and fair all night and to-day, tbat 
it's probable they may be near the Landsend. 

28th. — The wind continuing fair, it is expected the fleet 
under S"" G. Rodney are clear of the land. 

Lord Hardwicke called. He says Sir Joseph writes him from 
the Hague, that Paul Jones in his own ship, lyes without any 
colours ; that the Serapis and others, under French Commis- 
sions, ride with French colours, and none of them are moving. 
It's supposed our frigates are cruising for them. 

Cold much abated yesterday and to-day, but drizzling rain 
and raw. 

Wrote to Paxton at Pangbourne. 

29th. — M' Ellis called upon me. He observed that tbe 
arrival of Adams and Dana made a noise: people supposed 
they had powers to treat ; but they could have no good design, 
as they came to France. If they had come to Holland or 
Hamburgh, and sent from thence to know how they would be 
received, something might come of it, but not so now\ 

I wrote M*^ Sewall at Bristol, in answer to a long letter of his 



^^^^g_] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 315 

upon a demand made of him by T. Boylston* for rent at 
Boston. 

Eaw foggy day. Wind still E. My sou Billy came to town, 
and dined with me and Bliss. 

30th. — A strong opinion in the city yesterday and to-day 
that Adams and Dana are come to France with offers of accom- 
modation, and that affairs with America will be soon settled, 
and stocks rise near 2 p c* : but the opinion dies away, and 
they were falling again before night. 

31st. — Advice that a fleet of Dutch ships, being bound down 
Channel, six large ships with naval stores had joined, and 
thereupon a squadron of ships slipped their cables and sailed 
from Spithead in persiiit of them, to search and stop the ships 
with navtil stores, being for the French. 

* Sabine tells us there was W. N. Boylston, sou of B. HaUowell, but who 
look the name of Boylston ; and Thomas, who is the one here spoken of. 
John Adams said of him in 1766—" Tom is a firebrand. Tom is a perfect 
^^per, a Jew, a devil, but is orthodox in politics however." But he became a 
Loyalist, went to England, failed in business, and died in great poverty. 



( olt3 ) [nao 



CHAPTER VII. 

BEGINNING OF THE NEW YEAR 1780. 

January 1st. — At Court: tlie lirst time I had been there on 
New Year's Day : remarkably full of Ladies, in particular. 
Cold, foggy, and dark. Lord Lisburne said a French letter 
had lieen intercepted which gives an account of Parker's taking 
the French sliips. 

I said to Lord Lisburne I was glad Cap" Vaughan had so 
fine a time. He said he had a fair wind : he hoped he would 
do service : he had two good qualities — he could not bear in- 
activity, and I forget the other. I added a third — He is well 
principled. 

Flucker, Rome, Willard, Danforth, Clarke, Startin, E. H. [at 
dinner, no doubt.] My son Billy lodged last night in town, 
after three months absence, or thereabouts.* 

2nd. — At tlie Old Jewry without my children. 

Mauduit tells me a Lima or Register ship is carried into 
Crookhaven with 3 millions of dollars on board. A privateer 
of Liverpool took her, which took the Carnatick Indiaman. 

ord. — In the city. Billy received a letter from Cap. Douglas 
at Portsmouth, in which he expresses his concern at my son's 
ill state of health, of which he had wrote to Douglas, and his 
surprise at the Banker's having made a demand on him for the 
Bill which he had accepted, and adds that he does not doubt, 

* Whence came the fiual s? Such words as thereabouts, whereabouts, and 
hereabouts, are common, even in the pages of our best writers. Thereabouts 
simply means about there, or that place : tuhereabouts, is about where, or what 
place : and so also hereabouts is about here, or near this place. If we may 
say thereabouts why may we not say abouts there ? The use of the final s is 
evidently of long standing ; and however much we may condemn the practice, 
on the ground of impropriety or inaccuracy, we do nevertheless frequently 
see such words in the writings of manv of our host modern authors. 



Jan. 
1780. 



] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS BUTCBINSOK 317 



now they know he is arrived, they wil] give my son no further 
trouble. 

4th. — Express yesterday, with advice that Coiu"" Fielding 
had stopped two Dutch men of war — searched the ships under 
their convoy, and seized seven of them laden with naval stores 
for the French, and was returning with them to Portsmouth, 
and that the Dutch men of war were following them. 

Daughter Oliver's family, and S. O. 

5th. — In the city. The Dutch business has hardly any effect 
upon the stocks. It is not likely it should give them any real 
offence. They have been told, what we stop shall be paid for. 
This increases their export. What gets safe to France, they 
pay for : what is brought in here, we pay for. Government has 
been duped by its own subjects. Foreign states are now trying 
what they can do. 

Lord Gage called — came in warm. "I have this minute 
parted," says he, " with a gentleman who said he wished 
D'Estaigne had taken Georgia and all the troops there, for then 
the war would have been at an end, and we should have been 
no more burdened with additional taxes." 

" What can such men mean ? Do they imagine the nation 
would submit to the humiliating terms which would have then 
been required ? " 

" No ; that was not the reason of sucli a wish. A change of 
Ministry was the thing." 

6th. — The stocks rather rise than fall. It is almost in- 
credible, with such an immense debt, and prospect of still in- 
creasing it by several year's war. 

7th. — In the city. At Watson and Eashleigh's. They say 
the capture of 5 French frigates and 14 transports by H. 
Parker's squadron, comes so many ways that there can be no 
doubt of it. It's strange that in more than three months there 
should be nothing from Parker himself. 

Dined with D"" Parker at the Chaplain's table — Sir Egerton 
Leigh, and a clergyman, Eector of Hammersmith. 

8th. — Called upon ]\F Maseres. 

Carried W Boucher and Addison in my coach to Lambeth, 
and dined with the Archbishop: — Lord Wellesley, son of Lord 



318 DTABY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTCIITNSON. [i^gS; 

]\r(trninL:;t()ii ; Lord Bromo, a pretty boy of H or 7 year.-, or less, 
only son of Earl Cornwallis ; D"" Cliertsey, of Ch. Church, 
Oxford ; D"" Lort, Abp's ChapLiin ; and a gentleman I did not 
know ; ]\P Cornwallis, and a little Miss, [being present.] 

The Archbishop says he knew Sir F. Bernard at Cambridge, 
though some years after him. I thought he was of Christ 
Church, Oxford; but the Abp. was positive he could not be ; 
and yet, for 9 or 10 years we lived together in Boston, and 4 or 
5 years since, I have alw^ays understood it so. 

The company went to the Chapel before dinner, which was 
exceeding cold, and I without a surtout. [It was Saturday.] 
D*" Lort went through the Litany as fast as a Clerk would have 
gone through an instrument, which was mere matter of form in 
a court of law. 

0th.— At D-" Kippis's. [Sunday.] 

Dined withM' Ellis:— D'Oiley and wife, J\P Bateman, Brett, 
Le Cras, Falkingham, Stephens, of the Admin., Palmer. M"" 
Stephens says two of D'Estaigne's ships were not arrived in 
France — the Tonnant, and Sagiitaire ; nor the Experiment^ 
Wallace's ship. Wallace and his lady are aboard the Sagiitaire. 
They hear from France that Sir P. Parker's squadron has taken 
the Alcmena, one of the frigates that D'Estaigne left with the 
French ships coming to Europe, besides 6 or 7 ships of that 
squadon, and that the Fier, a 50, of the same squadron, had got 
into Martinique. 

10th. — Called on M*" Livius, Devonshire Street, and crossed 
through the fields, back of Bedford and Montague Houses, to 
Percy Street, and so to High Street, Marybone. I endeavour 
to walk 3 or 4 miles every day if there is time enough in the 
day without rain : and altho' I must expect the infirmities of 
age to increase, yet, by joining temperance to moderate exercise, 
we have room to hope for a mitigation. (Two Chandlers and 
Bliss.) 

11th. — Called this morning, as I walked into the city, upon 
M"" Thorn. Bernard, Lincoln's Inn, who gave me a more par- 
ticular account of his father's last sickness and death than I 
had ever heard before. For near two months before he died, 
a dropsy had added itself to his other complaints, and for 



Jan 

1780 



.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTCHINSON. 319 



several of the last weeks the Physicians apprehended the 
water would rise to his lungs, and immediately stop the use 
of them. 

He was best stocked with anecdotes of any man 1 knew, and 
fond of communicating them, which he could do with a good 
grace. When he had so little use of his reason as scarcely to 
distinguish his own children, he would tell one of his stories as 
he lay in bed, not forgetting any circumstance, with the same 
propriety of modulation of voice in the several parts, as he used 
to when well. About a week before he died he was seized with 
an epileptick fit, more violent and lasting than any he had had 
before, and being looked upon as near his end, his son Thom. 
was sent for from London. When he came down he endeavoured 
to rouze his father, and he had reason enough to say, — " Are 
you come ? Well, I will get up and come down presently." A 
few minutes before he died, being bewildered, he fancied him- 
self on the water, and in some dangerous place, and said with 
his usual tone of voice, — " Never fear : if you will but have 
patience, I don't doubt we shall get safe through ; but take care 
how you ever get into such a scrape again." A convulsion 
presently came on, and his children were obliged to lay hold of 
him, to prevent his throwing himself out of bed, the water rose 
in his stomach as they apprehended, and he died in their 
arms. 

Mauduit, in the evening, brings intelligence that the Jamaica 
packet is arrived : confirms Hyde Parker's having taken the 
French convoy, with which there were no men-of-war, but six 
large ships, with their lower deck guns in the hold, served as a 
convoy, and were intended, after unlading, to be completely 
fitted as sliips of war. No news of the return of D'Estaigne's 
ships any* 

Letters also, from the Commander of Cooke's ships at 
Kamskatka, dated in June, giving an account of Cooke's, and 
three or four more, being killed on a new discovered island 
in Lat. 22, — of their having attempted discovery northward 
without success, — but of their intention notw^'^standing, to 
make a further trial the past summer. 

* The end of the sentence is wanting. 



320 DTA I? V AND LETTEIiS OF THOMAS TIUTCTTINSON. ' [^^f^\ 



The singular account of tlio last moments of Sir Francis Bernard, 
as related above, can scarcely be allowed to pass without some 
remark ; and the news of the death of Captain Cook, only just 
then arrived in England, cannot fail to arrest our attention for a 
moment. The buy James Cook, born in 1724, son of a poor 
cottager, followed the plough till he was thirteen years of age ; 
was bound apprentice to a grocer when seventeen, but sighing for 
a sea life, he engaged Avith a ship owner at Whitby, and sailed 
in a collier in the year 1746. He continued in the coal .trade until 
1753, when he got appointed to the Eagle, and entered the Koyal 
navy : he received a Lieutenant's commission in 1760, — applied his 
active mind to the study of mathematics and navigation, — was 
raised to the rank of Captain of the Endeavour, when an expedition 
Avas organised to proceed to Otaheite for the purpose of observing a 
transit of Venus in 1769, and he sailed down the river Thames 
accompanied by Sir Joseph Bankes, Dr. Solander, and Mr. Green : 
and after having accomplished this object, he proceeded to 
prosecute a series of explorations and discoveries in the Pacific 
Ocean, so that ho did not return to England till June 1771. In 
April 1772, he embarked on board the Besolution, accompanied by 
the Adventure, Captain Furneaux, to try and jDenetrate the ice 
fields in the Antarctic regions, and returned to England in July 
1774. In July 1776, he again set sail, at first attempting the 
often tried " North-west Passage," where, being foiled by the ice, 
he once more steered for the Pacific ; and having an unfortunate 
altercation with the natives at Owyhee, he was there killed on the 
14th of February, 1779. He was a remarkable instance of natural 
genius, improved by self-culture. 

The minute particulars attending the death of Sir Francis 
Bernard, as given by his son to Governor Hutchinson, are 
sufficiently noteworthy by their authenticity, if not by their 
singularity, to make us pause at this place. Pardonably curious, 
(as I hope), to know more of the family so often mentioned in the 
Biary, I consider myself fortunate in being able to draft into 
these pages the following brief account of it ; [for which account I 
am indebted to Mrs. Napier Higgins, sole surviving child of the 
last Baronet.] 

" Sir Francis Bernard came of an ancient Northamptonshire 
family ; his grandfather was first cousin of Sir Eobert Bernard, the 
father of Sii' John Bernard, M.P. for Huntingdon, in the Long 
Parliament, whose name is so often met with in the history of the 
Commonwealth. Sir Francis was born in 1712, — was educated 



Jan 
1780 



J DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 321 



at Christ Churcli, Oxford,* and was called to the Bar, where his 
position was good enough to procure him election as a Bencher of 
the Middle Temple. He married a niece of Lord Barrington. 

" His original Colonial appointment was to the Government of 
New Jersey in 1758. The Earl of Halifax, then First Lord of 
Trade, appointed him at the request of Lord Barrington. In 1760, 
he was appointed to the government of Massachusetts Bay, which 
extended from the 42nd to the 46th degree of Latitude. Its 
inhabitants then numbered about 250,000. On arriving in the 
Colony, one of his earliest public acts was to extend the foundations 
and usefulness of Harvard College, in which he continued to take 
a great interest. He entered with great spirit on the duties of 
his office, and remained Governor for nine years, during the first 
five of which he was extremely popular. In February 1762, the 
House of Assembly unanimously passed a resolution for granting 
to him the island of Mount Desert, as an acknowledgment of his 
public services, and this was sanctioned by the Home government. 
However, in 1763, orders were addressed by Lord Egremont and 
the Lords of Trade to the Governors of the American Colonies, 
requiring them to carry into strict execution the laws of trade, 
and notifying that enlarged authority had been delegated to the 
Commanders of the King's ships stationed in America, to seize all 
vessels concerned in any prohibited commerce. The published 
letters of Governor Bernard, shew that he regarded the policy 
shewn in these orders to be unwise and injurious, both to English 
and colonial interests. His expostulations were without effect. 

"Before his return to England in 1769, George III. created him 
a Baronet, and ordered the expense of the Patent to be paid out of 
his Privy Purse. He arrived in England in August of that year, 
where he was extremely well received, not only by his Sovereign 
and the Government of the day, but by many of the leading 
public men of both the great parties in the State. Not long after- 
wards he had the good fortune to succeed to an estate in Bucking- 
hamshire, called Nether Winchendon, which is sometimes referred 
to in the preceding pages.f While he was still Governor, he gave 
the name of Winchendon to a small town which is still known by 
the name in Massachusetts. His estates in the Province, which 

* This may serve to recall tlie conversation that took place Jan. 8, 1780, 
between the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Governor, when the latter 
dined at Lambeth Palace. The Archbishop (Cornwallis) spoke of Sir F. 
Bernard positively as of Cambridge, but Mr. H. thought he was of Ch. Ch. 
Oxford. The Archbishop was labouring under a false impression. 

t Vol. 1. pp. 194, 249. 
VOL. II. Y 



322 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON, [mo 



1_1780. 



were large, were conliscated by the State of MassachusettB Ap. 30, 
1779, and Jbis son and immediate succesHor, Sir John Bernard, re- 
ceived as compeuBatiou, a grant from Parliament of a considerable 
sum of money. There used to be, and probably still is, at Christ 
Church, Oxford, a portrait of Sir Francis Bernard, by Copley. 

" Owing to the state of his health he resided for the last few 
years of his life at the Prebendal, near Aylesbury, where he died. 
A Memoir of Sir Francis, and also his Letters, have been printed, 
but it is now difficult to procure them. 

" Two of his sons were men of considerable mark. After the 
death of Sir John, Sir Thomas, the next son, succeeded to the title. 
He was very well known in the earlier part of the present century as 
a philanthropist, and many of the philanthropic movements of that 
time were originated or promoted by his efforts. He wrote many 
pamphlets on such subjects, and is mentioned in the Memoirs of 
Sidney Smith as the first person of consequence in London who took 
him by the hand, and to whom the witty Divine owed his appoint- 
ment of Preacher at the Foundling Hospital. In his writings will 
be found numerous suggestions for improving the condition of 
working people, which have since been carried into effect. An 
interesting Life of this gentleman was published by Murray in 
1819. On his death without issue, his brother Scroj)e, who on his 
man-iage had assumed the name of Morland, succeeded to the 
Baronetcy. He sat as Member for Aylesbury and St. Mawes n 
several Parliaments, and for many years was Under-Secretary of 
State for the Home Department. The last member of the family 
who succeeded to the Baronetcy was Sir Thomas Tyringham 
Bernard, who continued the family name, and dropped the name 
of Morland. He was M.P. for Aylesbury in two Parliaments, and 
died in 1883, in his ninety-second year." 

He left no son living, and therefore the Baronetcy became 
extinct ; but the estate of Nether Winchendon passed to his only 
surviving daughter Mrs. Napier Higgins, who has recently 
published the first two volumes of a work called — The Women of 
Eurojpe in the 15th and 16th Centimes. Two daughters of the 
Governor were successful authors. One of them, Mrs. King, 
(daughter Fanny), a contemporary of Hannah More, wrote a book 
called — Female Scripture Characters, which went through twelve 
Editions during the first quarter of the present century. It was 
mentioned in one of the Obituary Notices of the late Sir T. T. 
Bernard as a curioiis fact, that on the day of his death in May 
1883, 164 years after his grandfather Governor Bernard was 



ntcj.] DIARY AND LETTEB8 OF THOMAS HUTOHINSON. 323 

elected a Westminister student of Ckrist Church, Oxford, his own 
and only grandson, Mr. Francis Tyi-ingham Higgins, obtained the 
same studentship at the same College. 

The following extracts from the printed Memoirs of Sir 
Francis Bernard, page 39, will corroborate several of the remarks 
made above : — 

"In February 1762, the Assembly passed a unanimous resolution 
— ' That, in consideration of the extraordinary services of His 
Excellency Governor Bernard, there be granted to him, his heirs 
and assigns, the Island of Mount Desert, lying on the north- 
eastward of Penobscot Bay, and that a Grant thereof, to be laid 
before His Majesty for his approbation, be signed by the Secretary 
and Speaker, on behalf of the two Houses.' 

" Of this, the Lords of Trade expressed their approbation in the 
following terms — ' We can have no objection to your acceptance of 
this grant, as a testimony of the approbation and favor of that 
Province, in whose service, and in the conduct of whose affairs, you 
have manifested such zeal and capacity.'* 

" The Island was of considerable value ; and perhaps it may not 
be going too far to state, it was a mere voluntary expression of 
good will, it having been partly intended as a recompence for some 
expenses which the Governor had incurred in improving the 
provincial buildings at the Castle, and in some public commissions. 
But whether it was to be deemed a gift, or a compensation, made 
little difference : in every event, it marked distinctly and decisively 
the popularity that attended his administration. 

" A title to unappropriated lands, derived originally from the 
people and their representatives, approved by Administration, and 
ultimately ratified by the Sovereign, appeared in itself sufficiently 
unimpeachable. It could hardly have occurred at that time to a 
speculating mind, that the subsequent events respecting that title, 
were possible; that the situation of Governor Bernard should 
oblige him to sacrifice his popularity, to his duty and his integrity ; 
that eventually, the very people which had made the grant, 
should, by a special act of theii' newly created State, confiscate this 
with his other property ; and that, when Britain, (in whose cause 
the sacrifice had been made,) had provided relief for the other 
sufferers by the American troubles, in most cases with liberality, 
this, by the decision of the Board of American Claims, and 
under a total oblivion of the cause of forfeiture, should be one of 

* Letter from the Lords of Trade to Grovernor Bernard, dated May 21, 
1763. 

Y 2 



324 DIARY AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. [ 



Jan. 
1780. 



the few instauceB in which relief and compensation had been 
denied." 

At page 42 we read : — 

"Upon the death of Chief Justice Sowall in 1761, Lieutenant 
Governor Hutchinson had been the first who had applied to the 
Govei-nment for the appointment : the assurance of it was hardly- 
given to Mr. Hutchinson, when Mr. Otis attended on behalf of his 
father,* (a la-wyer of eminence and character, and one of the Board 
of Council, but not in general friendly to Government,) claiming a 
promise made by Governor Shirley, one of Governor Bernard's 
predecessors, that Mr. Otis, the father, should be appointed to the 
Bench on the first vacancy. Governor Bernard did not feel it to be 
either in his power or inclination to forego the word which he had 
given, and Mr. Hutchinson was appointed ; whereupon Mr. Otis 
resigned his office of Advocate-General, and declared perpetual 
hostility to the Governor's administration ; an hostility which he 
continued for several years, not only with talents, but so far as 
warmth of temper did not mislead, wdth candour and liberality." 

12th.— I had a very cold walk this morning to M' Strahan's 
in New Street, Fleet Market. He read me a copy of a letter 
he had wrote to D'' Franklin, advising, that be, Strahan, had it 
from undoubted authority, that John Adams had been vested 
with secret powers by Congress to treat upon terms of accom- 
modation with Great Britain: that he hoped F. would upon 
this occasion think what a dishonour, &c., it would reflect 
upon him to have such a negotiation carried on by another 
than himself: that he might put the greatest confidence in 
Strahan in communicating what should occur as proper to be 
done upon such an occasion : that he hoped for an answer to 
this letter : that even that sacred regard which he had to his 
Majesty, &c., should not tempt him to make any use of what 
he, F., should write, so has to do him any prejudice. 

There was a Moravian Clergyman in the room when Strahan 
read the letter. At once hearing, I could not retain the words, 
but I have minuted the substance. I accounted for the strong 
attachm*® to Franklin's person, by supposing he might have a 
licence tacitly, at least, from [blank] but his imprudence in 

* This subject is alluded to in vol. i. p. 65. 



Jan. 
1780. 



] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 325 



suffering anybody besides himself to know he had written such 
a letter is unaccountable* 

13th. — A very cold day. This weather affects my sou 
Billy : his complaints increase, and the great discharge from 
his lungs enfeebles him, and he loses ground daily. [Here 
follow a few remarks in shorthand referring to money trans- 
actions.] 

14th. — I called at Lord Hillsborough's, where I met Lord 
Cranborne. Long conversation upon the state of affairs in 
general, and American in particular. Lord Cranborne said 
little. Lord H. seemed apprehensive of trouble from the new 
Associations ; — expected they would form Committees of Cor- 
respondence, and may-be furnish themselves with arms, as 
they had done in Ireland. 

Strahan, Maseres, Mauduit, Galloway, Livius, T. Bernard, 
dined. 

Mr. Stanley died suddenly on the 12th., at Lord Spencer's. 

15th. — In the city. A West India Dutchman, said to be 
from St. Eustatia, informed Cap. Paisley that Hyde Parker had 
met with La Motte Piquet returning from Georgia, and had 
taken five or six of the men-of-war, besides transports. Some 
believe this, but most people do not. 

My two sons, and families, [at dinner.] 

16th.— At D"^ Kippis's. 

jy Oliver, wife. Chandler, Danforth, Bliss. 

It was said at dinner that the Dutchman's news 'gains 
ground. Stocks do not lose ground. 

Kodney said to be spoke with the 6th Inst* off Cape 
Finisterre. 

17th. — In the city. Stocks still rather rising, though it is 
now the time for the first payment of the subscription to the 
Loan for the next year. The extraordinary success of the 

* William Strahan served his time as a i^rinter in his native town of 
Edinburgh, and afterwards removed to London. In 1770 he bought a share 
in the patent place of King's Printer. By good conduct he prospered, and 
sat in Parliament in 1775. He was the friend of literary men, with whom 
he had naturally been much associated. He was disposed to recommend 
Dr. Johnson to the good graces of Lord North, as a step to Parliament, but 
the whole project did not take effect. Strahan died in 1785, aged 70. 



326 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTCEINSON. [,"5^; 

British ships in coming home safe from all parts causes money 
t^ bf plenty beyond all expectation. 

1 8th. — Observed as the Queen's Birthday. I was not at 
Court, being low in spirits. 

Dined at M"" Knox's, where I first heard, to my great 
surprise, that M"" Stanley, after eating a hearty breakfast, 
having left upon his table at Lord Spencer's, letters to his 
servants to make provision for his reception at home a day 
or two after, took a solitary walk into the woods, and soon 
after was found with his throat cut by his penknife, lying 
upon the ground dead or dying. He might have lain some 
time undiscovered if his groans had not been heard by a 
person not very far from him. His father died in the same 
manner. 

No man's general character was more unexceptional than M*" 
Stanley's. Religion I don't bring into consideration, because 
the want of it is no blemish in the present day. His letters, 
when he was sent to France to negotiate the last peace, are 
said to do him honour, and his whole conduct was approved. 
He seldom spoke in Parliament. I am obliged to him for 
once censuring one of the Opposition for abusing me when it 
was not in my power to answer him, and make my defence. 
In private company he was rather reserved, and spake with 
caution, and always pertinent. I spent some days two or three 
years ago with him at M"" Ellis's, Tylney Hall. He was 
exceeding regular and exact in his behaviour. I think he 
never laughed — don't remember he smiled; loved to talk of 
classical literature. It is said he was a very good scholar, 
and that he has left an elegant traoslation of Pindar in 
manuscript. 

After all this, strange that such a man should be impatient 
to die! I think he would have been less likely if he had 
married and had a family he could reputablv live with and 
delight in; but he chose to live a batchelor, tx?eupied a 
large house in Privy Gardens, joining to Lord Loudoun's; a 
fine sight [site ?] at Palton [?] ; another at the Isle of Wight ; 
and yet spent great part of his time from home; and when 
at home in town, commonly dined at an hotel: left one 



i?f^.] DIABT AXD LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTCHIXSOX. 327 

Datnral son pt Winchester School: snflfered his family to 
be extinct. But this is the vitiated detestable taste of the 
present age. 

He had an estate of 1500£ p ann., — the Manor of Chelsea, 
which he has given to Lord Cadogan, great-grandson of Sir 
Hans Sloane, by one of his daughters, ^V^ Stanley being grand- 
son by another: the residue of his real estate, about 2500£ 
p annum, between his two sisters, 31^ Ellis and 31^ D'Oyly, 
and upon their death without children, each being too old to 
expect any, 500£ p ann. to each of their husbands for life, and 
the revei^ion of the whole to 31'' Sloane : legacy of 3000£ to 
his natural son, besides other legacies. 

M"" Knox observed that England never had been upon the 
eve of so many important events as at present. He referred I 
suppose to Kodney's fleet — to Clinton's attempt upon Virginia 
and Carolina — and to Hyde Parker in the West Indies. 

19th. — In the city. Ordered my Broker to purchase 3000£ 
Xavy Bills, a year old next month, at -if discount, if paid in a 
year. This ^vill give an interest of between 7 and 8 p c^ 

20tlL — Cold X. wind and sleet most of the day. I kept 
within. Mauduit called in the evening. Conyersation upon 
Lee, one of the Aldermen, who has been near two years abroad, 
employed at different Courts, engaged in behaK of revolted 
America, and yet he has continued Alderman, until, a few davs 
ago he sent his resignation. Another Alderman, Woolridge, 
is of so infamous a character, that when Maseres dined with the 
Aldermen. &:c., being then Deputy Eecorder. and hapned to 
sit next to Woolridge, one of the Common Coimcil called out — 
" M"^ Maseres I how can you sit by so infamous a fellow ? He 
is one of the most notorious swindlers in all London. Besides 
having been two or three times bankrupt, and known to be 
insolvent when he was chosen Alderman, he has been gnilty of 
the grossest frauds in a great number of instances ; for any one 
of which, if he had been indicted, he would have been sentenced 
to labour on board the Jusfitia Hulk!'' 

Mauduit mentioned a number — but one very singular. When 
a bankrupt, he prevailed with the Assignees to suffer his 
furniture to remain, upon giving security it should be paid for, 



328 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCUINSON. [nso 



L1780. 



at the rate it was appraised. Soon after, he sent for a Broker, 
and desired him to make sale of it. The Broker thanked him, 
and came a day or two after to take tho goods and prepare for 
the sale. Woolridgo appointed a time at a short distance, not 
being able to attend it sooner, but observed to the Broker, that 
it would be a convenience if he could advance £300, Avhich the 
goods would reimburse in two or three days. The Broker gave 
an order on his Banker for £300, w'^'' Woolridge received 
immediately. When the Broker came to sell the goods they 
were all gone. Thus, not only the Broker was cheated of his 
300£, but the Bondsmen to the Assignees were obliged to pay 
the 800£. The Broker bro't an action against him immediately. 
Soon after came on the Election of Recorder. M' Adair applied 
to Woolridgo for his vote. He did not deny it, nor absolutely 
promise it. Adair followed him close, — when he opened him- 
self and said he was so harrassed with the suit of the Broker, 
that he could give no answer : he could not tell whether he 
should be at liberty to vote any way : but if he could be freed 
from that embarrassment, he would vote for M"^ Adair. Two or 
three of Adair's friends, who knew how necessary Woolridge's 
vote would be, paid the 300£ to the Broker, and Adair was 
chose by a majority of one only, and Woolridge for that time 
was saved from the Justitia. 

21st. — In the city. Made a purchase of 3000£ Navy Bills, 
dated in February last. 

An account of Sir G. Eodney's having fallen in with a 
Spanish 64 gun ship, five frigates, and 19 store-ships and 
victuallers on the 7 Jan^, Lat. 42, and taking all but one of the 
store-ships or victuallers : that the store-ships he had ordered 
to England — the provision vessels he had taken with him. 
The account is not doubted, but it is not conie officially ; but a 
person who was in the action is said to have arrived, and being 
examined at the Admiralty. 

A vessel from St. Kitts with letters to 21 Nov. confirms 
Parker's taking the victuallers, &c., but blasts the hopes of all 
who had any from the Dutch vessel. The fleet, however, was 
then upon a cruise. 

Elucker seized with a bleeding at the nose on the 19*^ and 



^786.] BIABY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS nUTCUINSON. 329 

said to have lost a gallon of blood before it could be stop'd. 
Surg. Hunter told him if the vein had not burst as it did, he 
would soon have died. He is better, but weak with the loss of 
blood. 

Wrote to Judge Browne at Cowbridge. 

22ad. — A very cold day. At Brompton, called on Flucker, 
who lost more than a gallon of blood, and is feeble. 

At Lord H 's. I lent him my MS. History of Mass*^ 

Bay, which he has been reading in the holidays at Kichmond. 
He flatters me upon the candour which he says he discovers in 
it, and excused his not returning it, Lady Grey desiring to go 
through it. 

In conversation I mentioned my surprise at M"" Stanley's 
catastrophe, and dwelt some time upon it, and never thought, 
until I came home, of his brother Charles, who died just in the 
same way. I then recollected, or fancied, that he was in some 
degree of confusion, and was very sorry that I had said any- 
thing upon the subject.* 

E. H. and wife, D"" 0. and wife, M"" Clarke, and Startin. 

23rd. — At Prince's Street ; — D"" Kippis. Very cold and very 
raw. 

Dined at Sir E. Sutton's ; — Galloway and daughter, M"^ Kay 
and wife, Knox, Mauduit, Maseres. 

The Spaniards declared against England in June last. In 

the Spanish packet which was taken by a N. York privateer, 

and sent home to Government, there was a letter from the Gov*" 

of Guatimala to the Gov"^ of Havana, in which he writes that 

pursuant to the orders he had rec'^ from the King, dated in 

March, he should stop the Eegister ships from going to Spain : 

should endeavour to engage the Mosketo Indians, &c. Knox 

thinks this an instance of the perfidy of the Court of Spain, 

who at that time was a mediator between England and 

France : but it may perhaps be considered as no more than a 

necessary precaution, from the desperate state of that mediation, 

and the approaching breach with England, which Spain 

* When you are in general society, never reflect ou those who have been 
hanged, for you know not whose toes you may tread upon : and never speak 
of your Pedigree or your Coat- Armour, for there may be those within hearing 
who never had either. 



330 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON: [,"^|S: 

foresaw their engagements with France would force upon 
thorn.* 

24tli.— D-- Chandler and Bliss. 

People are in pain for S"" G. Rodney's prizes, one only, w"^' 
separated from the rest the 9"' instant, having got in. Cold N. 
wind. 

25th. — House of Commons met yesterday. Lord G. Gordon 
behaved like a madman. f He would read a pamphlet of more 
than 100 pages upon Irish affairs, the Opposition themselves 
condemning his behaviour. The Members, instead of turning 
him out or silencing him, left tlie House themselves. He 
divided the House upon his absurd motion — he only on one 
side, and 39, being just enough to make a House, on the 
other. 

]My catarrhish disorder and deflexion upon my breast, has 
been very troublesome last night and this forenoon. Very cold, 
but I took my walk in the morning. 

26th. — A sleet in the air all day, and disagreeable cold. In 
the evening Mauduit from the city : says a letter from Plimouth 
takes notice of the arrival of the Pearl, and that the rest of 
Rodney's prizes are in the offing. A vessel from N. York on 
Lloyd's book. I rec'^ a letter from Paxton at Reading, and 
answered it. 

27th. — A black cold day. My son Billy laments the cold, 
which he thinks makes his distemper to increase with rapidity. 
He sinks daily, and is unable to go up to his chamber without 
resting. 

Reports, but uncertain, about Rodney's ships. Some people 
are anxious at their not arriving. 

There's an account in the Morn. Chronicle of an uncommon 
degree of cold at Edinburgh. On the 13*^ of this month 
Farenheit's thermometer at a high window to the north at one 
o'clock, was at 6 degrees above 0. In five hours after sunk to 
0. Laid on the snow it sunk 14 deg. below 0. Thursday 
evening [the 20th.] in the first exposure it was at 0. Every 

* The Governor was always ready to put the best construction upon 
doubtful appearances. 

t Beginning of the " Gordon Riots." 



Jan. 
1780, 



] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTGHINSON. 331 



two hours th'at night observations were made by two ther- 
mometers on the snow, and two in the open air. The two last 
sunk to 14 degrees, and the two first 23 degrees below 0. 

28th. — A dull day. My youngest son sinks fast — not able 
to come down to-day, as he has done from the beginning of his 
illness. 

29th. — Still easterly — moist, and yet very cold weather. 
Dined at M^ Strahan's, where were Lord Westcote, Sir G. 
Cooper, M"^ Jackson of Admiralty, &c. — but a terrible cold 
drawing-room. 

30th. — High east wind to-night — dry, and very cold this 
morning. My son a more easy night and day than for some 
time. 

Chand., Bliss, E. H., D"" 0., and wives, S. O. [Sylvester 
Oliver.] 

31st. — My nerves much disordered last night : pulse quick, 
and I feared a fever begun. Kept house to-day, and am 
tolerably well. 

Col° Putnam called on nie : arrived Saturday night, [it was 
now Monday], from N, York with his wife, and daughter of 11 
y""^ old. He is in doubt whether Clinton sailed the day he 
came out, — Dec. 23'^''. On the 25 at night, a storm at N.E. — 
wind W. the next morning. If Clinton was out, he says it 
would be a fair wind. They met w'^^ no other damage than 
the loss of some of their stock upon deck. 

The Sixth Volume of the Diary here ends — conterminous -with 
the month of January 1780. The Governor had but four months 
more to live, so that the next and last volume contains but 
comparatively few entries — the greater portion of its pages being 
blank. The rapid progress of William's or Billy's chest complaint, 
which the sharp air of the winter season was accelerating, together 
with his death and burial in February, seemed to do much to 
complete the wreck of his father's constitution, which the troubles 
and anxieties of the times had already enfeebled. 

The vagaries of Lord George Gordon, which were now beginning 
to display themselves before the astonished world, could scarcely 
do miich mischief in Parliament — first, because he was only one 
individual amongst a great many better men than himself; and 



332 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTCHINSON. \JZ'. 

secondly, because lie was too mad aud outrageous to bo listened to. 
To bo listened to, an unreasonable demagogue must at all events 
put on the semblance of reason. In this case there was no attempt 
at anything of the sort. Hence the extraordinary division which 
he forced upon the House on the 24 of January — himself alono 
supporting the motion, and every one else against it. Whether 
such a division had ever taken place in the English House of 
Commons before, or whether it ever has since, deponent knoweth not, 
but it is sufficiently rare to make a note of. In that day the qualifi- 
cation for the exercise of the Franchise Avas very diflfercnt from 
what it has been since ; yet it may be asked with reason, whether 
the then Duke of Richmond was less mad than Lord George, seeing 
that, at the very time when a mob of roughs, amounting to a number, 
variously stated at from 40 to 100 thousand, wore besieging the 
Houses of Parliament, insulting and endangering the lives of those 
members who tried to get either in or out, he was occupied in 
introducing a measure for promoting greater liberty for the 
subject, and was advising the House to "admit to a right of 
suffrage every man of full age, and not disqualified by law." But 
even as the " Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity," so warmly 
advocated by Egalite soon recoiled upon his own head by cutting 
it off, BO *' This wild scheme of popular reform," as Adolphus 
writes, iii. 256, " met with a practical rebuke in the moment of 
its projection. Before the sitting of the House, the mob, occupying 
all the passes to Palace Yard, rendered the approach difficult even 
to their favourities, but those who had not acquired this disgraceful 
distinction were robbed, beaten, and even threatened with the loss 
of their lives. The mob were prevented from rushing into the 
House by the activity and resolution of the doorkeepers alone : 
several Peers exhibited, on their entrance, incontestable proofs of 
the indignities they had sustained, and stated to the chair the 
danger of other members, while the Duke of Kichmond, in the 
genuine zeal of reform, complained of the interruption of his 
harrangue, and seemed to consider his speech of more importance 
than the lives of Lord Boston and the Bishop of Lincoln, who were 
at that moment declared to be in the hands of the rabble." 

Lord George Gordon was embroiled in religious controversy, but 
his Grace was descanting on political freedom. Universal suffrage 
may be a very fine theory to captivate the shallow, and is put 
forward upon the principle so strongly contended for in the 
American Declaration of Indejjendence, where we are told that "all 
men are born equal," which they certainly are not, for no two men 
are alike either in physical frame or mental power : but even 



fe.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HVTOmNSON. 333 

concediBg that they are much alike at birth, simply as being the 
children of other men, they soon shew how different they are from 
one another when their faculties begin to develope themselves. If 
however, there is any person living who thinks that all men are 
alike, let him make the experiment by committing the management 
of his affairs to the care of the first so-called man of twenty -one 
whom he may chance to meet in the city of London on Lord 
Mayor's Day, (being careful to ask his age), or upon the Eace 
Course on Derby Day, or Eag Fair, or the Eookery ; and then he 
will find out that all men are not alike, either in temper, tempera- 
ment, capacity, or moral principle : and yet, though no man in his 
senses would entrust his own little affairs to any except to those 
in whose knowledge, skill, or integrity he had some confidence, 
these theorists would hand over the more important affairs of the 
nation to the dangerous manipulation of all classes of men alike. 
But as the uneducated and the debased far outnumber the culti- 
vated and the honest in every country, the principle of Universal 
Suffrage is the principle of putting the control of the national 
welfare into the hands of the most ignorant portion of the 
j)opulation ; or, in other words, it is to outweigh the influence of 
the instructed and the best qualified, by the evil preponderance of 
those who are the least capable of being useful to the State. As 
the majority rule the whole community, it is the largest and the 
worst half that rules the best. Where the experiment has been 
tried, it has been found necessary, for the absolute safety of the 
kingdom, that a vigilant police espionage should be exercised, with 
a strong repressive power, lest the largest, strongest, and least 
competent half should run the Ship of the State upon the rocks, 
and wreck the others. If the Franchise could be extended upwards 
to the clearer waters of intelligence, where knowledge, the 
responsibilities of property, and intellectual culture chiefly pre- 
vail, the further it could be extended the better ; but as the best 
men are already secured, it can only be extended by going down- 
wards to the dregs. If the lower orders could be so far improved 
as that there could be an educational test instead of a property 
test applied to them, they could then be entrusted with a great 
privilege ; but in the absence of this security, no statesman would 
proceed downwards without the greatest caution to a class, whose 
chief idea of the value of a Vote, consists in how many pints of 
beer they can sell it for. A crafty and an unprincipled Minister 
might do so : but I draw a strong line of demarcation between the 
Statesman and the Minister, for a man may be a Minister but no 
Statesman. An unprincipled Minister might do so to serve his own 



334 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. [Z,*^; 

selfish ends, absorbed in securing the votes of the ignorant, 
knowing that the votes of " Beer-and- tobacco men," if they can be 
obtained, count up to him just as much as the votes of their betters, 
and can be more easily gained by specious arguments, which would 
not dupe higher-grade citizens. Such a Minister is no Statesman. 
He would sacrifice the common interests of his country and of his 
countrymen, so long as he could obtain the advantage of his own 
present emoluments. 

On one of the fly-leaves at the end of the sixth volume of the 
Diary, which we have now just finished, the Governor has jotted 
down a number of extracts from Books that he had been reading : 
and amongst others the following from Seidell's Table Talk, con- 
taining some remarks on parliamentary representation, apposite 
to the train of thought I have indulged in above. Selde'n says — 

" All are involved in a Parliament. All men once had a voice 
in chusing Knights. In Hen. 6th time they found the inconveni- 
ence. One Parliament made a law that all under 40/. rent p ann. 
should be excluded from a voice. They made the law who had 
been chosen by all, as well under 40/. as above. All consent 
civilly in a Parliament : — 

" Womeu are involved iu the men : 
Children in those of perfect age : 
Those under 40/. iu those above : 
Those above in the Knights." 

The Gordon Kiots had not burst forth as yet, but they were 
looming at no great distance. The ebullitions that had hitherto 
manifested themselves were only the harbingers of a grander dis- 
play, soon to set London in a flame. 



Feb 
1780 



( 335 ) 



CHAPTER VIII. 

BEGINNING OF THE SEVENTH VOLUME OF THE DIARY. 

February 1st, 1780. — The prospect of returning to] America 
and laying my bones in the land of my forefathers for four 
preceding generations — and if I add the mother* of W. H. it 
will make five — is less than it has ever been. God grant me a 
composed mind, submissive to his will ; and may I be thankful 
that I am not reduced to those straits, which many others who 
are banished are, and have been. 

In the city to-day, but no fresh intelligence. 

2ud. — Some abatement of a long spell of very cold weather, 
and the sun has shewn itself part of the day. Wind keeps still 
to the north. It is said that the whole of a fleet of near 100 
sail to Ireland and England are arrived from New York. 

3rd. — My Banker in the city says they have advice that the 
siege of Gibraltar is raised, and that the Spaniards have lost 
3000 men by sickness. I don't find it to be depended on. 

The Petitions and Associations forming by enterprising men 
in so many counties for reducing salaries and pensions have a 
threatening aspect, and some fear great confusions from them. 
Stocks, under all discouragements, rise rather than fall. Bank 
Stock this time last year at 106, now 113. 

* When William and Anne went to America in 1634, tliey took William's 
widowed mother with them. The Governor, in his writings, nowhere 
mentions her name, and probably did not know it. In the First Covenant 
of the First Church of Boston, however, there are lists of the Members ad- 
mitted. After William and his wife, and most of his children, come the 
Wheelwrights, and his mother. The entry is this — " 12th of 4th moneth. 
John Wheelwright, and Marie his wife. Susanne Hutchinson, widdowe." 
This Susanne appears to be the name for which I had been long looking, and 
is " the mother of W. H." mentioned above. The name is either Susanne 
or Susanna. 



336 DIABY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTCBINSON. [So! 

4tli. — General National Fast : — a day whicli for several 
years has been observed in London more strictly by attend- 
ance on public worship, and forboar'^" of all business than 
any other day set apart for the purposes of religion. It 
being the pleasantest day for some days past abroad, I was 
more afraid of the olmrches, where the dampness and cold 
witliin was more sensible than if tlie weather had continued 
cold. 

My son Billy, just after he was in bed last night, coughed 
and spat much blood, which greatly alarmed and distressed him, 
and causes him wholly to despair of recovery. 

5th. — Walked to Lambeth to call on D*" Lort, the Abp.'s 
Chaplain, but lost my labour, he being from home. 

Dined in the city to-day at Mauduit's — Sir E. Sutton, 
Maseres, D"" Watson, Kay, and Galloway. 

M"" Mackenzie called on me in the forenoon — conversation 
about General Howe, who married Lord Strafford's niece ; and 
I think M"" IMackenzie's lady is of the same family. He con- 
demns the Howes — says there is no accounting for their 
conduct. I tbought they all along flattered themselves they 
should be able to effect a conciliation, and therefore never 
pursued the rebels to that length they otherwise would have 
(lone.* That they might fancy, he said, at first, but it was not 
possible after two y" experience. They might prolong the war, 
he sometimes thought, for the sake of enriching themselves. 
The General, he said, certainly lived in a different state from 
what he had ever done before : his friends however, gave out 
Ihat he had made nothing. Lord Strafford, he said, enquired 
of Byng, an high Opposition man, who married another of 
Lord Strafford's nieces, Byng said he had made very little — 
not above five thousand pounds. This, M'" Mackenzie observed, 
was too insignificant a sum to enable him to change his state of 
living as he had done. 

6th. — Old Jewry. 

* Those who attentively consider the course of the war after the Battle 
of Brooklyn, or even after Bunker Hill, must feel that General Howe gave 
America to the Americans. There are two ways in which a General can 
deal with an opponent : — one is, to fight him : the other is, to pretend to 
fight him. 



{■>;Io.] DIABY AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 887 

Peter Oliver, son to the late L*' Governor,* called on me : — 
just arrived in town from N. York : sailed with the fleet the 
2oid December : storm came on the 25"' : the 2G"' saw a ship 
tliey took to he the Solebaij, having carried away her main and 
mizen top masts, and they judged the head of her mainmast. 
The Solehau is not yet arrived. 

A newspaper from N. York, of Dec. 15"', contains an Act of 
the new State, confiscating the estates of a great number of 
persons, beginning with Lord Dunraore, their former Governor; 
Tryon, their last Governor ; and goes on with Watts, and four 
or five more of the Council, and a great number of others ; and 
concludes w"' Sir Henry Clinton, and banishes them all upon 
pain of death. 

Doctor Cooper, late Pres' of the College at X. York, now an 
Eplsc. Clergyman at one of the Chapels in Edinburgh, called 
on me. 

7th. — A prospect of more moderate weather : wind westerly, 
and sunshine without frost. My son seeing the sun pleasant, 
wished to go into the coach, but I discouraged him, the air not 
being warm, and his distemper has advanced too far to leave 
any room to hope for relief from any means now to be used. 

Stli. — M'' Thompsonf (Lord George's,) called, and among 
other things mentioned that he had a great curiosity to shew 
me — but I was not to speak of it — all Gov. Pownall's and 
Doctor Franklin's correspond"^® with D"" Cooper of Boston, and 
then related the particulars. I shewed him the extract I had 
made from one of Franklin's letters, and mentioned another 
which he said he well remembered. He said he had copied 
them all over, and made a present of the originals to the King, 
who was vastly pleased with them.:]: I thanked him, and said 

* By the second wife Mary Sanford; born Sei:). 17, 1749. He married, 
but other particulars are wanting. 

t This is tlie same person apparently with Count Rumford. 

X On one of the ^-leaves at the end of the sixth volume of his Diarj-, 
the Governor has copied off part of one of Franklin's letters, and possibly 
from the batch alluded to above. It is dated July 7, 1773, and one passage 
which speaks of Mr. Hutchinson's missing letters, runs thus — 

" The Letters might be shewn, even to some of the Governor's and 
Lieutenant-Governor's partizans, and spoken of to everybody, for there was 
no restraint proposed to talking of them, but only to copying. And possibly, 
as distant objects, seen only through a mist, appear larger, the same may 

VOL. II. Z 



338 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS nUTOniNSON. [^ 



Feb. 
80. 



I should like to look over them, but I liad seen tlicm, and 
taken a cursory view of tlieni. D'' JefTries lent them to me 
upon a promise to return them. One of Franklin's letters in 
1770, in which he declares his opinion upon the constitutional 
Independence of the Colonies, and another, in which he gives 
an account of my Letters, I copied, and returned all the 
originals. 

I thiuk Jeffries would have given them to me, if I had 
desired it, but as D*" Cooper had left them with Jetfries's father 
for security, and they came into the son's hands by some 
accident, the father not intending they should, I scrupled 
desiring the son to do a thing which I doubted whether he 
could justify, unless some important purposes for the public 
could be served by it. It is very extraordinary that he should 
afterwards give them to Thompson, if lie did do it. I remem- 
ber to have heard that T. was more intimately acquainted with 
M'"^ Jeffries than with the Doctor. This is a curious anecdote. 
Franklin will not care who sees his letters, but Governor 
Fownall will think himself ill used if he should ever hear that 
his private correspondence with Cooper for many years, has 
been given to the King. 

I thought when I sat down to make this minute, that M"" T. 
desired me not to mention anything about it, but I was under 
a mistake — he spake of it without any reserve. It was another 
matter he desired me not to mention. Speaking of the des- 
perate measures of the Opposition, and of the backwardness of 



happen from the mj'stery in this case. However this may he, the terms 
given with them conld only be those with whicli they were received. There 
is still some chance of procuring more, and some still more abominable." 

The following is the printed version of tlie same portion, as given in 
t'ranld ill's Private Corresiwndence, vol. ii. p. 377, and the reader, if cnrious 
to compare them, may learn that the same thing is not always exactly the 
same. The printed version says — 

"The letters might he shewn, even to some of the Governor's and 
Lieutenant-Governor's partiz:ins, and spoken of to everybody ; for there was 
no restraint proposed to talking of them, but only to copying. However^ 
the terms given with them, could only be those with which they were 
received." The last sentence is omitted, as well as some other parts. 

The Governor's conscientious scruples about taking the letters from young 
Jeftnes, when he believed them to be Avithin his reach, put his sense of 
honour in a very proper light. 



Feb 



v'.^'o.] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCEINSOK 339 

the Ministry ift prosecutiug offences, and even in referring to 
tlie Attorney and Solicitor General the consideration of the 
Committees of Correspondence, he added, that the Head did 
not want spirit — the King had said to Lord George [Germaine], 
that if the people were determined to ruin the Constitution, it 
might not be in his power to help it, but they should never 
make him their prisoner. 

" That expression," I observed, " woidd admit of diff*^ con- 
structions : the King might resolve to leave the KingJom." 

" No," says T., " he has said he would die a King." 

If this be a true account, which I have no reason to doubt 
of, it shews that the King sees in a more serious light the 
present violence of Opposition than people generally imagine 
he does. It shews also that Lord G. is extremely incautious 
in trusting such an amount of his conversation with the King 
to a young man, especially as it is not possible they should 
have lived so long together without Lord G.'s having discovered 
that T. has not the faculty of retention. This brings to my 
mind the conversation I had with L'^ Polworth at Wimpole, 
which I have minuted in October last.* 

9th. — A mild air, which I have taken as much benefit of as I 
could, and hope we may expect a spell of moderate weather, 
that by the blessing of God invalids from age, and the severity 
of the weather, may recover some degree of health. 

10th. — General Prescot in town : the Solebay, in which he 
was passenger, being arrived at Portsmouth dismasted. 

A packet arrived from Lisbon. Letters mention a report of 
an engagement between Rodney and a squadron of Span, ships, 
several of which are said to be taken or destroyed. People 
very much differ upon the degree of credit it deserves. 

11th.— Gen. Gage, W Burch, and son, Flucker, Putnam, 
Watts, and Chambellin of the Treasury, and CoP Bruce, dined 
with me. 

The acc*^ of Rodney's action seems to gain ground. M'* 
Walpole has wrote to Lord Stormont that the Spanish Ambas- 
sador at Lisbon had rec'' an acc*^ from Madrid that one of the 
Spanish ships had blown up, and one had got into Cadiz, but 

* Oct. 18, 1779. 

Z 2 



340 DIAIiY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON, [nsu'; 

notliing said of any other. Otlier lottci-.s say that it was re- 
ported in Lisbon one ship had blown [up]. Rodney bad taken 
six, and one escaped. 

12th. — Acconnt to-day of tlic arrival of the America and tlio 
Pearl with the remainder of Rodney's prizes, which ho did not 
carry to (Gibraltar. Sir James and Lady AVallace came to town 
from Paris. He says the account there was that eleven Spanish 
ships sailed from Ferol to join the rest at Cadiz : that three 
separated : that Rodney met the remaining eight near Cape 
St. Blary : that npon one of the Span, ships of 74 guns blowing 
up, the rest attempted to escape : that three did escape : five 
were taken, two of which, having lost their masts, and being in 
possession of the English, were so far in Cadiz bay, that a gale 
of wind coming on, they could not work out, and ran into the 
port to save their lives. 

Some hope, as this is tlie French and Spanish acconnt, we 
may expect fomethiug more. 

I dined with M"" Mackenzie — the company Lord Loudoun, 
Lord Cassilis, ]jord Drummond, Col. Charles Stuart, Frederick 
Stuart, Lord Bute's sou, W Woodford, Tod, and Sam. Martin, 
besides M"" Mackenzie's lady, and ]\[" Stuart. 

loth. — D'" Kippis's. A raw, foggy, E. day. 

The Gazette of last night gives M"" Fitzherbert, Resid' at 
Brussels, his ace'' of Rodney's last action, as rec'' there, viz. — 
that on the IG*'' of January he met with the Span, ships, 
consisting of eight : three had separated in a storm some time 
before, and no account where they were gone : of the eight, one 
blew up, three were taken, viz., one of 80 guns, the other two 
70 : the four remaining gat into Cadiz in a shattered condition. 
M"" Fitzherbert gives the names of all the ships. 

D^ Chandler, Bliss. 
■ The particulars of Rodney's first captures, on the 9"^ [or 8"'] 
Jan-" are in the Gazette, the America and Pearl being arrived.* 

* The Listorians of the day say that llotlney was despatched first, to 
convoy transports to relieve Gibraltar, and then proceed to the AVest Indies: 
that Don Juan de Lungara, the Spanish Admiral, tried to intercept this 
supply -with eleven men-of-war and two frigates : that three or four of his 
number separated from him in a storm : that on the 8th of January Eodney 
ent'acfcd and took a 04, four frigates, and two smaller armed vessels, with 15 



1 



Feb. 

173U. 



] DIARY AND LETTEB8 OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 341 



lith. — It is said to-day that 5 sail of Spanisli ineu-of-war 
were in Algerisa Bay, near Gibraltar, and that there is room to 
hope that Eodney may come up with them ; but I thiuk they 
will get on to Cadiz, or run thro' the Cut of Gibraltar. 

15th. — A vessel from Atigua brings intellegence of H. Parker 
having taken 8 sail more of victuallers bound to Martinico. 
Several of the N. York ships arrived at Portsmouth — T. 
Goldthwait, M"" Domat and wife, &c., passengers. 

16th. — My dear son declines faster than common in his 
distemper, sensibly sinking from day to day, and the symptoms 
of the last stage appe.ir. At his desire D"" Chandler visited 
him to-day, to whom ho opened his mind with great freedom, 
and the Doctor, who I trust has a serious sense of religion upon 
his own mind, expressed a satisfaction at seeing so much of it 
in my sou, which he assured him that amidst the levities, 
follies, and sins of youth, he never wholly lost sight of, and 
from the beginning of his illness has kept in his mind. 

To the mercy of God, the searcher of hearts, from whom no 
secrets are hid, I desire to commit him. 

17th. — But little abroad. Doctor C. again visited my sou, 
and prayers were made as for a person in extreme danger. 

18th.— Still sinking . . . 

My own catarrh and cough have been very troublesome to- 
day. 

M"" Domat called— from New York. He and many others 
are arrived without any money, and in a most distressed state. 

19 th. — I sat by ray son after his brothers and sister left him 
this evening, until between 11 and 12, all this time struggling 
for life, and longing for his dissolution . . . He soon after fell 
into a doze, and waking, said he never was in so sweet a sleep 
in his life . . , 

20th. — Soon after I rose I enquired of one of the servants if 



mercliantmen : that on the 16th, ia another engagement, he took the Phoenix, 
Flag-ship, 80, with Don Juan on board, and three other ships: that two 
struck, but were driven to leeward, and one lost: that the San Domingo 
blew up with all hands : and that, having relieved Gibraltar and Minorca, he 
proceeded to the West Indies. Admiral IJigby brought the prizes to England, 
and took the Prothee, a French 64, and two store ships, on the way. 



o42 nuny AXD lettees of tiiomas eutchinson. \J^f^\ 

lie had beou iij) to my son. llt^ said be had carried up his 
ass's milk, but that he Avas uuable to take it, and Avhilc his 
watchers were holding- him uji ho fell back. I asked in what 
manner? He said in a fainting- fit. I went up to him and 
met one of his watchers at the door, who said he was dead. 
He sank back and died without a groan, and perhaps in as 
sweet a sleep as he had felt the evening before. I could not 
help taking a look at his dead countenance, which I wished I 
had not. The servant was ordered to conceal his death from 
me until I had been to breakfast, which caused such an answer 
from him. 

This, my youngest son, was 27 years of age last August, born 
at Milton, where his mother, of all earthly objects ever known, 
deservedly the dearest, had retired to avoid the small pox in 
Boston. 

21st. — Kept house — my cough increasing. Took Elix* 
asthmat. at night. 

22nd. — Had a better night than expected, but my cough 
bad in the day, and fever increasing. Took two tea spoonfulls 
of the Elixer, — 

2ord. — but had a very bad night : high fever and little 
sleep. 

Sent to D'' Heberden, who thought my fever very high: 
ordered two draughts of Tartar Emetic, &c., to be taken before 
dinner, and in the evening, and a third at going to bed, with 
Thebaic Tincture, 8 drops, and I had a tolerable night, but &c. 
the next morn. 

24th. — My pulse increased. However, as I held up, could 
read and write, Avhich he wondered at, he only ordered the 
like draught, viz,, one in the day, and one at going to bed, and 
one in the morn. 

The funeral of my son this morning in the church at 
Croydon. 

25th. — I had the worst night I have had for many years, 
and expected a fixed fever ; but while I lay calm in the 
morning, I thought my fever abated, and when D"" Heberden 
came, he was of the same opinion, but ordered to take one 
draught more before noon, and the Thebaic tinct. draught at 



^Z] DIABY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS IlUTCniNSON. 343 

night. I have reason to be thankful for a much better day 
than I expected. 

26th. — A bad night — some sleep, but not quiet after two 
o'clock. Keep about my room still. Pulse 105.* 

27th. — My fever still the same : little appetite or rest. 

28th. — Much the same night. Being a fine warm day, I 
took an airing in Hyde Park and to Chelsea, and was much 
refreshed. 

29th. — A good night without medicine, but think my fever 
high : afraid my pulse is quicker, or which is most certain of 
all — I think so : but I find my nerves affected, and give way to 
every groundless apprehension. Only Mauduit's coming in and 
telling me my pulse was better than when he saw me last, gave 
me a calm evening. 

March 1st. — I took my medicine last evening, by which 
means I had probably a more quiet night. D"" Heberden in 
the morning called, and finds my pulse still high — 96. He 
was very particular in his enquiries as to any symptoms except 
my cough and high pulse, and upon the whole advised to 
continue my draught at night, and if I found any new occasion, 
to send to him : recommended light diet and moderate exercise, 
and hoped I should not have further call for a Physician. I 
took an airing, but my fever seemed to be high. In the 
evening tried repeatedly, by my watch, for 4 or 5 minutes 
together, and thought it did not exceed 80 in amount, and 
omitted my draught. 

My cough troubled me in the night ; my fever was high in 
the morning ; but after lying an hour or two, I think my pulse 
was slower than for 8 or 10 days past. 

2nd. — Much the same. I forbore my draught, but felt guilty 
for neglecting Jy Heberden's directions, it being doubtful 
whether my fever was abated so as to warrant me. 

The confirmation of Sir G. Rodney's taking and destroying so 
many of the Span, ships in his way to Gibraltar gives spirits 
to those who wish well to the country. He has added 5 line- 
of-battle ships completely manned to the squadron at Gib*". 

3rd. — I took my draught last night — proved diaphoretick, 
* The shock of his son's death had probably its effects on his health. 



34-1 DIAIiY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. [f'^J; 

but 1 had not much sleep. I hope however, I am not ^YOl•so 
to-day. An airinjjj to IVckhani. Kaiu prevented my wallcinj^ 
any part of the way. In the evening found no sensible abate- 
ment of my pulse : my appetite however, was better to-day 
than for ton days past. 

Mauduit in the evening, says it is certain one of Clinton's 
transports, with 170 Hessians, was arrived at 8t. Ives. The 
olheer wrote up to know what to do with the men, but^ nothing 
more is known of the cause of her coming to England, except 
that she fell foul of another vessel, and sustained t!;reat daruaue, 
and stood for Europe. 

4th. — A good night followed by a poor day. D'' H. called 
and wondered to find my pulse so high, but said nothing dis- 
couraging besides. My imagination always takes the dark side. 
Fever I thought higher than at any time. Towards bed time 
8up)posed it more calm. 

An airing to Clapham over London Biidge : walked a mile 

near Clapham, the air rather cold, and I feared I had taken cold. 

5th. — I should have attended publ. worship if [1] had not 

feared taking cold, having had as good a night and morning as 

[I] could expect. 

M"" Thompson, from Lord George's, called to tell me that 
Djgby was come in, and had brought with him a French 64, and 
o E. Indiamen ; Rodney with 4 or .5 ships gone to the ^^^ 
Indies. With Digby came 5 Spanish and 1 French line-oT- 
battle ships — tl;e first completely fitted for our service. 

Cth. — Charles Fox's speech printed in the Morn. Chronicle. 
Ho hopes the Secr^' of State will no longer be continued for 
America — the salaries to the Governors cease — and above all, 
the pension to a late Governor, M"" Hutchinson, that firebrand 
and source of the American disputes. 

Happy should I be if I could as well acquit myself for all 
other parts of my conduct thro' life, as for the part I have taken 
in this controversy. 

M'' Ellis called, and informed me Lord North said much in 
my favour. 

7th. — I had a very indifferent night ; much of my cough, and 
pulse high, which continued all day until eveniug. 



S:] DIABY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 345 

An airing with my daughter* to Newington Green, aud 
Newington town. 

A Flanders mail wdth advice that Gaston's squadron had 
met with a bad storm : one ship foundered, and five put into 
Ferrol dismasted. 

The vessel at St. Ives left Clinton off the Capes of Yirgiiiia 
the 28'^ December. She has 30 Provincial troops on board 
besides Hessians. 

8th. — I slept most of the night, and rose, hoping my 
distemper was going off, but my fever kept up its height, and 

9th. — I had the most discouraging night since my first 
complaint, having scarce any sleep, and felt some pains and 
other symptoms which made me apprehend my distemper fixed. 
The greatest part of the night I was calm, and free from any 
kind of pain, except of mind, from want of sleep. 

10th. — Slept last night beyond what I have done since my 
illness began. 

11th, — Kestless again, with but little, and that, confused 
sleep. An airing and moderate walk yesterday and to-day. 

12th. — A restless night and gloomy day: an airing in the 
Park. 

13th. — A third night with little or no sleep. In the morning 
desired to see D"^ Heberden. He stayed till two o'clock before 
he came, and L* Gov. Oliver, Paxton, and others coming in, in 
the mean time, and all encouraging me, I wished I had omitted 
it. I am not well, but by the goodness of God my cough is 
abated, and my pulse rather better than worse. 

14th. — A tea spoonfull of Diascordiiim composed me last 
night, and I rested remarkably well, but my feverish pulse does 
not go off. 

15th. — Walked near two miles, the coach by my side. 

16th. — Set out with my son-in-law Doctor Oliver in a 
chariot, and lodged at Bagshot. An encouraging night. 

17th. — Tried a horse a mile or two — the wind colder than I 
expected, and I think I took cold, and was fatigued in the 

* Sarah, his eldest and only surviving daughter, and wife of Dr. Peter 
Oliver. She only outlived her father by 25 days, and his terra of life wfis 
to be only three months longer. 



346 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS JIUTCHINSON. [^7^0: 

eveniug. At the inu in reterslield was seized uitli a violent 
cough, a pain crossing [my] breast, which bro't on a shortness 
of breath I never IVlt before. 

18th. — jMy pain almost gone, but my ^YeakMess at my breast 
remains, luiiued all day, and we were obliged to lie by at a 
wretched old inu. 

' 19th. — Went on to rortsmouth : lodged at a private house : 
no amendment. 

20th.— To Chichester. 

21st.— 'Jo Petworth. 

22ikI. — To Brighthelmstone, where we remained until 
Monday the 27th,* for answ ers to our letters to London. 

28th.— To Tunbridge Wells thro' Lewes. 

29th.— To Bromley. J)^ Oliver took the horse and went to 
London, the next morning the 30th, and I went in the chariot 
to Wandsworth, where I had desired him to meet me. He 
advised to lodging in the country. 

30th. — We wen! to Eichmond — my son and I, and D"" Oliver 
and his wife. 

31st. — Remained looking for a house, or good lodging. 

April 1st. — The landlord having engaged his rooms, we were 
forced to exchange our lodgings to an inn a mile distant in 
Twickenham Eoad. 

2nd. — Went on with my son and daughter towards London, 
and by advice remained to the 4th with my daughter in High 
Street [Marylebone], when I went with her and her husband to 
lodgings at Brompton Park, after a very unsuccessful attempt 
of near 3 weeks. Fiat voluntas Dei. 

IStli. — For a fortnight past I can discover no abatement of 
my disorder. I think my general weakness increased. My 
children try to encourage me not to think so — say they see no 
signs of it — that my nerves are greatly affected, and my case 
appear* more desperate to me than it ought — and that my 
countenance is better rather than worse. 

May 3rd. — I still continue, as I think, declining ; but abroad 
in [the] carriage every fair day, and have made trial so as to 
walk a horse. 

* It was now "WcJucsJay. 



n^5:] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTQHINSON. 347 

7tli. — No ajDpareut abatement of my weakness, unless my 
being able to do more yesterday and to-day than I expected is 
any evidence. I was near two hours on the liorse to-day, and I 
think rode 7 or 8 miles, and near, if not quite half the way 
upon an easy trot — the rest walked. Tliis is more than I was 
able to do at any time when on my journey, and I desire to be 
thankful for every favorable circumstance. 

12th. — I still continue in much the same torpid state. 
Yesterday I was near two hours on my horse, walking and 
trotting gently, and as long to-day. My shortness of breath 
does not mend. The weather grows fine. Perseverance in 
keeping the air, on a horse and in the coach is pressed upon me. 

15th. — -My horse begins to be too fatiguing. My son still 
insists that my countenance is not that of a decayed man, and 
will not despair. 

22nd. — A week passed and no abatement : last night almost 
sleepless. 

Here tlio Diary ends abruptly — eleven days prior to his death. 

Before I go any further I would pay my addresses to Charles 
Fox, and administer to him a mild opinion on his unwarrantable 
and untruthful slander uttered in the House of Commons, as 
mentioned in the Diary on the 6th of March, w'here he uses the 
words — " Mr. Hutchinson, that firebrand, and source of the Amer- 
ican disputes." Mr. Hutchinson's meek observation upon this is 
not very firey — " Happy should I be if I could as well acquit 
myself for all other parts of my conduct thro' life, as for the part 
I have taken in this controversy." There is one consolation — the 
detractor will not be believed by those who learn, from the evi- 
dence contained in this work, what Mr. Hutchinson's real senti- 
ments were on the great questions of the day — his conciliatory 
motives for coming to England, and his endeavours when theie, 
to intercede with the Ministry for the mitigation of some of the 
repressive measures with which the Americans were offended — or 
his general disposition to put the most favourable construction on 
the conflicting points that were agitating the public mind — and 
even to make excuses for some of the excesses of those whom he 
thought had been misguided and misled. A score of instances 
might easily be pointed out, either in his writings or in his conduct, 
where he acted like a pacificator, but who can point oxit a single 
place where he acted like a firebrand ? "What would Mr. Fox have 



348 DIABY AND LEITEBS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. [S. 

done, if ho would have avoided tlioso disputes of Avliicli lie com- 
l)laincd ? Would ho have avoided thein by giving the Americans 
all that they asked for? for that -was the only way in which those 
disputes could have been quieted. If ho advised Mr. Hutchinson 
to liave taken that course, he was advising liim to Lecomo a rebel. 
And lie was virtually advising him to become a traitor to his King 
and Mother Country, in breaking the oaths of fidelity and allo- 
giiince to Avhicli he had sworn when ho was aitpointed Governor. 
Jt has before been shewn how sundry Noble Lords, in their places 
in the Upper House, defended tlie Americans in their violent 
proceedings, and refused to believe that they had a thouglit of 
separation, even at the very time when they o]Denly proclaimed 
sucli a design at their public meetings, and were even in open 
hostilities in order to eft'ect it. That this design was cherished 
long before the war commenced was evident in 17G1 — two years 
before the conquest of the French in Canada, four years before the 
pas.^ing of the Stamp Act, and fourteen years l)efore the first shot was 
fired at Lexington : for Mr. Frothingham, in his History of the Siego 
of Boston, p. -i, alluding to a speech of James Otis in that year, 
says — " The idea was entertained at this period, that an American 
Empire was close at hand." — This was followed in 1769 by the 
before ([uoted exclamation of .Samuel Adams — " Independent we 
are," &c. Yet a certain section of the Meml^ers in both Chambers 
of the Legislature could not or would not read the signs of the 
times, or what in most men's eyes was something plainer than 
mere .--igns. "Were he [Lord Chatham] once persuaded that they 
entertained the mcst distant intention of rejecting the legislative 
supremacy," &c., " he would be the first and most zealous mover 
for exerting the whole force of Britain in securing and enforcing 
that power."* He had already recommended the case of the 
revolters to the Cabinet Ministers by saying — " Resistance to your 
acts was necessary, as it was just," which was sufiiciently encour- 
aging ; and the Duke of Eichmond added his approval, and " hoped 
they would succeed." Who were the " firebrands " in the face of 
this evidence ? Truly, as Governor Hutchinson says, in his letter 
to Mr. Walter, of May 19, 1779 — " The Opposition — to whom the 
Eebellion must be attributed." And no wonder Lord Lyttleton 
told them to their faces that — " Those who defend rebellion, are 
themselves little better than rebels. "f A cause cannot be a good 
one that can only be supported by misrepresentation. Let Charles 
Fox and his inaccuracies go. 

* Adolph. ii. 186. t ^^«?-> ii- 300. 



n^S:] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 349 

The fragmentary Diary of Elislia supplies somo scraps of infor- 
mation relative to the Governor's declining state and last days, as 
well as the particulars of his death, to Avhich occurrence he Avas an 
eye witness. At the time of the illness and death of Peggy, his 
health failed him in a way unknown to him hefure, for which he 
consulted Dr. Eliot, but the unusual symptoms passed off" as he 
recovered from the strain that had so much Iried his nerves; and 
then, at the loss of Billy his health gave way again. The anxieties 
which he had suffered over since he had heen in England, owing 
to the abnormal state of political affairs, the condition of liis 
countrj^ and the dark prospects that hung over the future of his 
children, had all served to undermine his constitution. The tremu- 
lousness of his handwriting towards the latter portion of his 
Diary may serve to indicate that his nervous system had become a 
good deal shattered. He sought a change by leaving Sackville 
Street for Brorapton Park. As he did not give up bis town house, 
the move was intended to have been temporarj' only, — but he never 
returned. 

From the Diary of Elislia Hutchinson. 

April 5'", 1780. — The trees and fields quite covered Avitli 
snow this morning : afterwards, several flights of snow. Walked 
out and took a letter from the Postman to the Judge* from tlie 
Doctor, giving very dire accounts of the Gov^ health, and of M''^ 
Oliver's illness, attended with very alaiming symptoms, which 
has determined me to set out in the morning. Walked into 
.town to take a place in the diligence, but all were engaged. 

6th. — Fair and cool, with some flights of snow and hail. Set 
out with [the] Judge in [a] postchaise at h past ten o'clock for 
London — our first stage at Coventry, when we took a cold 
morsel, (at the King's Head, Thomas Sodcn, next door to 
Peeping Tom,) and proceeded on our journey to Daventry : 
changed horses and got to Towcester, (51 miles,) at ^ past seven 
o'clock. 

7th. — Cloudy morning, and cold ; fair afternoon. Set out 
from Towcester a few minutes before 8 o'clock; changed horses 
at Stony Stratford — Brickill, Dunstable, and St. Albans, where 

* Elislia and Judge Oliver were. then in Birniingliani. Dr. P. Oliver 
in London. 



350 D TAUT AND LETTERS OF THOMAS nUTCniNSON. [nI5: 

we stopped an Lour, and took another cold repast ; and 
clianging horses at IJarnct, reached ni_a;li Street, [IMarylebone] 
at \ past five o'chick, (GO nnles), when finding that the Gov"" 
had taken lodgings at Brompton, abont ^ a mile from my 
bi-other's [Tliomas's,] Brompton Bow, immediately went in a 
Hackney coach to my brotlier's, who was gone to tlie Governor's, 
and to whom I sent a card, acquainting him with my being just 
arrived, and soon after went, and found him very low, but 
better than we had expected ; and IM""' Oliver tells us, some of 
the symptoms, which had been very alarming, had abated. 
Indeed, the greatest danger seems lest the Gov., who is greatly 
reduced, should wear himself out with the continual worry of 
spirits produced by the very hypocondriac state in which he 
at present is. 

After tea we returned to High Street, and slept at the 
Doctor's, there being only the children and servants, the 
Doctor and his wife constantly residing with the Governoi'. 

8th, — Fair. Walked over to [the] Governor's and dined, 
and the Judge, and Tommy. The Gov'' seems in better spirits 
whilst he has us all about him. After tea walked to High 
Street with the Judge. 

We called on M" and Miss K. Hutchinson. 

11th. — Flying clouds and some rain. The Doctor came over 
to breakfast with us. The Governor a pretty good night, but 
gives all up this morning : wastes away — his life spent — thinks 
it best to go to Sackville Street and die . . . [faded out] . . , 
Thus the morning passes : at dinner — his friends about him — 
he recovers something of his spirits, and if [he] does not wear 
himself out, he may chance to others — those about him. He is 
taking the bark in small quantities. If he should be able to 
continue it, and the weather should prove favourable, we shall 
hope for good effects, notwithstanding he seems to have fully 
determined his own fate. 

After breakfast walked over to Brompton : returned in coach 
with Gov. and M" Oliver to High Street : afterwards a few 
miles on the Kensington road. The Gov. seemed better, and 
we had less of gloomy conversation, as they tell me, than 
usual. The Judge dined with us. The Governor has been 



tZl'] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 351 

better this afternoon than at any time since I have been in 
town, and what is most extraordinary, is willing to own it 
himself. 

12th. — Fair morning : afterwards cloudy and rain. The 
Judge set out this morning about seven o'clock to go to the 
diligence from Piccadilly to Birmingham . . . 

17th. — Fair morn" — sometimes showers — hail and snow. 
Walked to Brompton: came back in coach with W^ Oliver: 
returned to Brompton witli Grov*": and back again to High 
Street . . . Called on M^ Galloway, W^ H., W Dennison, and at 
Gov"" Shirley's, and M"" H. Walked to Strand: from thence 
thro' the Park to M"^ Leonard, and to Brompton to dinner thro' 
Grosvenor Place. Tommy came to tea, after which I took 
leave . . . The Gov' more cheerful, and much of his own coun- 
tenance. May we have still further encouragement to hope for 
his recovery. 

18th. — Fair and pleasant morning. In a Hackney coach 
soon after seven to the 3 Kings, Piccadilly, where I found the 
Birmingham coach, with one passenger only, whom I after- 
wards found to be a young woman going to her parents, who 
live near Birmingliam, and who had lately been married to a 
[blank] who keeps the [blank] near Marybone Work-House. 
We left the 3 Ks at ^ before 8 o'clock, changed horses at 
Brentford, again at Colnbrook, and at Maidenhead. Just before 
we reached Nettlebed, about 2 o'clock came on a most violent 
storm of wind, attended with as large hail and smart lightening 
and thunder as I have known since I have been in England. 
We stopped half an hour, and proceeded to Oxford, where we 
arrived at 5 o'clock . . . 

19th. — Fair and cold morning : cloudy afternoon. Set out 
from the Angel Inn at ^ past six o'clock, and in two hours 
reached Enston, 14 miles, where we breakfasted : changed 
horses at Shipton, and got to Stratford at one o'clock^ where we 
dined : and changing horses at Henley, reached Colemoro Row 
at Tf past six o'clock, (having parted with my Diligence traveller 
at the Castle Inn,) where found my family and the rest of the 
company, M'" and M""^ Startin being there at tea, in good health. 
26th. — , . . We ilined at the Judge's, and at tea* After 



352 niAHY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS IIUTCITTNBON. \J'^Z 

dinner went ^Yitll the Judge to EP Ballartr;?, our slioe-makcr in 
High Street, and saw a man or lad from Ireland, known and 
exhibited by the name of [blnuk] Upon our entering the 
room, we asked him his height? lie told us ho was 7 feet 11 in. 
;.nd ^ without shoes, lie is large and well proportioned to his 
stature, and has not an uncomely countenance. He has a ])ale 
and light complexion. He told us he wa-! not quite 20 years of 
aze : has grown gradually to this stature : none of his fiunily 
of extraordinary size. His dress very decent: a coat and 
waistcoat of red or moreen cloth, the latter with a gold binding; 
a p'' dark jean riding breeches, and silk stocks. He likewise 
told us that at his meals he did not eat more than men of a 
common size. He is [the] most extraordinary production of 
nature, and nearly, if not altogether equals the accounts we 
have of the Patagonian Eace. 

30th. — . . . IM"^ 0. has a letter from the Doctor, who writes 
discouragingly of M""* 0., and says the Governor has not gained 
anything since w^e were in town, but refers to Tommy, who is 
to write me more particularly. 

May 1st. — Fair and moderate. The Gazette of Saturday * 
night has a letter from Gen' Clinton of the Otli JMar. at 
Cha [blank]. He gives advice of his sailing from Sandy Hook 
the 26 December, arriving at Tybee the 1st Feb^ [blank] and 
Avas preparing to attack Charlestown, which was well fortified and 
prepared for defence. He met with a series of bad weather — 
several transports lost, but men saved, and other damage, but 
i:oped for success. Letters likewise from the Commanders. 

7th. — . . . Wrote Tommy expressing my anxiety and con- 
cern that he had not wrote, it being more than a fortnight 
since I left London, and the only accounts of my sick father 
and sister, from M"" Clarke and others, which only mention in 
general that they Avere no better, but express their dread of the 
event of their illness. May Heaven be kinder to us than our 
fears, and send us more favourable accounts. 

11th.- — Fair and pleasant. A letter was bro't to me this 
morning before breakfast from M"" Oliver's, from my brothei-, 
bro't by M*" Porter, ^^ho arrived this morning from London. 
* It was now Monday. 



f^To^] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 353 

'My letter is dated the 6tli. The Gov'' remained much in the 
state I left him. M" Oliver's symptoms continued very 
alarming. 

I have before observed that Elisha's Diary is written on sheets 
of note paper, sometimes single and sometimes in fasciculi, which 
however, have never been sewn, though some of them appear to 
have been pinned together, judging by the empty pin holes ; hence, 
they are mixed, confused and perplexing to arrange, as the dates 
of the year, and the name of the month are but very rarely given. 
From the last date above, namely, the 11th of May, to the 
Governor's death on tlie 3rd of June, being a space of three 
weeks, I find no remains of the Diary whatever. In the interval, 
however, Elisha was summoned up from Birnxingham to London 
again. 

Perhaps I had better explain here, if I have not sufficiently done 
so already, my reasons fur inserting the account of the death in 
the first volume, at what is manifestly the wrong place. 1 had 
several reasons for so doing, which are the following — 

1.— I hail no expectation that the first volume would succeed 
well enough to furnish inducements to undertake another, so tliat 
there seemed no likelihood of a second chance, but in this I have 
been agreeably deceived. 

2. — Although in good health, I was seventy-two, ami that is a 
complaint from which no man ever recovers, so that if it were 
ever done at all, I did not think it would be accomplished by me. 

3. — As there was no record of the event in existence, except in 
the two loose leaves of the son's Diary, which any accident might 
destroy, I was glad of an excuse to get the particulars into print, 
in order to secure them. 

Having lived however, to compile this second and concluding 
volume, I insert the account here in its proper place, and on the 
first opportunity it must be struck out of the first, the portion to 
be struck out, beginning with the words, " But in spite of his 
desire," &c., at page 451, down to the full stop after the words, 
" fully come to hand in England," on page 453. 

What remains of Elisha's narrative is the following: — 

[6]overnor slept tolerably well, as he had done for several 
nights past ; arose as usual at 8 o'clock, shaved himself, and 
eat his breakfast, and we all told him that his countenance 
[ha]d a more healthy appearance, and if he was not better, we 

VOL. II. 2 A 



354 DIABY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. [i""o' 

had no reason to conclude tliat lie had h)st j]^round. Ho 
conversed well and lV(>ely upon the riot in London the day 
bctbre, [Gordon riotsj, and upon different subjects, 'till the time 
for going out in the coach, at intervals however, expressing his 
expectations of dying very soon, repeating texts of Scripture, 
with short ejaculations to Heaven. He called for a shirt, telling 
Ryley his servant, that he must die clean. I usually walked 
down the stairs before him, but he got np suddenly from his 
chair, and walked out of the room, leaving the Doctor, [Peter 
Oliver, ins son-in-law] and I behind. We went into the room 
next the road ; saw him whilst he was walking from the steps 
of the door to the coach, (a few yds. distance), hold out his 
hands to Kyley, and caught hold of him, to whom he said 
" Help me ! " and appeared to be fainting. I went down with 
the Doctor. The other servants had come to support him from 
falling, and had got him to the door of the house. They lifted 
him iuto a chair in the Servants' Hall or entrance into the 
house, but his head had fell, and his [end of the first page] 
hands and f[eet ?], his eyes diste[nded ?] rolled up. The 
Doctor could feel no pulse : he applied volatiles to his nostrils, 
which seemed to have little or no effect : a be[d ?] in the mean 
time was bro't, and put on the floor, on which he was laid, after 
w hich, with one or two gaspes, he resigned his Soul to God who 
gave it. I was unhappy in being so near. The scene was too 
affecting, and I could scarce support myself from falling. I 
pray God it may having [have] a proper influence on my future 
conduct iu life, and with great sincerity can say, that the 
summit of all my wishes and prayers to Heaven, is contained in 
one short petition — May I die like him ! My brother came in 
soon after. We then consulted how we should communicate to 
M''* 0. this distressing account, in her weak state and low 
condition. It was determined to send fur D"^ Chandler, to whom 
the Doctor went, and returned with him, who made it known in 
the easiest and best manner possible, and then went to prayer 
with us. After dinner D"^ Ch. went home. I went with Tommy 
to his house, where we opened the Gov.'s Will, of which there 
was . . . [end of second page] . . . last A - - 1 - - ed [?] . . . 
after directing that-- s funeral charges should . . . [blank] 



June' 

1780 



] D I ART AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTOHINSON. 355 



. . . gave his whole estate in the following manner* . . . [blank] 
... I came back to the house to tea, and wrote to M" H., 
acquainting her with the melancholy event to us, but easy and 
happy departure of the Governor. 

4th. 

4tl].t — I went to bed, but my nerves were so affected, and 
my thoughts disturbed, that I could get no sleep, or next 
to none, the whole night. At eight o'clock I took what papers, 
money, and small matters of value were in the house, and went 
in the coach to Tommy's, where I left them, and went to Charter 
House Square to acquaint D'' Apthorpe with what had happened, 
the Governor having expressly desired him to reserve a place 
near my syster in tlie church at Croydon. He promised every- 
thing should be in proper order on [Frjiday next, the day which 
we have proposed [for] the funeral. I then went [to] M"" Lynn, 
Walb. . . [?] Street, and engaged him to provide and conduct 
the funeral : from thence to the Bull and Mouth Inn, in B. 
and M. Street, and paid for a place in the . . . t coach for 
Birmingham, which sets out [end of the third page] from 
thence at 5 o'clock in [the] evening, I returned to my 
brother's, where ]\P Ly[nn]came, and went with me to Bromptou 
Park. M""® 0. has bore the shock l[ess] than we feared : slept 
well with an opiate, but seems to be bewildered, her mind weak, 
and takes less notice of what happens than she did. Her 
disorder seems to be increasing, and in all human probability, 
must soon put a period to her life. Thus we are perhaps one 
[of] the most distressed families upon earth. Whilst earthly 
comforts are swiftly failing, may we desire solid comfort from 
Heavenly fountains which never can fail us. After dinner 
called in the coach on Tommy, and from thence to the Green 
Man and Still in Oxford Street, from whence about ^ past 
5 o'clock I set [out] in [the] Post Coach for Birmingham, in 
company [with] a M"^ Taylor of Wolverhampton, and a M'" 
Campbell going to Ireland, and a young G[ent] in a Clergyman's 
grey going to Oxford. [We] changed horses . . [blank] . . and 

* A copy of his Will is given further on. 

t Twice repeated. This date shews that his father died on the third. The 
fragment begins without date. 

2 A 2 



356 DIAIiY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS IIUTCIIINSON. fmo" 



l_1780. 



atUxbridge, aud got to llywiecouib [High Wycombo] at ^ past 
nine, where the rest of the company went in t . . . 

Ami thus cuds tho fourth page. Words, or parts of words that 
aro worn out or lost, huvo boon ro])lacotl within scpiaro brackets. 
Such portions of tho Diary aro missing as might liavo given some 
account of tho funeral, hut tho Parish Register shews that ho was 
interred on tho I'tli. 

Tho riots in London to which tho Governor alluded, almost at 
liis last hour had, by tho mistaken zeal of Lord George Gordon, 
been urged on to very serious proportions, so that by the time of 
the funeral, London was in several places in flames ; the cortege 
however, probably' took the roiito by way of Cattersea and Streat- 
ham, by which it would avoid the city, which by this time was in 
tho hands of the King's troops. 

Horace Walpole Aviote as follows on the day Mr. Hutchinson 
died : — " At eight I Avent to Gloucester House : the Duchess told me 
there had been a riot, and that Lord Mansfield's glasses had been 
broken. . . . About nine his Koyal Highness and Colonel Hey wood 
arrived, and then we heard a much more alarming account . . . 
About eight tho Lords adjourned, and were suffered to go home, 
though the rioters declared that if the other House did not 
repeal the Bill, thei-e would, at night, be terrible mischief . . . 
Lord George Gordon was running hackwards and forwards, from 
the windows of the Speaker's Chamber, denouncing all that spoke 
against liim to the mob in the Lobby . . . No saint was ever more 
diabolic than Lord George Gordon. Eleven wretches are in prison 
for the outrage at Cordon's, and will be hanged instead of their 
arch-incendiary." 

" Nothing ever surpassed," he wrote on the 4th of June, " the 
abominable behaviour of the ruffian apostle that preached up this 
storm. I always, you know well, disliked and condemned the re- 
peal of tho Popish statutes, and am steadfast in that opinion : but 
I abhor such Protestantism as breathes the soul of Popery, and 
commences a reformation by attempting a massacre. The frantic 
incendiary ran backwards and forwards naming names for slaughter 
to the mob : fortunately his disciples were not expert at assassination, 
and nobody was murdered for the Gospel's sake. So blind was his 
zeal, and so untutored his outlaws, that though the Petition was 
addressed, and carried to the House of Commons, the chief fury 
fell on the Peers." 

The next day he recurred to the subject — a subject which at that 
juncture excluded all others from conversation : — " The Jack of 



nTo'] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 357 

Leyden of the age, Lord George Gordon, gave notice in tlie House, 
of Commons last Aveek, that he would on Friday, bring in the 
Petition of the Protestant Association ; and he openly declared to his 
disciples that he would not carry it unless a noble army of martyrs, 
not fewer than forty thousand, would accompany him. Forty 
thousand, led by such a lamb, were more likely to prove butchers 
than victims, and so, in good truth, they were very near being . . . 

" Early on Friday the conservators of the church of England, 
assembled in St, George's Fields to encounter the old dragon, 
the old serpent, and marched in lines of six and six — about thirteen 
thousand only, as they were computed — Avith a petition as long as 
the procession, which the apostle himself presented : but though he 
has given out most Christian injunctions for peaceable behaviour, 
he did everything in his poAver to promote a massacre. He de- 
manded immediate repeal of toleration, [to the Eoman Catholics,] 
told Lord North he could have him torn to pieces, and running 
every minute to the door or windows, baAvled to the populace that 
Lord North would give them no redress, and that now this member, 
noAv that, was speaking against them . . . You Avill be indignant 
that such a mad dog as Lord George, should not be knocked on 
the head." 

On Thursday the 8th of June he AA^rote — " I came myself yester- 
day [to toAvn,] and found a horrible scene. Lord Mansfield's house 
was just burnt doAvn, and at night there were shocking disorders. 
London and Southwark Avere on fire in six places ; but the regular 
troops quelled the sedition by daybreak, and everything now is 
quiet. A camp of ten thousand men is formed in Hyde Park, and 
regiments of horse and foot arrive every hour." 

On Saturday the 10th — "I have this moment received tAvo 
letters from town to tell me that Lord George Gordon was over- 
taken in his flight to Scotland, and Avas just brought prisoner to 
the Horse Guards. This is all I knoAV yet, except that some say 
he was seized in the Park, and Avas not fled . . . Four convicts 
on the eve of execution, are let loose from Newgate, and Lord 
George Gordon is sent to the ToAver." 

" The ToAver," he adds, " is much too dignified a prison for him 
— but he had left no other." 

On February the 2nd Ave are told — " On Monday is to begin the 
trial of Lord George Gordon, Avhich AviU at least occupy everybody 
for some days." 

It would have been better if he had been sliot in the tumult, for 
his captors did not know what to do Avith him Avhen they had got 
liim, and so he escaped hanging. 



358 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. fnT 



Lnso. 



Unfortunately the portions of Elisha's Diary synchronising with 
the above events, are niissinj:^, so that we lose his description of them ; 
hut there is a loose leaf with the writing nearly all faded out, ap- 
parently belonging to the 16th of June, on which ho speaks of going 
to Ilyde Park, to see the soldiers encamped there. It is this — 

" jM"" Domett drank tea, and tlien we walked into the Park, 
which was crowded with great numbers of people, amongst the 
rest the Dutchess of Newcastle, [?] and some others of the 
nobility, the Park being every day crowded at evening since 
the Camp ]ias been there. 

Met Lord Townsheud in Edward Street on horseback, just set 
out from his house. He stopped me and said, then L'' 
Hillsborough will interest himself in your favour. I said L*^ 
H. was very polite. He said something of I^PPaxton. I asked 
his L'^ship if he was in town ? He said — " Yes, at my house." 
I had gone but a few yards: he called me back, and asked if 
there was anything in the military line in his department? he 
should be glad to serve me. I expressed my thoughts that 
there were places in the Ordnance Office. He replied, he had 
nothing in the civil line, and was then trying for something for 
M'"Haton. I had some little other conversation, and we parted. 

On the other side of the leaf there are entries tending to shew 
that he and his brother were engaged in winding tip their father's 
affairs. On this page there are dates : — 

17. — Fair and pleasant — hot. Walked to Brompton : from 
thence with Tommy to the Treasury thro' the Park, and 
returned to Sackville St., and from thence to Brompton in a 
coach : after dinner to Sackville St. to settle something there, 
and back to tea : after tea to Brompton Park with Tommy and 
his wife. Wrote to M"^ H. Called on M'" Paxton. 

18. — Cloudy — some rain. Went in a coach to Sackville St. 
with Tommy. Walked to Cockspur Street and to Craig's Court, 
to see W Cox about the house : returned to Sackville Street, 
to look after the books, &c. : to Brompton in coach to dinner : 
afterwards to Sackville St. in a coach with some packages to 
the Green Man and Still in Oxford Street. Called on D"" 



nToJ DIABT AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 359 

Chandler, and on M'* G-., where I met M"" [blank] from Virginia, 
who was returning in his carriage to Brompton, and I came 
home in it with him. 

Franklin was at this time residing at Passy near Paris, and 
having heard of the riots, and having heard of the death of the 
Governor, he informs us that the one was ascribed to the other — 
not the riots to his death, but his death to the riots. In his Letter 
to Mr. Carmichael, of June 17, he writes — " Governor Hutchinson, 
it is said, died outright of the fright." Whatever happens, or 
whatever has happened, or whatever will happen, we are all of us 
fond of explaining how and why, and are quite sure we are right. 

Sarah, the wife of D^ Peter Oliver, and the Governor's eldest 
daughter, followed him within four weeks. It was she who would 
not leave her fathei", when his houss was attacked by the mob on 
the 26th of August, 1765, in the city of Boston, as mentioned in 
the third volume of his History, page 124: — "The Lieutenant- 
Governor [himself] had very short notice of the approach of the 
mob. He directed bis children and the rest of his family, to leave 
the house immediately, determining to keep possession himself. 
His eldest daughter, after going a little way from the house 
returned, and refused to quit it, unless her father would do the 
like. This caused him to depart from his resolution, a few minutes 
before the mob entered." 

This is alluded to by the Hon. Kobert C. Wintbrop, in his Intro- 
ductory Address, delivered at the Lowell Institute, Boston, Jan. 5, 
1869, where he says—" Hutchinson, as the mob approached, was 
engaged in hearing to a place of safety a beloved daughter who 
had refused to quit his side, and was thus compelled to abandon 
his precious papers to their fate. Everything was destroyed, or 
thrown out of the windows," &c. 

Dr. Peter Oliver dues not ajipear to have made the entries in his 
Diary day hy day, as they occurred. From the way in which many 
of the statements flow one into another, it might be inferred that 
he wrote them at irregular intervals in groups or batches. Thus, 
the following extract summarises a variety of diverse subjects, to 
which our attention has been recently directed — 

FEOM THE DIARY OF Dr. P. OLIVER. 

Eeb^' 2, 1780.— Will"^ Sanford Hutchinson, M'^ Oliver's 
youngest brother, died of a pulmonary consumption, aged 
27 ^^^ and G m. Governor Hutchinson being unwell all winter. 



360 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON, [j 



June 
780. 



and this shock happening, almost overcame him. I went into 
Hampshire and Sussex for a fortnight with him in March : 
returned in Ap', and found M'''' Oliver exceedingly ill. The 
4"' of Ap' tlio Gov., i^aWy, and I, took lodgings at Brompton 
Park, 1 mile from llydo Paik. She grew daily worse, as also 
her father. 

May 18th. — M""^ Oliver delivered of a son : put to bed well, 
but in 3 days she faltered. 

June 3rd. — The Gov"" died suddenly, in the 09"^ y'' of 
his age. 

M""® Oliver grew worse faster every day till she died, which 
was the 28"^ of June, past 3 o'clock in the morning. That day 
I completed my 39"^ year : she was 35 y" and 7 months old. 
She died perfectly resigned to the will of Heaven, but in great 
agony of body. 

July 3rd. — She was buried at Croydon church, next to her 
father, myself, M"^ Willard, M^ Bloweis, and M"" Domett, 
mourners. She was one of the most virtuous, amiable, and 
kindest wives that ever man was blessed with. A greater loss 
I could not have sustained, but Heaven's will be done, and 
I acquiesce, knowing whatever is, is right. She is relieved 
from a deal of misery and distress : she had gone thro' more 
than any one who knew her could have imagined. 

July 21st. — I set out with a wet nurse, and my 4 children 
for Oxford. 

22nd. — From Oxford to Birmingham ab^ 7 o'clock. 

24th. — I took a room in the Hotcll. 

25th. — I put my two eldest boys to School at Windsor 
Green, under the care of W Pickenige. I put my daughter to 
school at Mosely, under the care of W^ Henrisou, in Worces- 
tershire, and tlio nurse and baby in New Hall Street. Thus I 
had disposed of my children in the best manner I possibly 
could. It appeared hard at first to part with them, but I have 
got reconciled at last to it ; but the pleasing reflection I had of 
seeing them often, was soon turned into sorrow, for my dear 
little infant, who was very near my heart particularly, was 
drooping in a few weeks after I had got lodgings for it, and 
finally was seized with convulsions the 20"' of Aug'': lay in that 



uso.'] DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 361 

state till the morning of the 27"', 3 o'clock, and then died in 
the greatest agony. I had it opened by Tomlinson : its lungs, 
heart, diaphragm, stomach, and intestines, and all its viscera, 
were in the soundest state. Whatever produced the fits was 
eometli^ on the brain, wliich could not have been perceived if 
we had opened its head. 

I moved the 29"' of Aug* to High Street, opposite New 
Street, at Ballard's, one bed-room only, at 3/6 p"" week, from 
the hotell. 

30th. — I buried my little baby the north side of S* Phillip's 
church, and near the vaults — 6 feet deep : M"" James read 
players. 

31st of Aug*. I paid off and dismissed Nurse Dove, hoping 
never to see her again, &c. 

Ou the fly leaves at tlio beginning and the end of the last 
volume of bis Diary, the Governor has jotted down several memor- 
andums, referring to the receipt and to various payments of money. 
The last dates iu his own handwriting are of the first of June, he 
dying on the third ; and these efforts are in a clearer and firmer 
hand than many of the entries in the body of the Diary made a 
few weeks before. There are some items referring to his Bankers' 
account with Gines and Atkinson ; and on the other side, amongst 
the payments, it appears that he was not only contributing to the 
maintainance of his children and other relatives by quarterly 
advances, but also by gift or loan to quondam American friends 
who had withdrawn to England, and who were suffering the 
privations consequent on the troubles of the times. Among these 
latter may be mentioned Mr. Charles Paxton, who had been 
Commissioner of Customs at Boston, and who is abused and 
slandered in the account of him given by Lorenzo Sabine, with an 
amount of political spite and severity, such as we are almost 
ashamed to read in the present day. In January 1780, ho has a 
balance of £6,387 15s. ScZ, with his Banker. The following are 
p;iyments — ■' 

Jan^. xV Merchant 20 „ — „ . 

10. James Fisher 45,,--,, . 

17. Peter Johannot. W. !S, IT 70 „ — „ . 

25. Jn° Campbell, for Navy Bills . . 2942 „ G „ 4 

Feb. 9. John Carter 27 „ 10 „ . 



362 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS liUTGlIINSON. 

12. T. Latham, 311G. 16. G . . . . 12„— „ 
23. 8elf, byE 105,, — „ 

i\rar. 1. 8. Oliver 25 „ — „ 

— E. Hutchinson 25 „ — „ 

-T.H 50„-„ 

Ju" CanipboU, lur Navy Bills. 

5816.2. 4 .2194,, 6„ 

April 16. Bethell Cox 51 „ 2,, 

— Lyiide Funeral 48„11„ 

May 3. John Carter. 5945. 9. 10 . . . . 29 „ 14 „ 3 

13. Self, by my sou T 52 „ 10 „ 

— A ]\[erchant. 6017. 19. 10 . . . 20 „ — „ 
June 1. T.H 50„ — „ 

E. H 25„ — „ 

S. O 25„ — „ 

P. lieily 24„ — „ 

M. Greeimi) 10 „ 10 „ 



A few pages furtlier on, bearing dates ranging through the first 
three months of the year 1780, there are two columns of entries 
under the heading " House Expenses." From these a few scattered 
items may be selected — 

I'tb. 7. Handkerchiefs 1 „ 1 „ . 

1 Tea [one pound presumably] . . 10 „ 9 

10. Fruit for dessert 5 „ . 

23. Three women, lor mourning [for Billy] 18„18„ . 

March. Tea '. 10 „ 9 

M"^ Maudnit's Wm. for Bandanoes * . 1 „ 10 „ . 

May 1. Hairdresser 6 „ 16 „ 6 

After these the Governor's memorandums cease, but a continua- 
tion of the entries by his son Thomas inosculate with them, and 
from these latter a few may be taken. They of course date 
subsequently to his father's death. 



1780. 
June. 



EECEIPTS. 

Cash left in house, 45 Guineas 

* India silk liaudkercliiefs. 



47 „ 5„ 



DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTOHINSOK 363 

Kec*^ Widdows cloaths 3 „ 3 „ . 

July. 560*1 for d° 1 „ 11 ,, G 

Rec'i M"- Tatterall, for coach . . . 14 „ 19 „ . 

Eec'^ Kemble and Venn 16 „ 13 „ 2 

Nov'*. Eec^ Sam. Mather 20 „ — „ . 

1781. 

Mar. 15. Rec'^ of M"" Paxton, money lent him, £63. 

In* on d° £1 „ 17 . 61 „ 17 „ . 

Ap*. Eec'^ for old silver buckles . . . . 1 „ 13 „ 6 

llvti" a }/ d°, Billy's 1 „ G „ 10 

Eec'' Gold lace of suit cloaths . . . 5 „ 16 „ 2 

Mem'i M-"^ Sanford [Miss Grizzel Sauford] to M""^ Smithson. 
May 8*^ 1783. I am to pay M"--^ Smithson at the rate of 40£ 
p ann. for M" Sanford, from this time, p agreement. 

Balance in my hands after the final division, 

July 1781 18 „ 12 „ 1 

560*1 for ren/ Billy's effects. . . . 4„ 4„ . 
Rec*i Sam^ Mather his Note to the 

estate 32 „ 10 ,, . 

Rec'i suit cloaths, lace taken of [off] . 18 „ . 
Jan^ 1782. 

14. Eec'' 1. dividend on Gines and Atkin- 
son, bal* 22„16„ . 

Eec*! 2 silver seals 12 „ . 

Mar. Eeo*! 2 odd spurrs 16 „ I) 

Oct. Eec^^T. H 20„ — „ . 

Rec'i E. H., out of dividends . . . 10 „ — „ . 

Eec*i P. 0., Juu-- 10 „ — „ . 

Apl 1783. 

Eec'' of the Treasury 20 „ — „ . 

Eec** at d" 10 „ — „ . 



Here the record of the Receipts, in so far as they ajipear in this 
hook, terminates ; the items that follow are taken from among the 
Payments. 



364 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS nUTCHINSON, 



PAYMENTS. 

Jnno 1780. 

14. P'lu-obatc Will . . . . . . . 4„13„ 

P"* 5 Mourning rings 4 ., 14 „ 

20. P^ W Txowv on £150 leo" for r.istoi- 

llutc'hiusuu 3 „ 1 5 „ 

July. Paid E. II. cliarges in coming to town, 

moving, &c 

Paid D^ Oliver 10 (hiiueas . . . 

21. JMiss ISanfoid and Nurse, 2 Guineas 



Au' 



rj„ 0,, 

10„10„ 

') o 

1„ 1„ 



17 „ 

3„ 

15 „ 



Nurse Whitmore, mourning, 6 Guineas 
D'' Oliver borrowed of her, 1 G. . . 
Coach and cart, M"""* Sanford and Nurse 

moving 

Paid for Elisha's carpet to Berm[ingham] 
Paid Water tax 

Nov. 7. M" Hales, a quarter's loard, M--^ Sanford 10 „ — ., 

Dec. 20. Paid W Carter advertising coach, omitted 2„ 

1781. 

Jany Paid W Powe for Fos. Hutchinson . 2 „ 10 „ 
Paid S-- Will Pepperell a debt of Billy's 20 „ — „ 

15. Paid Nurse Wliitmore 10 „ — „ 

W Sanford, tea i lb 4 „ 

Paid appraising 10 „ 



Mar. 

Ap'. 



1782. 
Auir. 



8. M^^ Smithson, a Q"" 9 „ 



The record of his burial stands as follows in the Parish 
Pegister at Croydon, in Surrey : — 

" June 9, 1780. Thomas Hutchinson Esq., Late Governor 
of the Massachusetts, Aged 69." 

Lorenzo Sabine tells us that Mr. Apthorp, (or Apthorjie) had 
married a niece of Governor Hutchinson, and this family con- 
nection will account for the friendly relations on which they 
stood. He writes: — 

• "Apthorp, East. An Episcopal Clergyman of Massachusetts. 
He was born in 1733, and was educated in England. In 1761 



DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTOIIINSOK 365 



he was appointed a Missionary at Cambridge, by the Society 
for the Propagation of the G-ospel in Foreign Parts ; and during 
his labors there, was engaged in a warm theological controversy 
with C JMayhew. Eetiring to England, he died there in 181G, 
aged eighty-three years. His wife was a niece of Governor 
Hutchinson, and a daugliter of Eliakim Hutchinson. His only 
son was a Clergyman. One daughter married D"" Cary ; one, 
D"" Butler ; and a third, a son of D'' Poley [Paley] ; — the 
husbands of the two first were heads of Colleges. M'' Ap thorp 
was a distinguished writer. In 1790 he lost his sight." 

Let us glance at the Governor's Will. How different a Will 
from til at of his father ! Truly, says M' W. H. Whitmore, 
page 18, in his account of the Genealogies of the Hutchinson 
and Oliver families — " Probably few men in the Province had so 
large an estate." And he gives the particulars of it, as extracted 
I'rom the Probate Office in Boston, Massachusetts. The list of be- 
quests is unusually long and generous, wherein are remembered, 
not only relatives, but a large number of personal friends : and 
it may be inferred that his table was handsomely furnished, 
since he not only gave his wife 600 ounces of silver plate, but 
he had enough afterwards to divide into seven portions, to be 
distributed among his children. It was he who, in the earlier 
part of his life, gave his hirge silver tankard to the North Church, 
to be used for the wine at the celebration of the Holy Com- 
munion, but which has been bought back into the family, as 
mentioned in vol. i., page 394, and he bequeathed £300 to the 
same church, besides £80 to the poorer members of the congre- 
gation ; but since those days the Wheel of Fortune had taken 
a turn, so that riot, mob-law, and confiscation had left the 
Governor unable to name an article that he could call his own, 
wherefore he merely specifies a legacy of £300 for Elisha, and 
divides into four portiona whatever his children might be able 
to scrape together afterwards, and these they are to share among 
themselves. 

The original Will is preserved in the Will Office at Somerset 
House, Strand, London, from which place I procured the 
foUoNviug office copy : — 



366 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 

" The last Will and Testament of Thomas Hutchinson, 
formerly Governor of IMuPsaclmsetts Bay, now of Sackville 
Street, Westminster. My body I commit to the earth, to be 
buried at as small expense as can consist with decency ; My 
Soul I commit to the mercy of Crod, through the IVIerits of Christ, 
limnbly imploring the forgiveness of the innumerable sins of 
a long life. I make my two sons Thomas and JElislia my 
Executors. I give to my son Elisha Three hundred pounds, 
having giving him less than I intended in my life time. The 
rosiduc of juy Estate, of wliat kind soever, I give to my three 
children in the proportion following, viz. : — Two fourth parts, 
thereof to my eldest son Thomas Hutchinson ; one fourth part 
to my son Elisha Hutchinson ; and one fourth part to my 
daughter Sarah Oliver : and if either of my children shall die 
in my life time, it is my will that the part given to such child, 
shall go to his or her surviving children, to be equally divided. 
I revoke all former Wills, and declare this to be my last Will. 

" In testimony whereof I hereunto set my hand and seal this 
tenth day of April, in the year of our Lord 1780. 

Tho' Hutchinson- 




" Signed, sealed, published, and declared by Thomas 
Hutchinson as his last Will, in the presence of us, 
who signed as Witnesses in his presence. 

Peter Oliver. 

Patrick Peilly. 

Patrick Taaffe. 

Besides his son-in-law, the two other witnesses were his Irish 
men-servants, the first of whom had accompanied him from. 
America. The following memorandum is appended to the 
Will:— 

" Proved at London 14*^^ June 1780, before the Worshipful 
George Harris, Doctor of Laws and Surrogate, by the Oath of 
Thomas Hutchinson Esq''^ the son of the Deceased, and one of 
the Executors named in the Will, to whom Admon was granted, 
having been first sworn, duly to administer. Power reserved to 
Elisha Hutchinson Esq'"^ the son also of the deceased, and the 



DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 367 

other Executor uamed in the said Will, when he shall apply 
for the same." 

At his death, it appears that the Governor had no more to 
leave than between six and seven thousand pounds. In his 
Diary, under September 1, 1778, he speaks of £7000 as being 
all he then had in the world ; and on the fly-leaf of the last 
volume, in account with his Bankers, there is this entry : — 
" 1780, Jan. To Balance, p ace*. . . 63S7„15„3." 

There are a few scattered entries in the different Diaries 
which, though they have lacked sufficient connection with the 
preceding course of events, yet, by favour, may be admitted 
here. The following is on a loose leaf of Elisha's Diary — is of 
uncertain date, but probably of about the period to which we 
have arrived : — 

" 19th. — Cloudy and moderate. Walked to Brompton, and 
returned to town with Tommy. After tea as far as JiP Gallo- 
way's. M"" Dillon called, and told us he is to return to 
Binning''^ on Monday, the business he came to town about 
being at an end — his claim to the L'^ High Chamberlain ; that, 
as being descended from the same ancestor with Lord Percy, 
and most probably an elder branch of the same. The Judges 
however, determined the Statute of Limitations to be a Barr to 

the claim, having for more than 60 years be ." end of the 

page. 

Although Elisha had taken up his residence at Birmingham, 
as had also the Chief Justice, and his son Dr. Peter Oliver, they 
occasionally visited London. The first being there, and calling 
on his friend Mr. Watson, apparently on the 25th of August, 
though in what year there is nothing to prove, made the 
following statement in his Diary : — 

" Cool, and several heavy sliowers. M"" W. has a striking 
likeness of D"" Franklin by M''^ Wright in wax, and another 
which was designed for himself, but there is want of resem- 
blance : they being dressed, and [in a] sitting posture in the 
room, would deceive the nicest discernment at first entrance, 
and every one at first is led to speak to them." 



3G8 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS IIUTCJIINSON. 

Presumably they were as large as life. Franklin had long 
known, and corresponded with this lady. There is a letter of 
his to her in his Correspoiulenco, vol. i. p. 3i, tending to 
dissuade her from coming from London to Paris, for the pnrpose 
of practising her art of modelling portraits in wax, alleging 
that two or three other artists already profess it thei-e, and then 
adding — " but it is not the taste for persons of fiishiou to sit to 
these artists for their portraits." 

The snbjoiiu^l cxplnnatory Note is appended to the letter: — 

" W^ ]\[ehetabel Wright was altogether a very remarkable 
woman. She was the niece of the celebrated Jolin Wesley, but 
was born at Piiiladelphia, in which city her parents settled at 
an early period. M""* Wright was greatly distinguished as a 
modeller in wax, which art she turned to a remarkable account 
in the American war, by coming to England and exhibiting her 
performances. This enabled her to procure much intelligence 
of importance, Avhich she communicated to C Franklin and 
others, with whom she corresponded during the whole war. 
As soon as a General was appointed, or a squadron begun to be 
fitted out, the old lady found means of access to some family 
where she could gain information, and thus without being at all 
suspected, she continued to transmit an account of the number 
of the troops, and the place of their destination to her political 
friends abroad. 8he at one time had frequent access to 
Buckingham-House, and used, it was said, to speak her senti- 
ments very freely to their Majesties, who were amused with her 
originality. The great Lord Chatham honoured her with his 
visits, and she took his likeness, which appears in Westminster 
Abbey. M" Wright died very old in February 1786."' 

That curious collection of wax figures, representing Kings, 
Queens, and sundry great personages, kept in a mysterious and 
little known chamber in Westminster Abbey, is not so numer- 
ous as it used to be. It formed an interesting series, not only 
as portraits, but also as specimens of costume. Not one in a 
thousand of those who enter the Abbey are aware of the 
existence of such a chamber. But of late years a considerable 



DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 369 

portion of the collection has been improved out of existence, or 
removed elsewhere, for the ever increasing numbers were 
growing so great, that it was becoming difficult to know what 
to do with them. If they were sufficiently good as works of 
art, or true in their portraiture to the lineaments of the 
originals, they would be worth removing to a place where they 
would be more open to the public. Perhaps it might be added 
that the sons have been educated above their fathers, and that 
though the fathers held the wax figures in the highest admiration, 
the sons prefer resorting to the National Gallery. 



VOL. II. . 2 B 



( 370 ) 



CHAPTEE IX. 

The Governor had been quietly laid in his grave, and his 
two sons now found themselves in a country moderately new to 
them, and thrown upon their own resources to make the best 
of things — to scrape together what was left for them, to watch 
the course of events, to see whether any varying phase in the 
fortunes of the war, which still dragged its slow length along, 
was likely to open a way for their return to the land of their 
birtli, or, on the other hand, to settle them down where they 
were. It was beginning to be said on both sides of the water 
that people were getting tired of the war, and mutually desired 
l)eace, Thomas, when writing from Brompton, Nov. 23, 1780, 
to his brother Elisha in Birmingham, uses these expressions : — * 

"American spirits begin again to rise upon the last ace*' rec'^ 
from thence. Col. Chandler has a letter from his wife, who says 
the cricis for American Independence is past. The people are sick 
of their new alliance."]" Mr. Wilson writes from New York, that 
it was wdth difficulty carried at a town meeting, to make another 
attempt this antumn, many being for a comjiosition with Great 
Britain. The best chance is from dissensions among themselves. 
A son of Col. Warren, who perhaps you know, arrived in town a 
few days ago : and another, of G Trumbull, is close in New- 
gate for carrying on a correspondence with Franklin for some 
time past, as the papers have told you." 

Judge Oliver, in his usual joking style, addressing himself 
on the 9th of June, 1781, to Elisha, who was then in London, 
sends the following message to Mr. Joseph Galloway, late 
Speaker of the Assembly in Pennsylvania, but then a Kefugee 
in England, couched in these facetious terms : — 

* Original Letters, vol. ii., dated from 1780 to 1800, inclusive. 
+ With the French — which was true enough. 



DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 371 



" Tell Mr. Galloway that he will have so much time upon hand 
that he may venture a visit to Birmingham, as Philadelphia will 
not be swept and garnished this — this — century. As to pretty 
Miss Galloway, if she will accept of my compliments, present 
them to her, and let her know that if she inclines to see the whole 
world, she will find it here in miniature ; and miniatures are the 
most agreeable objects for vision, as their different parts do not 
crowd upon the eye. But if she refuses my compliments, do not 
tell her anything I say about this important matter." 

Thomas writes to his brother on the 20th of July this same 
year : — 

"Our accounts from America afford a good prospect of the 
reduction of that country ; but we have already found it will not 
do to depend much upon prospects." 

There is au original letter of August the 29 th this year 1781, 
addi-essed by Mr. Galloway to Elisha, in which he gives him 
his opinion upon men and things at this period. He says : — 

"You ask me what Chapter of politics we are in now ? Indeed, 
my Dear Sir, this question would puzzle Solomon himself. Such 
is the folly or wickedness of ihe persons entrusted ^vith carrying 
on the American war, that it is impossible to form even a distant 
conjecture when either of us shall cross the Attlantic with safety. 
We see Lord Cornwallis gaining victory after victory with but 
little fruits attending them. Like a bird he passes through the 
country, but conquers no part of it. Sir Henry [Clinton] with 
13,000 British, and 7,500 Militia, is sleeping in New York, and 
dreaming about an expedition to Philadelphia, and I fear it will 
prove only a dream. When I see a General enter a Province — 
give the people assurances that he does not mean to desert them 
— cordially invite the Loyalists to take up arms, and to seize 
upon and bring us the disaffected, then, and not till then, will I 
pretend to presage an end to the rebellion. This policy one would 
imagine would be familiar to a school boy. Our Generals have 
had it repeatedly pointed out to them, and yet they go on their 
old wretched way, entering Provinces, and then deserting them, 
leaving the unhappy Loyalists the sacrifices to this folly. L'nder 
tLiese circumstances we know no remedy but patience ; stealing at 
the same time a little comfort, from a hope that the course of folly 
will have its end, and our prospects become more agreeuble." 

2 B 2 



372 DIAliY AND LETTEHS OF THOMAS EUTCUINSON. 

Thomas to Elisha, as follows : — 

" Brompton, Aug* 30th, 1781. 
" Dear Brother, 

" It is so long since we have heard anything of the welfare of 
our Birmingham friends, that it was carried by a full vote, that I 
should sit down and make the enquiry. The Doctor tohl us that 
we should hear from him within a week; probably from now 
quarters, but nothing as yet appears. We have always had good 
news from America since you loft us, but the prospect of a settle- 
ment seems to bo little advanced by it ; and the accounts of the 
dispositions of the southern people are rebellious beyond what 
could have been imagined, — many of property chusing rather to 
leave their estates and go to the northward, than submit to the 
protection of this Government. Such was the situation of 
Carolina, that Gov"^ Bull writes Mrs. H., he dared not venture to 
his country house, six miles from Charlestown, for fear of assassin- 
ation ; but such a state I think can't last long." 

In the Diary of Dr. Peter Oliver we read : — 

" 1781. Nov.— Mr. Abel Willard died of a slow fever in London, 
the first week in NoV, 1781. 

" Nov"^ 25. — News arrived in London of the capitulation of Lord 
Comwallis and his brave army the 19th of Oct^" 

Upou this astounding piece of news, Mr. Pelham Winslow 
writes from New York on the 1st of December, 1781, as follows, 
to Elisha : — 

" You express great confidence, and reputation from Lord Corn- 
wallis's bravery and good conduct, and from thence presage a 
happy termination to the present campaign. Great must be your 
mortification and disappointment, when you hear of his catas- 
trophe ; and further observe, by the Tenth Article of Capitulation, 
the Loyalists left exposed to the vindictive resentment of a set of 
people whose tender mercies are cruelty : — men whom he was 
sent to protect and defend — men whom he had encouraged and 
excited by repeated Proclamations and promises of protection, to 
take up arms and co-operate with him, and quit their families and 
fortunes, should be the only people left unprovided and unpro- 
tected by the capitulation, is surprising and alarming, and gives 
great uneasiness and apprehensions to the Eefugees and friends to 
government here. Where the fault lies I will not pretend to say : 
time will evince, and I hope the hand of justice will inflict proper 



DIAEY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 373 

punishment upon the delinquents. But thus much I will pretend 
to say, (without the gift of prophecy) — That if Great Britain thus 
permits her friends to be sacrificed, she may hid adieu to America ; 
for no government can expect subjection without protection, or at 
least, an equal participation of sufferings amongst its subjects. 
What has, or what will be the fate of those unhappy men, we have 
not yet heard, but in all probability a halter will be the only reward 
a great many of them will receive for their Loyalty. I will not 
dwell upon the subject — 'tis too painful, but refer you to the 
bearer [Mr. Fowle, a nephew of Mr. Secretary Flucker], and many 
of your unfortunate countrymen, who are flocking home in this 
fleet, possibly to avoid a similar fate. 

" The last intelligence I had from Plimouth, [Mass.], our friends 
there were all well. 

" Compliments to all friends in England in general : — to the 
Judge, M"^^ Hutchinson, the Doctor, &c., in particular, concludes 
me your sincere friend and oblig'd Hum' Serv', 

"Pelham Winslow." 

" Elisha Hutchinson, Esq., London." 

Pelham Winslow was a son of General John Winslow. He 
graduated at the University of Harvard, and entered the office 
of James Otis to fit himself for the bar. On the outbreak of 
hostilities he preferred the Eoyalist side, and took refuge in 
Boston. On the evacuation of that city he removed to Halifax, 
and subsequently to New York. He was proscribed and 
banished, and in 1783 he died at Brooklyn, leaving a wife 
and an infant daughter. Sabine gives a long account of 
several members of the AVinslow family. The shameful 
treatment of the Loyalists, as mentioned above, was severely 
commented on by the writers of the day. 

The late Governor's eldest son, on the 8th of December, 1781, 
pours out his feelings to bis brother Elisha, and I need scarcely 
add that all these extracts are taken from the original letters. 
He says : — 

" The unhappy American news has quite stunned us all ; and 
for one, I am determined not to allow myself to expect a visit to 
that country again, after so many opportunity s lost, and mis- 
fortunes hapning, whether from bad conduct in our Commanders 
or not, I leave every one to judge for himself. I think the pros- 
pect darker than it ever has before been, notwithstanding we are 



374 DTARY AND LETTERS OF TTfOMAS HUTCHINSON. 

told twenty thousand troops are to be sent away as soon as 
possible, and the war carried on in quite a different manner, and 
that Government will bv no means relinguish their object of 
conquering a country on which, in a manner, depends the salva- 
tion of tliis kingdom. The unhappy fate of the poor Loyalists in 
liord Cornwallis's army is dreadful, and his agreeing to that 
Article of Capitidation, which gives them up to the mercy of 
Congress, is a matter that remains to be explained. After so many 
gallant actions he ought not to be condemed unheard." 

Lord North, the Tory Premier, announced in the House on 
the 19th of March, 1782, that his Ministry liad resigned ; and 
the country party, generally consisting of the least cultured 
half of the community, whose simplicity enables them to 
believe anything, and taught by the liarangues of the Opposi- 
tion, rejoiced that there was going to be a change, as yet never 
having heard of the expression — "Peace with Honour." 
Writing to his brother on the 22nd of March, Thomas says : — 

" The common people are much elated at the fall of the Ministry, 
and depend on a peace immediately with America, at least." 

On the 11th of April the following paragraph occurs in his 
letter :— 

" AVe are made to expect peace with America ; and it will I 
think determine w^hether we are to be beggars the remainder of 
our days or not. I own I fear we have little to hope : however, I 
intend to give A. S.* a power to transact anything for us there. 
Miss San ford will do the same. I must have a line from you 
before I can receive your money at the Treasury." 

Again, on September the 12th, 1782, he writes : — 

" We have had tine reports of a change in American politics, in 
more than one Province. A letter from Mr. Walter to Sr. William 
Pepperell has occasioned much talk, and many opinions respecting 
future events in that quarter. That great oppression by enormous 
taxes, and perhaps a fear of French slavery, had occasioned great 
uneasiness in some parts, even to opposition to the present 
government, I believe is true ; but we must wait the arrival of the 

* Andrew Spouner. He was shortly going to take shiji for New York. 
His mother was Margaret Oliver, a daughter of Lieut.-Gov. Andrew Oliver, by 
his second wife. 



DIABY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EbTOHINSON. 375 

next pacquet to know what, or whether any good consequence 
will result therefrom. I am, &c., Tho'. Hutchinson." 

The following original letter does not contain anything o 
importance, but who the Edward Hutchinson could be who 
directed it to Elisha, and signed it with his name, I was for 
some time considerably at a loss to decide. I had thought 
that all the late Governor's relatives of his family name had 
withdrawn from Massachusetts ; but on examination I believe 
him to have been the son of Edward Hutchinson who married 
Lydia Foster. The writer of the letter is marked down in 
the Pedigree as having died unmarried. His sister Margaret 
however, married the Eev. Nathanial Bobbins, whose de- 
scendants reside in Boston at tlie present day. The writer must 
have continued in America throughout the period of the war, 
and have accommodated himself to the change of times ; and 
whatever ostensible sentiments he put outwards to the light of 
day, like an overcoat, it may be inferred by certain expressions 
in his letter, that he was not quite comfortable in the society 
by which he was surrounded. His father was half brother 
of Governor Hutchinson's father, and their two wives were 
the daughters of Colonel John Foster. The letter is the 
following : — 

" Cambridge, [Mass.] ISth Sep', 1783. 
" My Dear Kinsman, 

" Though I have never wrote to you as I can remember since 
your departure from hence, yet I have been far from forgetting 
you, especially since, by the disposition of Providence, your family 
has been made small. I was very glad to hear of your health and 
welfare by Mr. Spooner ; and as his return to England gives me a 
fair opportunity of writing, I trust I shall not be troublesome in 
just letting you know that I am yet alive in a much altered 
country, very disagreeable to me in their conduct and manners, 
though many individuals are very worthy people, and I am happy 
in tbe friendship of some of them. 

" I intended to have Avrote you by Mrs. Belcher, but her going 
to England was always talk'd of as uncertain and at a distance, 
and wlien she concluded to go I was absent from hence, and knew 
nothing of it Pray make my compliments to her when next you 
see her, and if it be not too much trouble, pray favour me with a 
line when it shall be convenient to you. My kindest regards wait 



376 diaut and letters of thomas nuTcniNSON. 

on Mrs. Hutchinson and my little cousins. Tray present my 
sincere duty and respects to the worthy Judge Oliver. I am glad 
to hear he yet lives, and hope his useful life will he lengthcn'd out, 
as a comfort to you all. Kemember me kindly to Doctor Oliver, 
and my poor little motherless cousins. I han't time now to write 
to him, or I would. ]\Irs. Fayerweather, at whose house I now am, 
desires mo to give her best regards to you and Mrs. Hutchinson. 

" Mr. Spooner having been on the spot, makes it needless for mo 
to relate some particulars which otherwise I might. 
" I am. My Dear Sir, 

" Your Affectionate Kinsman 

"Ed° Hutchinson." 
" Elisha Hutchinson, Esq." 

During my sojourn of several ruontlis in Boston, I occasionally 
amused myself with visiting the Burial Grounds, and reading 
the inscriptions. I have before spoken of Copp's Hill, where 
the Governor's wife was laid. The Granary, at the north-east 
end of the Common, contains memorials of the names of 
Spooner, Oliver, and Hutchinson, not far from Franklin's 
Pyramid. I saw a brick tomb covered with a large slab of red 
sandstone, or something of that appearance. In form, shape, 
and nature, it was parallelopipoidal, or what is more commonly 
called, an altar tomb. Across the top of the slab were cut the 
^vords— "Docf WILLIAM SPOONER. No. 112," and longi- 
tudinally the following, in Eoman capitals : — 

Here lyeth the Body of Cap. Peter Oliver 
Aged 52 years, who lived much beloved. 
And died much lamented on the 11"' day of 
Apriel, anno 1670. 

Here lyeth interrd affection resolution 
Eeligion pitty under dissolution. 

And exploring further south, I came upon a large loose slab 
of grey stone, some four feet long, two wide, and three inches 
thick, with one long side, or upper edge, cut into a serpentine 
outline. It was leaning up against a brick altar tomb, as if its 
original place had been lost and forgotten. The surface was 
much corroded, and the inscription, in four lines, scarcely 
perceptible, but it began with " maey hvtchinson," the same 
surname being discernible in two or three other places. The 



DIARY AND LETTERS OF TEOMAS nUTOEINSOK 377 

only dates legible were apparently 1669, and September 1671. 
I made sketches of these memorials, which I still have. If 
this slab referred to members of the Governor's branch of the 
family, the dates tally nearest with the births and deaths of 
some of the children of Elisha and. his first wife Hannah 
Hawkins. He was born in 1641, having been a grandson o^ 
William and Anne, the first settlers ; and it is on record that 
at the later date of 1717, he was himself interred in the 
Granary. 

I am tempted in this place to explain that there were three 
heads of families of the name of Hutchinson who emigrated 
from England to Massachusetts between the years 1632 and 
1635. They all probably emanated from the Great Yorkshire 
stock ; but as that stock had been continually throwing off 
branches, it resulted that none of those heads of families who 
found themselves in close proximity in America, could point 
out the exact link of relationship that might exist between 
them. I wish to say a few words on each of these, and I will 
take them in the following order : — 

1. — Eichard Hutchinson and his first wife Alice, who, after 
their removal from England, chiefly identified themselves with 
Danvers or Salem, and consequently, for distinction sake, may 
be styled Hutchinsoii of Salem. 

2. — George Hutchinson and his wife Margaret first lived at 
Charlestown near Boston, though their offspring cultivated 
their own estates in the country; but taking their early 
settlement as a handle, this branch may be termed HuteJiinson 
of Charlestown. 

3. — William Hutchinson and his wife Anne removed from 
Alford in the county of Lincoln — their son Edward with Mr. 
Cotton in 1633, and themselves with the rest of their family 
the year after; and as they had a principal residence in the 
city of Boston whilst the family continued in America, they 
may, at all events for that time, be called Hutchinson of Boston. 

I. Enlarging upon these, and taking Number one first, it may 
be observed, that on arriving at Salem in 1635, Eichard soon 
established for himself a highly respectable position. The year 
after his arrival the town authorities made him a grant of land 



378 DJARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS IIUTGHINSON. 

in the neighbourliood, and twenty acres more in 1637. Other 
grants succeeded in 1654 and 1660, these latter beinj^ at 
Hathorn's Hill and Beaver Brook. Though his family 
maintained their hold on Salem, they were much occupied in 
the long and laborious process of subduing their lands to useful 
cultivation, which the succeeding generations continued to 
follow to their honour and profit, as steady members of the 
community, deserving the good opinion of their neighbours. 
At the outbreak of hostilities Colonel Israel Hutchinson 
commanded a regiment before Boston, but he was not at 
Bunker Hill. 

They were sufdciently literary and cultivated in their ideas 
as to have kept scrupulous records of the genealogical accessions, 
changes, and losses, that had taken place within their domestic 
circle, so that they brought down a very circnmstantial 
Pedigree, dating from the earliest members who set foot on 
American soil. 

As I have two MS. copies of the Pedigree, written by them- 
selves, one being as a register, and the other in tabular form, 
and given to me by the family more than twenty years ago, 
and which copies are now before me, I am able to s]ieak with 
admiration of the care with which it appears to have been kept. 
From Kichard to the present representatives there have been 
ten generations. 

Col. Israel Hutchinson came of the youngest son of the 
fourth generation, and his great-grandson William Augustus, 
born in 1826, and married in 1856 to Esther Emery, is now his 
representative. 

The sixth generation Avas carried on in the male line by two 
sons — Elisha and Joseph. Elisha had Andrew and Jesse. 
Andi-ew had Nathaniel and Stillman. Nathaniel had Everett 
and Ann Jane. Now this Everett, born in 1826, is the eldest 
representative of the family of Hutchinson of Salem. All 
others are junior to him. His father's younger brother 
Stillman had two sons, who come next ; and his grandfather's 
younger brother Jesse had sixteen children, ten of whose sons 
married, and all had families. Jesse's descendants constitute 
the third offshoot or sub-branch. There is a memorandum 



DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTOHINSON. 379 

attached to the Pedigree referring to him, which runs as 
follows : — " He was father of sixteen children : the greater part 
of them are widely known both in the United States and Great 
Britain as the celebrated Hutchinson singers. Jesse, the 9"' 
son, was gifted with a talent for poetry, which he displayed in 
composing the greater part of the songs they sang. These 
songs were generally set to music by his brother. The 
brothers were staunch Abolitionists. They have gone out west 
lately [about 1860], and fouuded a town in Minnesota, to which 
they have given the name of Hutchinson." 

I well remember when they were in England. During their 
tour they visited and sang at Exeter, sixteen miles from where 
I was living, and I have always regretted I did not go and hear 
them. I have one leaf of a quarto serial called " The People's 
Magazine," bearing date April 25, 1846, on page 225 of which 
is represented "The Hutchinson Family: A Sketch by 
Margaret Gillies," as they generally appeared before the public. 
There are three young men and their sister. The other side of 
tlie leaf is occupied with a glowing description of their talents 
and some account of their parentage. They did a great deal of 
work, and I hope the)'' carried back a great deal of money. By 
a frienrl who had long lived at Boston I have been told that 
they established a residence near Lynn, until the swarm became 
too large for the hive, when they departed to seek new 
pastures. 

Next we come to Joseph, the younger brother of Elisha, 
father of the prolific Jesse. This cadet had numerous descen- 
dants, his grandson Hiram leaving New England, and establish- 
ing a lucrative business in France, which he left to his eldest 
son Alcander, who married the daughter of a French Count, 
a scion of the old Noblesse, reduced low by Eevolutiou and 
Kepublicanisra ; for those who know not how to raise them- 
selves, generally strike a balance by pulling everything down 
to their own level. 

Such is the respectable descent of this family in America ; but 
some of its members desired to know something of their 
ancestry if possible prior to their having left England, and in 
order to effect tliis end, they called in the services of the late 



380 DIARY AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS HUTCniNSON. 

Col. Chester, who was to search records and find out all he 
could. After a considerable amount of labour, of travelling, 
and of research, he produced a long Pedigree, basing the 
English portion of it upon the old Yorkshire genealogical tree, 
originally traced by Henry St. George, King-of-Arms, and 
given in the early quarto editions of the Life of Col. John 
Hutchinson. But though stamped with the authority of the 
Heralds' College, Col. Chester has taken one or two liberties with 
it which may be alluded to again ; and in the commencement 
of his performance, which was printed in the Neiv England 
nistorical and Genealogical Register for July, 1868, he tells us 
that the founder of the family in England is reputed to have 
come from Normandy with William the Conqueror. This 
attribution is too stale now to pass unchallenged. If you want 
to pay a compliment to a family, and know nothing of its 
founder, the safest plan is to say — " he came over with the 
Conqueror." Well, no, this coin will not pass now-a-days. No 
one ever said this but Col. Chester. All tradition before him 
— for there is nothing but tradition to go by — has said that he 
came to England in the fleet of Harold Harfager, King of 
Norway, when that invader entered the Humber, and encoun- 
tered the Saxons at Stanford Bridge, below York, a few weeks 
— or rather, to be more precise, some eight or ten days, before 
the Battle of Hastings. We do not touch firm ground until 
we come down to the commencement of Henry St. George's 
Pedigree in 1282. 

The earliest recorded grant of coat armour was to the 
younger branch of Thomas Hutchinson, of Owthorpe, the eldest 
son William being of Cowlam, and both of them the sons of 
Anthony. This appears in the Visitations of Nottinghamshire 
in 1569 and 1614, and vol. iv. of the publications of the 
Harleian Society. It is described thus : — Per ;pale Gules and 
Az., seme of Cross-crosslets or, a Lion rampant guardant Argent. 
Crest— a Cockatrice Azure, Legged and combed or. Col. Chester 
does not appear to have been aware of this grant — or, at all 
events he made no use of it where it was essential to the 
Pedigree he was engaged in compiling, and by neglecting it, 
he assigned a wrong coat of arms instead. 



DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON, 381 



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382 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 



The St. George Pedigree dignifies William Hutchinson of 
Wykome or Wykeliam Abbey, as the eldest ami principal 
representative of the whole and entire family ; but as in 1581 a 
iXvant of arms, different and distinct I'rom the preceding, was 
made to one Edward Hutchinson of Wickham in the county of 
York, son and heir of liichard, wlio was however believed to 
have gone to Ireland, the Colonel concludes this Richard, 
appearing in the Pedigree, to be the same liichard whose son 
had Wykeham and the grant. He writes thus : — " This 
sulliciently establishes the parentage of Edward Hutchinson, 
whose father was, I suspect, the Richard Hutchinson, son of 
.Vuthony, last named, whom St. George supposes to have gone 
to Ireland." This extensive shuffling of the cards, after St. 
George had arranged them, and accompanied by the words " I 
suspect," can scarcely be accepted by genealogists as conclusive 
or satisfactory, but at the same time, having a desire not to be 
unbecomingly dogmatical, I will not deny what I cannot 
disprove. 

The Harleian MS. in the British Museum, 18,011, &c., gives 
a short Pedigree of four generations, immediately pertaining to 
tlie recipient of the 1581 grant, and this achievement is thus 
described in Heraldic language : — Per ixde Gules and Azure, a 
Lion ramimnt Argent, ivithin an Orle of IQ Cross-crosslets or- 
Crest. — A demi Wyvern Argent, scaled Azure, beaked, crested, and 
ivattled Gules, issuantfrom a Ducal Coronet Or. Liter as iKitentes 
hor. armorum concessse Edwardo Hutchinson, ]jer T. Flower, 
Norroij, an" 15bl, 4 Jul^* Col. Chester insists that this was a 
confirmation, and not an original Grant. His words are : — " The 
fact that this was a confirmation, and not a grant, of arms, of 
itself proves that the arms had been borne by the family from 
time immemorial." Where is the evidence that it was a coufir- 
I nation? There is no evidence given but the bare assertion, 
and this assertion is made in the face of the word " concessse.'' 

To the cadet branch of Thomas Hutchinson of Owthorpe, the 
St. George Pedigree gives but two sons — William and John, 
but Cui. Chester asserts with confidence that he has discovered 

* By an accidental misprint, the word is June instead of July, in the New 
Eng. cop>. 



DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 383 

a third called Lawrence, if not a fourth named Robert. And 
then of this third son he observes : — " As, in my opinion, the 
descendants of this third son are now the only living represen- 
tatives of this ancient family "* — what! the only representatives 
now living ? Thus, at one stroke, he sweeps out ot existence 
the whole family. By so doing he gives great prominence to 
Lawrence, the said third son, from whom he deduces the House 
of Salem, for which he was working. This kills off all the 
descendants of Julius, the Editor of the Life of Col. Hutchinson; 
and yet I have a certain knowledge of a number of them now 
living, who have succeeded in right of birth, to sundry heirlooms 
and family property. The following letter from a grandson of 
Julius to me, will make all this very clear : — 

" Tisbury Vicarage, Salisbury, Oct. 26, 1885. 
" Dear Sir, 

" I return you the Pedigree you have been good enough to 
send me, by the same post. The early part of it seems to be simply 
transcribed from that in the quarto Edition of Mrs. Lucy Hutchin- 
son's Memoirs : but in the latter part of my branch of the family 
there are numerous errors; e.g., — My grandfather [Julius, the 
Editor,] lived at Owthorpe some time, and sold it, though Col. C. 
says it had previously passed out of the family. I never heard of 
my grandfather being in the East India Co. service, and do not 
believe it. He was a Fellow of New College. His father had an 
estate at Mardock, in Herts., and on the death of his uncle un- 
married, he came into possession of Owthorpe, the old Hutchinson 
property, Hatfield Woodhall, the ancient Boteler estate, and 4 other 
manors ; but many were encumbered by his uncle, from whom he 
inherited them. He himself was very improvident and hasty, and 
sold his estates. He married Frances Goodwyn, sister of Gen. 
Gordon's great-grandfather, only daughter of Henry Goodwyn, of 
Maize Hill Castle, Kent. This gentleman was in early life, in the 
E. India Co. Service, which perhaps led to Col. Chester's statement, 
that Julius Hutchinson was in the E. I. Comp. Service. 

" His second son Charles was my father ; my mother was a 
Baldwin, of Lancashire, grand-daughter of the Duke of Chandos, 
some of whose property, handed down from the Princess Mary, and 
sister to Henry VIU., I inherit. I have no family : but my brother 
Pierrepont has 4 sons. The Elizabeth mentioned as daughter of 

* New Eng. printed copy, p. 9. 



oS4 DIART AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS nUTCIIINSON. 

Julius, was my annt Lady Dryden, of Canons Ashby, of whom 
tlioro is a numerous progeny. Col. Chester has made strange 
errors in his Pedigree, as he knew my cousin Sir Henry Dryden, 
who is an excellent genealogist, and has gone to him for informa- 
tion. I shall at any time be happy to shew you various pictures 
and heirlooms of the family, and a silver gilt cup given by Q. 
Elizabeth to Sir Francis Botelor, including some of Lucy Hutchin- 
son's manuscripts, and an old Boteler Pedigree, which my grand- 
mother preserved, if you will give me a day or two's notice of your 
visit. 

" Believe me, 

" Yours truly, 

" F. E. Hutchinson." 

If Colonel Chester were alive I Avould give him my mind. 
Painful as it may be, the cause of truth requires that such errors 
should not be hushed up and concealed. The accuracy and the 
pride of literature consists in its trustworthiness. How is it 
that the historical and the genealogical writings from the 
country to which he belonged, should be too often received in 
Europe with mistrust ? If that nation sees its interest, as well 
as its dignity, it will do its best in trying to stamp out this 
patent evil. 

How sang the Swain to the Shepherdess ? 

He — " Where shall I go for Truth, my dear ? 

I've searched the world both far and near." 
She — " Go here, go there, 
Go any where, 

But not to the Western Hemisphere." 

As regards coat armour, Col. Chester makes no allusion to 
the first grant, in which the field was seme of Cross-crosslets, 
with a Lion guardant, and a Cockatrice on a Wreath, for a 
Crest, which is the bearing that strictly belongs to the 
Owthorpe branch ; and he assigns the second grant, of 1581, to 
the son of Kichard who was supposed to have gone to Ireland, 
which bore a Lion non-guardant, and surrounded with an Orle 
and a Crest of a demi Wyvern issuing out of a Coronet, which 
Eichard was a younger brother of Laurence's father, so that 
Lawrence, not being descended from the recipient, could not in 
any way inherit it. An inspection of the Tabular Pedigree 



DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 385 

given in the early quarto Editions of Lucy Apsley's Life of her 
husband, makes all this very plain.* Yet the Colonel gives 
him an altered version of it, which, in fact, is a mixture of the 
two, for it has the field seme, and a Cockatrice of the first grant, 
and the Lion non-guardant, and the Coronet, of the second. 
And to this mixture is assigned a Motto. It is the motto of the 
Earl of Donoughmore — Fortiter gerit Crueem, transposed, not 
very classically, into — Gerit Crueem fortiter. 

The descent from this Lawrence is carried on through 
Thomas, and Thomas, to Eichard the great-grandson, who 
married Alice Bosworth ; and this Eichard is declared to have 
been the one who proceeded from England to Salem in or about 
the year 1635, taking with him this first wife and five children, 
The proof Ibat the Eichard in England and the Eichard in 
America were one and the same person may be supported by 
the re-appearance or recurrence of the several names of the dif- 
ferent members of the family in the Eegisters of both countries ; 
but there is not so much stress laid upon this important mode 
of evidence in the Pedigree, as there might have been. 

Supposing the continuity of the family from England, and so 
across the Atlantic to America, to have been satisfactorily 
established, the English portion may be put aside as done with : 
the more modern or American portion I have already reviewed, 
assisted as I have been by the copious particulars put into my 
hands by the family, some years before the services of Col. 
Chester were required. 

The Colonel made out his American part from similar 
materials obtained from the family, but he took some trouble 
to search the American records as well. In this portion he has 
not killed off one branch after another with the same facile 
hand as in the English part, but he has done what is equally 
misleading — he has utterly ignored and passed by in silence the 
entire elder branch of Elisha, with his two sons, and his grand- 
sons, and his great-grandson Everett, and the sixteen children 
of Jesse, and the ten sons who married and all had families. 

* Let me remark tliat the arms engraved under tlie portrait in the quarto 
editions, are entirely wrong. Perhaps they did something to mislead Col. 
Chester. 

VOL. II. 2 c 



386 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HVl'GEINSON. 

This multitude, which belongs to, and represents the eldest 
branch of that stock in America, by being thus kept out of 
sight, would not be known or suspected to have an existence. 
In the printed Pedigree, where speaking of Elisha, page 29, 
we are told who he married, and then the notice of him ends 
by saying that he " died at Amherst, 12*^ of October, 1800." 
Not one word of his numerous descendants. The casual 
reader, or indeed the enquiring student into this genealogical 
tree, would be deceived into the belief tliat the younger branch 
alone comprised all that now remained of the family. In the 
light of truth this is not as it should be. I must protest 
against this mode of making Pedigrees. Some Pedigrees are 
dear and some are cheap ; and if a case could be found where a 
Pedigree has cost upwards of £400 sterling, it would be rather 
hard if it should turn out to be not worth 400 pence. 

II. Hutchinson of Charlestown is the next branch of the great 
parent stock that claims our notice. For upwards of 250 years 
its long succession of members have maintained a quiet and 
steady course of industry on their own estates, or in other ways 
to the good of ^their country, and to the advantage of them- 
selves. Their domestic history seems to have been kept with 
care and fidelity, and their descent through nine generations 
from their early planting at Charlestown to the present time, 
bears the stamp of accuracy, from the number of the particulars 
and the regularity of the dates. It is not known with certainty 
where they had resided in England prior to their migration, 
but George Hutchinson, and his wife Margaret, appear in the 
records of the Colony as the first of their name in Massachusetts. 
To Mr. Calvin Gibbs Hutchinson of Dorchester and Boston, a 
worthy representative of this early stock, I am indebted for 
many particulars which I prize highly. Kespecting this first 
couple he writes : — 

" George Hutchinson and his wife Margaret were early 
settled in Charlestown, Mass. They were dismissed 14*^^ 8*^ 
mo. 1632 from the Boston Church, and on Kov. 2'^ 1632, united 
with. 33 others in forming the First Church in Charlestown. 
John Harvard, founder of Harvard College, was afterwards a 
pastor of this church. 



DIABY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 387 



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388 DtART AND LETTERS OF THOMAS nUTGIimSON. 

" George is one of the subscribers to the Order of the iu- 
habitants of Charlestowu, (Feb. 10, 1634-5), by which they 
agreed to be goverued by Selectmen: a facsimile of the 
document is given in Frothingham's History of Charlestowu, 
and this is the beginning of our New England form of town 
government." 

I may add to this, that the facsimile of the said Order is 
inserted at page 50, and in print on the following page. The 
signature, in the cramped hand of the day, is " Geag 
Huchinson," and is the last but one on the list. 

The following is the descent from the original pair down to 
the present representative at Dorchester, leaving out collaterals. 
Down to the fourth generation inclusive, the particulars are 
taken from the Kecords of Charlestowu, and after that from 
family papers : — 

1. George Hutchinson, and Margaret, married in England. 

2. Nathanial H. and Sarah Baker, m. W of 1^' mouth 1659. 

3. Samuel H. aud Sarah Fascitt, m. Dec. 5, 1695. 

4. Thomas H. and Mary Ireland, m. — date missing. 

5. Samuel H. and Eliza Fessenden, Ap. 27, 1758: 2"^^^'^ 
Abigail Flagg, m. in 1766. 

6. Ebenezer H. and Susan Gibbs, m, in 1793. 

7. Elijah Gibbs H. and Nancy Oakman, m. June 17, 1825. 

8. Calvin Gibbs Hutchinson and Eoxanua Parker Hill, m. 
March 4, 1857. 

9. Four children — Johu Calvin, William Waldo, (died 1879), 
Alice, and George Anthony. 

III. Hutchinson of Boston, in America, which has been 
called Hutchinson of Lincolnshire, in England. As this is the 
Governor's Branch, I should prefer, if not unbecomingly 
obtrusive, to reserve some account of it for a Supplementary 
Chapter. With this view I will say nothing more of it here. 
I have a feeling that I may have dwelt on the name rather 
long, but I thought it better to explain the existence and 
particulars of the different Branches, so as to prevent their 
getting confused together. Of the last mentioned Branch, 
I do not think there is a single individual at present in 
America; so that where this family name occurs, especially 



DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTCHINSON. 389 

in the nortliern portion of the Continent, it probably belongs 
to one or the other of the two first described above. 

Before resuming the regular narrative of events, it may be 
permitted to quote a short passage from the Diary of Elisha, 
in which he mentions an event as occurring in Birmingham — 
an event worth giving, as exhibiting the debased morals and 
low sensibilities of the people at large, only a short century 
ago. It runs thus : — 

" 1782, Jan. 23. — Cloudy — rain in evening. Walked into 
town and found the High Street, from Cross to Cross, thronged 
with people, to see a woman carted and whipped. Public 
discipline being very unusual in this town, always brings the 
multitude together." 

Public disci]3line and public opinion are now at variance. 
Happily we have advanced. Such a barbarism, and such an 
outrage on public decency would be hooted down in the present 
day by the lowest of the people. 

The war was not yet over, but many persons thought that 
the game was nearly played out, or that they could espy at 
no great distance — the beginning of the end. The capitulation 
of Lord Cornwallis seemed to bring things to a crisis. In his 
Letter Book, writing to Mr. Edward Lyde on the 5th of May, 
1782, Thomas Hutchinson says : — 

" The great change which has recently taken place in the 
political world here, I dare say surprized you mucli. I hope 
and think the Loyalists of America will not be sufferers by it. 
The new Ministry are very popular : the voice of the nation 
seems to be for peace — more especially with America. 
Whether this can be effected without a general one, seems 
to be more doubted now than when the change hapned.*' 

And again, to the same, on the 2nd of January, 1783 : — 

" We look upon the war as at an end in America, and hope 
to hear private animosities subside." 

The situation of the Loyalists and Refugees was looked upon 
as critical and painful, and a general feeling of anxiety existed 
amongst them. 

" Those Loyalists from Massachusetts," he writes to his 
brother, on the 31st of January, 1783, " who are in town, or 



390 DIARY AND lETTEBB OF THOMAS irUTCHINSOK 



soiue ol' lliein, nut at Sir Will"' Pepperell's last week, to debate 
on what was proper to be done in the present precarious 
situation of compensation for losses and sufferings. I have 
heard it liinted, two Noblemen at the head of the old Adminis- 
tration, had signified to Sir Will" the propriety of an applica- 
tion to Parliament at this time ; but do not vouch for the 
truth of it. At the meeting they only desired Sir Will™ to 
endeavour to find out the opinion of those Noblemen, and also 
of the present first L'^ of the Treasury before the next meeting, 
which is to be to-morrow. This is all I have heard of the 
matter. The New Hampshire men have also enlisted under 
G. Wentworth, to consider what is proper for them to do." &c. 

To some unnamed friend whom he addresses " Hon*^'" and 
Dear Sir," he write?, on the 20th of February, 1783 :— 

" The settlement of peace, and throwing tlie Loyalists on the 
mercy of their inveterate enemies, is truly deplorable; but we now 
have no remedy left, unless the humanity of the nation should 
interest itself in our behalf I think this should, and I hope it 
will be tried : the present Administration discourage the attempt 
at present; and when the matter cools, it may be too late." 

To his nejihew Andrew Spooner, on the 22nd of the same 
month and year : — 

" The conclusion of peace will undoubtedly make a great 
alteration in the circumstances of England and America. I 
hope both may be bettered by it ; but I suppose much will 
depend upon the returning cordially [sic] of each to the other. 
We wait with impatience to hear what reception the peace met 
with on your side the water : the disposition here seems to be 
to bury the hatchet." 

Upon the prospects of peace there arose among the Loyalists 
a very natural desire to know what chances there were of 
recovering any of their lost estates. Andrew Spooner was in 
America, and his uncle Thomas, in the following letter, 
requests him to make enquiry : — 

" Brompton, 31st Mar., 1783. 
" Dear Nephew, 

"This being the first direct opportunity from hence to 
Boston, I embrace it to write you a few lines, tho' I am yet 



DIART AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 391 



without any advice of your situation, and what your reception 
has been in your native country. I have before wrote you 
three letters, two of which I think went by the way of Halifax, 
but as possibly all may have miscarried, I will mention that 
in them I wished you to give me the most particular account 
you were able, of the state of what was my father's interest in 
America. I should like to know who are the present holders 
of it, and what each part sold for. I have lately been informed 
the farm at Conanicut had not been sold a short time ago. 
]\F^ Sanford's farms I hope are in the same situation ; nor can 
I think you will meet with much difficulty in procuring her 
rents for her, she never having rec* a farthing from this 
government, and her quitting the country being a thing she 
could not avoid. I was very sorry to hear of the death of M*" 
Cheseborough, who I dare say, would have been friendly, had 
he lived. Both your grandfather Oliver and my father had a 
considerable interest in lands at the eastward, about York, at 
what was called Phillip's Town. There were many proprietors 
— M'' Gushing, M' J. Adams, D*^ Warren, and others who I do 
not recollect. I wish to be able to ascertain what the Oliver and 
Hutchinson interest was : perhaps you could get a particular 
ace* of these affairs from M"" Oliver of Salem. We have 
heard nothing from America since the peace was concluded. 
If advices should be such from thence as I sincerely wish they 
may be, it's not unlikely you'l see many returning there before 
another winter. M" Grant died about two months ago, and 
M"" Flucker is also dead." 

After so serious a quarrel the return to feelings of amity 
was slow. Those who expected to see England and America 
hurry to embrace one another with cordiality as soon as the 
sword had been laid aside, were disappointed. On the 7th of 
June, being nine weeks after the preceding, he says to the 
same person : — " I could hardly have thought it possible so 
long a time could have elapsed since the peace, with so little 
intelligence from America. What has transpired I own does 
not altogether please me, for I wished to see a mutual returning 
cordiality between the two countrys. May it yet take place ! " 
The attempts suggested^ above to try and ascertain the 



392 DIARY ANT) LETTEBS OF THOMAS HUTCniNSON. 

situation, extent, and circumstances of the different lost estates, 
shew that no delays occurred in paving the way to their 
recovery if possible. This was a long and tedious process, 
extending over many years, and eventually succeeded only in 
part. Amongst the materials from which this work has been 
compiled, there is an old map of the New England Provinces 
in case, measuring 39 inches by 42, bearing date Nov. 19, 1774, 
by Tho^ Jefferys, Geographer to His Royal Highness the Prince 
of AVales, near Charing Cross. It is to the scale of seven 
miles to an inch. The long narrow island of Konanicut or 
Conanicnt, stretching north and south about ten miles, appears 
in Narragansett Bay, opposite, and to the west of the city of 
Newport, in Ehode Island, where the Sanfords, originally of 
Boston in England, had settled down : and " the lands at the 
eastward, about York, at Mhat was called Phillip's Town," I 
take to be at or near the York laid down in the old ma]), a 
place situated near ten miles north of the mouth of the Piska- 
taqua river. In subsequent letters, and as long as the efforts 
for sale or recovery were pending, the expression " the 
Eastern Lands" is of general use; and I presume that by 
this expression the lands near York are intended. 

The majority of the Refugees who had withdrawn to England 
whilst the storm was raging, desired to know on what terms 
they could return again to America now that the atmosphere 
was clearing. Some of them, however, discovered that the door 
was shut against their return. Colonel Benjamin Pickman 
was now in England, and was anxious to know in what odour he 
stood with the Congress, or with the more settled form of 
government in what was now being called the United States of 
America. Sabine informs us that this gentleman was born at 
Salem in 1740, and graduated at Harvard University in 1759. 
He was a merchant, a Representative to the General Court, and 
a Colonel in the Militia. And he quotes John Adams, who in 
1772 said of him, that he was very upright, sensible, and enter- 
taining : that he talked a great deal, told old stories in abund- 
ance about the witchcraft, paper money, &c. And Sabine 
proceeds to say : — " In 1774 Colonel Pickman was an Addresser 
of Gage. He went to England. In 1775 we find him a guest 



DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTOEINSON. 398 

of Governor Hutchinson, and the next year a member of the 
Loyalist Club, London. In 1778 he was proscribed and 
banished. A year later his house was at Bristol. In 1783 he 
was in London, and saw M" Siddons play Jane Shore at Drury 
Lane Theatre," — and that brings us to the date at which we 
have now arrived. Being in London, he wrote to Elisha at 
Birmingham, what is now a brown and dilapidated-looking 

letter, in the following terms : — 

" London, 18tli June, 1783. 
"D'Sir. 

" Various are the reports circulated with respect to the 

dispositions of the inhabitants of the United States of America 

towards the Kefugees. It is generally thought that all may 

return except those who have taken [up] arms against them. 

Oap'^ Tho. Napp [?] is arrived from Newbury Port, but brings 

no new intelligence. I have not received a line from America 

since my leaving Birmingham ; unless I hear soon from my 

friends, I shall determine to remain in England untill next 

spring, and shall return to Birmingham, where we will pursue 

the pleasant walks you formerly mention'd. I hope you will 

not have explored all the country before my return : however, 

there is little danger, if the weather at the Five Ways is the 

same as it is in London — extremely rainy. 

" I dined on Saturday last* with Sir William Pepperell, in 
company with M"" Palmer, lately arrived from Surinam — looks 
very yellow, and is much emaciated. ■ 

" I send you the Franks, and think you had better use one 
before you know my determination about going to America. 
A vessel will sail in a fortnight for Boston. 

"Pray remember me to M" Hutchinson, the Judge, Miss 
Clarke, and the Doctor. 

'' I am y Friend and Ser* 

" Benj'^ Pickman. 

" P.S. — I shall be obliged to you if you will send tho 
enclosed to 27 Colemore Eow." 

And Sabine further adds — " He returned to Massachusetts, 
and in 1787 the Legislature restored citizenship, and a part of 
his confiscated estate. He died at Salem in 1819, aged seventy- 

* He was writing on "Wednesday. 



394 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHTNSON. 

nine. Gentlemen of his lineage are of great ros]icctability in 
his native State at the present time." 

Thomas Hutchinson tlieCJovornor's eldest son, or " the Judgo," 
as he might be styled for distinction's sake, since he had been 
Judge of the Probate Court for the county of Suffolk in 
IMassachnsetts — was losing the robustness of his health — or he 
thought so, which was the same thing to his mind, and he had 
been advised to think of a milder climate in the winter ; yet 
he was only 43 at this period, and he lived on for 28 years 
longer. The original letter here subjoined will reveal his 
sentiments on this point : — 

•' Brompton, 24"' Se]/, 1783. 
" Dear Bi-other, 

" I returned here on Saturday last ;* my health is better 
than it has been, but I cannot call myself well. Some friends 
advise me to go to France, or to one of the warm Islands. My 
own intention was to return to Brighthelmstone in ten days or 
a fortnight, as my coming up was of necessity. I am much at a 
loss what course to take, but could wish the application to the 
Commissioners might be made before I leave the town again. 
Silvester [Oliver] thinks his brother [Daniel] will be in town 
this week. I know not what the lands at the Eastward were, 
as to quantity or value. Perhaj)s you might think the affair 
deserved a journey, but you will judge for yourself. 
*' I am Yours Affectionately 

"Tho^ Hutchinson." 

The journey to France was decided on, and Elisha came up 
from Birmingham to join in the expedition. Dr. P. Oliver 
writes in his Diary : — 

" 1783. Oct"^ 13. — Elisha and family set out for London, for 
France. 

" Tuesday, Oct. 28. — Tommy and Elisha Hutchinson set out 
for France from Brompton. 

" 30'^.— They arrived at Calais in 3^ ff— all very sick." 

Chief Justice Peter Oliver, on the 14th of October, wrote 
after Elisha before he had sailed, when he said — " I advise you 
to keep a Diary of your proceedings and expenses: much 
* It was now Wednesday. 



DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 395 



future satisfaction may be derived from it." I fear this good 
advice was not very rigidly attended to, as I cannot discover 
any evidence of it amongst the family papers. They proceeded 
to Nismes in the far south, and on the 7th of December the 
Chief Justice wrote such a letter to Elisha as nobody else could 
have written, and being the original, may perhaps be worth 
giving entire. 

" Brummichameaux, Dec' 7'", 1783. 
" Monsieur ! 

" Faites vos reflections la-dessus, et daignez me eommuniquer 
en reponse — the dogs take your French, — it is so like the chat- 
tering of a monkey — you shall never have another line of it from 
me, and I hope never to have a word of it from you or yours. 
I only wrote the above to let you know what I could do if I 
would, and that inspiration hovers over Colemore Eow at my 
command : — and now, my dear Sir, I come to the purpose. 

" I received your kind letter from Calais some time since, 
and you would have received one from me long ago had I have 
known the direction. Yours of 7*^ Nov'' at Paris, and an- 
other at Nismes, of 22^^^^ Nov', I received this day : but I was 
most pleased with your being fixed near Nismes in so good 
health, and satisfaction with your winter quarters : for your un- 
interrupted success, health, and spirits, be gratefull ; and do not 
think, because you are now in the regions of romance, or in 
fairy land, that the bubble will never burst. Enjoy what you 
can without being unmindful of those whose affection follows 
you to your every situation. The itinerary you promise me 
from Polly : tell her that I ever have received her letters, upon 
any subject, with parental affection and pleasure, and that I 
shall think, whatever postage I may pay for so distant letters, 
will be money better laid out than in the funds, as I shall 
always have the interest of it at my command. 

" I wish to hear of your brother's confirmed state of health : 
to him, to Sally, and to their children, I tender my kind 
regards. I enclose my love to Peggy, Betsy, Mary, and 
George : tell them to buy the biggest and Jightest French box 
that they can buy at Nismes, and lock it up safely : let Peggy 
keep the key, and peep at it once per day : but I fear it will 



396 DIABY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTOniNSON. 

all evaporate from a French box ; so that I believe that an 
Englisli wicker basket will be more retentive. 

" Now for ourselves — 

" You boast of your day or tw^o's cold weather : we have been 
so unhappy as not to have had one : a most uncommon 
November, without a frloom to hint at a suspension, immersion, 
or scarification : it is now pleasant and moderate. You rumble 
in the English papers with your balloons : we have ours too, 
which travel 50 miles in loss than three liours : — nay, more, — 
we have had a machine made in Birmingham, and which is now 
on exhibition in London, in which a man can transport himself 
by wings to any distance, and steer himself through the air as 
a bird. It extends from the tip of the wings near forty feet. 
The man's name is Miller : I believe you have heard me speak 
of him. Donisthorpe, Whitmore, and Gill made the nice 
machinery. If it succeeds all the balloons will burst : but cui 
bono P no one yet says. 

"Cousins Daniel and Louisa keep a true bachelor's and 
maiden hall at the Five Ways : none are permitted to visit 
but M'' Galton's and our family. Louisa is as well as usual, and 
would be better if she chose it : she can bear an evening's walk 
from Colemore Row. Kitty hath got a pretty tabby kitten for 
her company ; but]as it is not sufficient, slie is now going to live 
in London on her mother's invitation. 

" We have a trunk of diamonds and a bundle of letters left 
here for your wife by Andrew Spooner, which are so sealed that 
I shall let nothing leak out of them : he carried a letter for 
each of you to London, which I suppose you may have received. 
We have had a number of Americans in town lately, as Silas 
Deane, Geyer, &c. ; four of them supped here two nights ago, 
viz. — M' H. Bromfield, Prentice, Austin, and Brewster. I 
could ramble on ; but enough to convince you that English 
paper is larger than French, and that a Birmingham man can 
crowd more into it than a Nismes inhabitant can into his : such 
as it is, you have it, and a remembrance of you from Colemore 
Bow, Five Ways, &c., will leave no more space than to tell you 
that he who fills it is " Your affectionate friend, 

" P. Oliver." 




M:^mif'^if>jmi!^M>itmgLmr'''^-:.^TFt''fi:>rTrrm:j9T''^ 



PHOTO. CO. BOSTON 



PETER OLIVER. 
Chief Justice of Massaohusetts, 



DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 397 



The expenses of travelling were very serious. We must, 
however, bear in mind that the party so travelling was u 
numerous one. There is a Dr. and Cr. account, ranging from 
the time they started to January 1784, which will shew what 
could be done for how much money : — 

Cash Account, T. and E. H. since Oct. 1783. 



2 4 



L783. Cash pd. E. H. at 


By the several pay- 


Oct. Brompton ..220 


ments on acc.E.H. 


Do. pd. Charles, 


to Messrs. Drum- 


Servant ... 330 


monds as settled 


Do. travelhng 


at Dijou .... 688 


trunks .... 8 30 


Bal, on this ace. . 145 


Do. Hire coaches 




to Dover . . . 12 12 




Do. E.H. at Dover 8 18 6 





34 18 6 
1784. BUls brought with me . . 400 
Jan. By Messrs. Danforth and 

Eashleigh, as settled at 

Dijon 398 12 

£833 10 6 

To Cash paid E. H. since 

10th Dec. 1783. ... 448 69 
To i travelling expenses . 326 12 8 



£774 19 5 



£833 10 6 



By account, several 
payments on ace. 

E. H 688 2 4 

Bal 86 17 1 



£774 19 5 



My chief satisfaction after looking at the above is this — that 
they were able to afford it. 

At this date there is another original characteristic letter in 
the handwriting of the Chief Justice, and as it would be hard 
to separate and disentangle his jokes from the mention of a few 
political facts — and facts are always valuable — the whole may 
as well be taken together. As leading up to this point, there 
will be no harm in just mentioning a few occurrences that had 
then recently taken place. Lord North and his Ministry 
resigned March 19, 1782. Eockingham Ministry formed and 
met, after which Parliament was prorogued July 11, and 
assembled again December 5, in the same year, at which time 
the strange coalition between Lord North and Mr. Fox astonished 
the country. Disorganization of the Ministry, and interregnum 



398 DIABY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 

iu February, 1783. New Ministry met April 2, and close of the 
Session July 16. More shuffling of the cards in December of 
the same year: — And Chief Justice Oliver to the rescue in 
January 1784: — 

" Birmingham, Jan» 18, 1784. 

*' And I am glad, my Dear Sir that I have contributed one 
drop from the Heliconian fountain to quench your epistolary 
thirst ; but perhaps, as the gutta cavat lapidem, by pouring 
draught after draught, I may possibly create a nausea, which 
your appetite may reluct* at. 

"Your letter of the 27th Dec"" past, threw me into my 
former predicament when a boy of 4 years old ; then I thought 
it the completion of happiness, when an uncle or aunt gave me 
a gilt figure on gingerbread ; it then pleased my fancy and 
gratified my appetite ; thus, between your cold water and my 
gingerbread, the account between us is balanced. 

" I arrange my subjects under politicks, and domestick life ; — 
the first being of the greatest importance, let me tell you that 
the Wheel again revolves : it stood still some time for want of 
greasing : at last the Coalition carried through the House an 
East India Bill by a great majority. The House of Lords 
thought it an infringement upon the prerogative of the Crown, 
and upon the rights of the people also, and it was there nega- 
tived by a small majority — upon which the King dismissed all 
his Ministers, and appointed Lord Temple to the first Commis- 
sion in the Treasury, and Chancellor of the Exchequer, and 
M'' Pitt one of the Secretaries of State ; Lord Gower President 
of the Council, and Lord Thurlow, High Chancellor. L*^ 
Temple, after acceptance, resigned, and M"" Pitt is now in his 
place. After this L*^ North made a bold speech, and declared 
M' Fox to be his best friend, and that he would support him. 
M"^ Pitt hath lost one vote, but he doth not flinch. How it 
will end time will tell. The city of London supports M'' Pitt. 

" In the East Indies, in last June, there were two hot battles, 
— by sea, and by land : S'' Edward Hughes lost many hands, and 

* Or feel a reluctance at. From the Latin Beluctor, arts ; dep., to struggle, 
to wrestle against. In Bailey we have, To reluct, \rductare, L,] To be 
averse to, strive against. 



DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 399 

it was a drawn battle. S"^ Eyre Coote was dead, and Col. 
Stuart fought a much superior force, and came off victorious. 
After these actions, the news of peace arrived. 

" You ask about America. Congress is despised by all the 
Governments, and they are in that disorder which I suppose 
will occasion some convulsions. They had a great shock of an 
Earthquake at New York the latter end of November, after 
the troops had left them. Nova Scotia populates fast — 60,000 
already. When America is overstocked with English manu- 
factures, they will be ready for another war with England. 
France hath protested Congress Bills, and the Congress 
Financier hath clipped all the English and foreign gold to pay 
their subsidies. M"" Clarke hath heard from sister Cabot, and 
that she was tolerably well. John Temple and his wife are 
arrived in London. 

" Now for domestick news. — The Five Ways remain where 
you left them. Birmingham as busy as usual. Butter at 12'* 
p pound. Gingerbread at the old price. Guinea coiners now 
in the dungeon. Your garden thrives amazingly ; but what is of 
serious importance, W Pott desires to know of you what he 
shall do with the cow — she is dry : as also, what price to have, 
or what to do with the rails, and shall be glad of your direc- 
tions : and what is of the greatest importance of all, M" Pott 
paid me a guinea some time since for you. I have wrapped it 
carefully in a paper for your orders : It distresses me so much in 
my custody, and burns in the paper when I think of it, that I 
fear its setting the house on fire. If you wish me to send it to 
S"" John Lambert, your orders will be obeyed ; if not, a dose of 
laudanum every night will assuage my sleepless hours : and so 
Sir, with maids', wives', and batchelors' Hall compliments, 

" I am Your Humble Servant, 

" P. Olivee." 

" Dear Polly. 

"If you will not write to me, I will to you: indeed, I 
have heard that there is a letter for me upon the road from 
Nismes. If I was very apt to be impatient, I should be so now, 
for I have expected it for some time past. Eemember, that the 



400 DlAliY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS JIUTGIIINSON. 

post is the quickest and safest conveyance, and a lew shillings 
for postage, I can save out of apples and oranges. 

" 1 am much pleased to hear of your pleasant situation, and 
hope you will enjoy much health, and that the purpose of the 
journey will be answered, by a compleat restoration of M"^ T. 
U.'s health. I have heard much of the antiquities of Nismes : 
you will certainly attend to them. 

" While you eujoy your vernal sun, I have here enjoyed an 
American snow-storm, and an healthy cold air. Farenheit's 
thermometer hath been here at 20 degrees, and it was the first 
cold day which I have felt in England, but it was agreeably 
cold ; and as you are not fond of such severity, I am glad that 
you did not suffer it. 

" I shall expect that your Itinerary will give me the descrip- 
tions of places, and their distances, for I cannot yet learn how far 
you are from Birmingham : how soon or late you may return I 
have no conjecture, but whenever it may be, be sure, return uu- 
frenchified in thought, word, and deed. I shall then expect to 
hear of the Alps, and that you had seen the passage which Hanni- 
bal made through them with his vinegar : and if you should take 
an airing to Kome, measure the height of the Tarpeian Eock, 
that I may Imow whether a man or woman may now break 
a neck by a leap from it. W Gimlet, who lately married Miss 
Barrs, died last w^eek. Kitty is going to London to her brother. 

" I have no more room but to add my sincere wishes that you 
may be under the protection of a kind Providence as to your 
health and conduct, and to assure you of the inviolable love 
and friendship of 

" Your Affectionate GrandjDapa 

" P. Oliver. 

*' Miss Peggy ! 

" I hope you are in good health, and that you have much 
improved in reading and needlework, and that you will have 
no more occasion to go to M"^ and M"^^ Korkland's school. 

" Miss Betsy ! 

" I shall expect to see you come home a woman. There is a 
fine tabby kitten to play with : she will bite, scratch, and play 
without hurting you. 



DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTOEINSON. 401 

« Miss Poll ! 

" How do you do ? There are more dogs than two now. Be 
a good girl, and then I shall be glad to see you. 

" M"" George ! 

" Cart and horses enough : don't cry and make a noise, and 
then I will love you. 

" All of you be good, and mind Pa and Ma." 

8ir John Lambert, mentioned above, was residing in Paris, 
and the letters were sent to him, to be forwarded to Nismes. 

The children, separately addressed, were those of Elisha and 
his wife ; all of them died during their years of adolescence. 
The youngest child John, afterwards Editor of the third volume 
of Governor Hutchinson's History of Massachusetts, was not 
born for nearly ten years after this period. On one occasion, 
when I was staying with him at his Parsonage, (now Yicarage,) 
of Bhu'ton, in Staffordshire, he said to me in the Library, 
laughing, that he liad recently made a discovery — that in 
turning over some of his father's papers, he had found out 
that he was a seven months' child. The fact however, was of 
no consequence : he was a strong, active, and healthy man, both 
in mind and body, and attained to the age of seventy-two. 

The Chief Justice went up to London on matters of business 
in February, and what he did or did not, and what he had to 
communicate, are best revealed in his own words. Just before 
starting, he despatched a missive, in which he speaks of the 
severity of the winter as follows : — " On Christmas Day our 
snow fell, and is not yet gone, but is snowing on to add to the 
heap : such a winter hath not been felt in England for eight 
years past. Freezing of many persons — the canal here hath 
been froze for two months past — at Gainsborough in Lincoln- 
shire, a boxing match on the ice — drowned eighty-six persons 
out of ninety." Of political matters he writes: — "Our 
political wheel stands still. L'' N. and W F. still oppose the 
Prime Minister M*^ Pitt, to prevent his carrying a vote ; and 
what the consequence will be — whether a dissolution or a new 
coalition, is not determined ; and all publick business stagnates. 
The House of Lords have addressed the King against the East 

VOL. II. 2d 



402 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTCHINSON. 

ludiii Bill of the Commons, ami on his dismission of the late 
]\[inistry, and whore it may end, time will dist^ovcr. There are 
also addresses from many parts of England and from Ireland on 
the subject." We next find Mr. W., whoever he may he, 
plavinp; at the unpleasant game of hide-and-seek: — "Your 

friend M"" W is here incog. : he hath given all up in England, 

and whether that will do, I fear he is going to America in 
the spring. I pity him." He contiuues : — " Parson Walter is 
arrived from Nova Scotia : many other Refugees are come. 
America is in a bad plight — they will lose tlieir whale and cod 
fishery, and Nova Scotia will ruin the four N.E. governments." 
Fortunately for the United States the rueful prognostications 
of the Chief Justice were not verified. " M'' Randolph," he 
says, " died last week, and Brigadier De Lancey is like to die 
by an apoplexy, if not dead." The My. Randolph here mentioned 
can be no other than John, who had been Attorney General for 
the Crown in Virginia, but retired to England, and died in 
London, January 31, 1784, which was " last week " to the writer 
of this letter to Elisha, bearing date February 9. Oliver Do 
Lancey, the son of Stephen, a French Refugee, and Ann Van 
Courtlandt, of New York, was a stanch Loyalist, and held tho 
rank of Brigadier General in the King's service. Lorenzo 
Sabine, in his valuable work of reference, mentions several of the 
name and family. This one, now " like to die by an apoplexy, 
if not dead," lived on however to another year, and, as Sabine 
says, '' died at Beverley in 1785, at the age of sixty-eight." 

And now being in London, his son the young Doctor, informs 
us in his Diary how and when they got there. He writes : — 

"1784. Feb. 20.— On Friday my father and Miss Clarke 
went to London in the two-days coach, and on the ev^ of the 
same I went in the Swan post coach, [and] arriv'd on Saturday 
1 o'clock. 

"I saw Major Upham ray old friend, D"" Jeffries, M"" 
Saunderson, &c. &c. &c. I stayed in London above three weeks, 
and returned heart sick of it, without effecting my business 
with the Commissioners of the American Department." 

Very likely. All those who petition their Governments 
soon get wearied out by official delays, objections, difficulties, 



DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTOHINSON. 403 



and any sort of excuses that can be laid hold of. And now, 
being in London, the father wrote to Elisha as follows : — 

• ' " London, March 5'^ 1784. 

'' My Dear Sir, 

" I have not received a line from you since the 27'^ Dec' 
last, tho' I have impatiently expected one. It is true, I have 
just now heard that there is one for me at Birmingham, but do 
not expect to see it these ten days, so that you will not 
expect an answer to it. 

" I have been here a fortnight, and have got into Chancery 
Eoad, and am where I was when I set out ; but publick affairs 
are in confusion. The East India Bill drove off all the old 
Ministers ; and M" Pitt, tlie new one, cannot carry a vote. 
The Commons have addressed the King twice, to dismiss him, 
as having no confidence in him ; and twice hath the King 
replied that, as no specific charge is against him, he could not 
do it, especially as the sense of the nation is for liim, as ex- 
pressed in very numerous addresses in his favor. Thus publick 
business stagnates, and it is very probable there will be a disso- 
lution soon, for taking the united sense of the people. The city 
of London is stanch for M'' Pitt, and Westminster cool to M"" Fox. 
The former dined in the city last Saturday,* and was drawn by 
asses instead of horses, and on his return had his coach broke, 
and his life endangered. He is to go again next Saturday, and 
to take or give t'other knock : and so, fight D figlit B • 

" M''^ Startin sailed for Boston in Callahan hist October : was 
70 days out : met with a terrible storm : the fore mast lost : put 
into Halifax to refit and get provisions : sailed in a few days : and 
after being two days out, was lost in a storm on the back of Cape 
Cod, after having narrowly escaped with life, by being forced to 
be let down on a sailor's back, who went down by a rope from the 
vessell to the shore. They have heard from her in Boston : she 
was going to New York to meet her husband : the vessell lost, and 
the cargo much damaged. Unfortunate lady ! I hope she will 
never part again from her husband untill their final dissolution. 

" We have had the severest winter for nine years past : it 
sot in 25*^ Dec', and is but just quitting its hold. I left poor 

* It was now Friday. 

2 D 2 



404 DIARY AND LETTEIiS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 

IsV E. W. at Birmingham, where he had been incog, about a 
fortnight. Many months are now open [fair weather] : he 
hath taken a passage from Liverpool for America in all this 
month : he seems to be hurried, and I am afiaid worse than 
nothing. I am glad you have saved your debt. 

" W B. Tliompson [Count Eumford], the American Secretary, 
hath bettor luck : he is Adjutant-General and Aide-du-Camp 
to the Elector of Bavaria, and a rank of Colonel there. He was 
lately Knighted here, and is soon going to his post. There is 
one piece of good luck. Ingersol of Great Barrington, is lately 
married to a fortune in Norfolk of £500 p year, and 5000£ 
in reversion : — there is another piece of luck ; and those are 
all the pieces of good luck for Americans. 

*' M"^ leather's wife is like to die, and M"" Boucher hath lost 
his wife. 

" I forgot Borland's good or bad luck. He is married to a 
lady at Bristol of £1500. His mother is married by this time 
to a M'' Knight of Khode Island, who first courted her. 

" I left your Birmingham friends well, except Louisa, who 
keeps house too much to be well. 

" There are some letters in town for Polly by Capt. Murray 
from Halifax, to be delivered by himself, from Miss P. Winslow. 
If I can, I will forward them. M"" Winslow and family are 
there. M"" Walter is here, having left his family at Port 
Koseway. Col. Buggies hath built him a large house near to 
Annopolis : they settle there very fast. The whalemen are 
leaving Nantucket for Nova Scotia, and the New Englanders 
will suffer extremely by overacting their imjDortations, and 
English merchants suffer by them. M""^ Haley sails for Boston 
this month with 15 or 16 Bostonian passengers. D"" Cooper 
died lately, by which France, they say, hath got rid of one 
pensioner. S. Adams hath become insignificant, having 
quarrelled with Hancock. In short, there will be trouble 
enough among them soon, and if the Act of Navigation subsists, 
the 4 New England Governments are ruined. 
" Miss Clarke says — 

"My love to all, 
Both great and small ; 



DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHISON. 405 

and if you can convey mine at the same time, it will save you 
trouble. 

'•' Pray liow is your brother ? Tell my dear Polly and her 
little ones I want to hear from them and see them, as soon as 
possibly it will suit them. 

"I am in great haste, as you may see, and so, lest the 
Bellman should pass by, I wish a good night. 

a Y" Affectionately 

" P. Oliver." 

" Queen Anne Street, East, No. 78." 

The political events, and the Parliamentary changes of the 
spring of 1784, constitute the most solid, and therefore the 
most generally useful portions of the letters of the Chief 
Justice at that rather critical period. The fact that his 
relatives were abroad, and were thirsting for English and 
American news, served him as a spur to action ; and without 
such spur these letters, of which several original ones are 
preserved, would not have been written. His chief corres- 
pondent was Elisha — perhaps because Elisha had married his 
grand-daughter, of whom he was extremely fond. After a few 
humorous remarks, of no moment or relevancy, in a letter of 
May the 17th, he speaks as follows : — 

" The Parliament hath been dissolved some time, and this 
week the new one meets. There had been so many Addresses 
for a new Ministry, that it was thought most prudent to have a 
new choice, and it is probable that M'' Pitt will have a majority 
of about 120. M"" Fox hath been chose for some part of 
Scotland, and I suppose will be for Westminster, unless a 
scrutiny prevents. It is surprising what arts have been used 

in his favor. The D^ of D re [Duchess of Devonshire?] 

and some other noble Ladies, have degraded themselves much 
in parading the streets for him ; and if we may believe some of 
the papers, have lowered themselves by the ladder of in- 
decency. Many riots have happened in Co vent Garden, at the 
Election, and last week a Constable was killed; several are in 

custody ; the Foot (luards were ordered out, and L"^ J. Sp r 

had like to have lost his life by a bayonet. i\Iany riots in 
different parts of the kingdom. L'' SheflSeld is ousted at 



40(3 DIAIiY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 

Coventry, and S'" Sampson Gideon and M"" AVilmot were 
Chaired there. Cruger for Bristol in the room of Daubeny. 
1/ North's chance at Banbury A\as critical. Col. Nortli lost 
his election. L'' Lewisham lost his for Staffordshire. L'' John 
Cavendish his. M"" Bacon is out for Aylesbury. 

" Among the Scotch Peers, lY'^ IMarchmont, Glencairn, Kose- 
bury, and Lauderdale, are left out. Several new English Peers 
are created, as S"" James Lowther, 1/ De Ferrars, son of L'* 
Townshend, created Earl of Leicester. Lord Paget, Earl of 
Uxbridge. Lord Bulkley, an English Baron. Noel Hill, 
Baron Berwick, with several others. 

" As to American news, the Loyalists are used very ill : the 
State of Vermont in arms against New York. M"^ Startin and 
wife have again met at New York, after having lost her 
baggage ; but I hear tbat he hath recovered his lost household 
stuff at Philadelphia. Parson Appleton is dead, iET. 92. 

"As for domestick news, we have little. I do not hear 
Louisa talk of leaving Hagley Row : she mends this warm 
weather. We have had winter till within this fortnight, but 
now the hills smile, the fields laugh, and the valleys sing for 
joy. The winter extended to or from America, for in March 
they sledded [slayed] across the Delaware, to and from Phil- 
adelphia. Your neighbor M" Galton, hath lately brought a 
daughter and son, and is well. W Pickman hath left 
Birmingham, to reside at M'" Lane's in London, in expectation 
either of going to his family, or receiving his wife in London. 
Manufactures full of hands. M"^^ Taylor of Moseley, 
dead. 

" M"" Watson, who had engaged his passage at Liverpool, I 
hear is in London ; but M"^ Green says he doth not know 
where. 

" As you talk of a removal, I suppose that you are now on 
Classick ground, and therefore I have begun my letter in a 
Classic form, and I design to finish in the same manner, and so 
S"", Miss Clarke salutes you all, and wants much to hear" of the 
children. Salute your wife and children for me. Salute also 
your brother and his family, but not in the manner in which 
you salute your own, unless it should suit you. Farewell. 



DIABY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 407 

Dated at Birmingham, May 17*, 1784. IHfem"— We have no 
calends here. 

More last words, to fill up. 

" M'' Copley is not in the Exhibition this year. He now 
exhibits his Major Pearson, and again his Lord Chatham,* for 
what they call rarae show. 

" Thirteen oxen, forty sheep, eleven calves, two and twenty 
cows, four peacocks, nineteen rabbits, a bunch of asparagus, 
head lettuce, salmon radishes, brilled shad, and a good fat 
hen " 

Here the page ends, and the next is missing. Surely the 
reign of George the Third was a very troubled one. Never 
did party contention run higher, or open violence more dis- 
gracefully assert itself. The attention of the nation was now 
fixed upon the proceedings of the new Parliament, which 
assembled in the spring of 1784, on which event the same 
writer, on the 2nd of June, thus informs us : — " The Parliament 
hath met, and M'^ Pitt hath 160 or 170 majority, but the State 
arrangements not yet made. M"^ Fox's elections for the 
Orkneys and Westminster are disputed ; but if ousted of both, 
somebody will make room for him. The waggoner's store by 
me hath a barking dog to keep off mischief; and a barking fox, 
or even a cackling goose may save the Capitol. London hath 
celebrated Handel's Jubilee in Westminster Abbey with above 
500 vocal and instrumental performers, and exhibited a scene 
of astonishment unequalled in history. The profits will be 
above £12,000 [or, it might read 14,000] for charitable uses." 

Of the new impost called the Receipt Tax, he makes tliis 
remark on the 21st of June : — " Notwithstanding Addresses and 
other opposition, the Receipt Tax is confirmed in Parliament. 
It has sent in £12,000 already. One Member of the Commons 
says he hath paid above £400 since March. It will bring in 
£200,000 p year, tho' calculated at but £100,000." 

On the 8th of July he writes : — " The St. Omer's hero [Burke] 

hath been hissed out of the House — Eaynard is bumble. New 

taxes on coals, hats, windows, gauzes, horses, and ribbonds, and 

what-not are issuing, and people generally say — ' It must be so.' 

* The painting of his Lordship's illness ia the House is probably meant. 



408 DlAin' AND LETTEES OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 

" M" Macauley Graham is gone to America to settle a code 
of laws for them ; and a woman is like to be the only hero to 
save them. ]\r Pickman's son is here in town [Birmingham] 
w'itli his lather, and the father is like to go to America soon, 
and take his chance. He saith he hath received your letter,, 
and will answer it before ho goes. 

'' Thank your brother for his kind letter, which I received in 
your packet of Dec^', and which came to hand 2 or 3 days 
siube : I design to answer it soon. 

" The l*rince of Wales had like to have lost his life, by 
riding his horse between two post-chaises. He hath been ill, 
bnt the papers say he is better. 

" Tell Polly I am obliged to her for her Itinerary :* it hath 
given us all around great pleasure . . . 

" Fox's scrutiny is going on : and at the present progress of 
it will take up 9 or 10 years, and cost £300,000, according to 
computation." 

Pass we next from the father to the son, the young Doctor of 
Medicine, who, on the 27th of July in this year 1784, poured out 
a lengthy lamentation on the rudeness of the times, the in- 
gratitude of supposed friends, and the curses that were going 
to fall upon the English nation if the loyal Eefugees were not 
speedily indemnified for their sufferings and their losses : and 
all this he wraps up in a sheet of fools'-cap paper, and directs 
to his brother-in-law Elisha Hutchinson, at Dijon. Being at 
Birmingham, he says : — 

" I live now in Newhall Street, No. 28 : was oblig'd to take 
refuge here from Colemore Eow, since the last week in 
December last, after having been robb'd of several articles, 
and my life in the utmost hazard from my drunken landlord ; 
for we are obliged to put up with every insult from this un- 
grateful people the English, without any redress — as witness 
our cruel neglect from those who have publickly declar'd in 
our favour. What are Commissioners chose for ? — not to make 
good our losses. What are all the promises of protection and 
retribution? but to mortify, insult, and disappoint. I have 

* This hiiieiary di'es nut seem lu have surviveil till the prescut da}'. There 
is no appearance ot it. 



DIARY AhW LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 409 

the best authority to say we are well off if our small pittance 
is not taken from us. Blessed are ye who expecteth nothing, 
for ye then will not be disappointed. Enough of this disagree- 
able subject. I wish never to hear more of it. This is my 
faith — If this nation doe? not make the Kefugees compensa- 
tion for the losses they have sustain'd, as far as is in their 
power, a curse will befall them sooner or later.* I am inclined 
to think that the curse is already begun. 

*' I have no business yet, altho' I have posted my name 
and profession over my door, according to the fashion of the 
country . . . 

" Y"" old friend Jon. Jackson has been here and called upon 
the Judge ; and several other of that class of wretches who 
deserve the halter or the leaden draught. He bragged here of 
being a member of the Congress. 

" Frank Waldo died lately at Tunbridge. 

"]\P N. Hatch, about a fortnight since, cut his throat at 
Pangbourn soon after a cheerful dinner. 

" I am sorry the Eefugees have begun the English custom of 
taking leave. 

" Ben Pitman has been at London — I met his son — and been 
here again to take leave, as he intends for America. M"" [blank] 
of Salem sails in Callahan about this time. 

" D"" Chandler goes out Bishop of Nova Scotia, where the 
wise heads here have got a plan formed. His favorite daughter 
died last spring. 

" My old friend Upham I met in London, as cheerful and 
agreeable as ever, altho' he is Major, and supported by S"" G. 
Carleton, who has befriended him surprisingly. He goes out 
under his patronage, and no doubt will be well provided for. 

" Cousin Bill Oliver's wife died lately at St. John's. 

" Cousin Peter and wife reside at Worcester, with part of the 
ilegiment. 

* This last alarmiug seuteuce the Doctor has iiuderHned. I leave out the 
stress on mj' own respousibihty, thinking it strong enough without. The 
Doctor should not forget the condition in which England found herself at that 
period — overwhelmed with taxes, and an enormously increasing National 
Debt, and only just emerging from a long and expensive war with nearly half 
Europe, besides her American colonies. However willing she might have 
been, it was hard to satisfy so many claimants. 



410 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS IlUTCniNSON. 

"Lieut' Gov. [Thomas] Oliver and family arc going to live 
in Ireland. His eldest lUuighter Mary is to be married ere 
long. 

" Bill Jackson has married a smart >vid()W in Tjondcm, of 
£G,000 ; and wonderful to relate, Tom Boylston has given Ward 
Boylston £12,000, to join with the late Alderman Turner 
deceased, his partner in the sugar baking business; and £12,000 
more, if that is not sufficient. 

" Andrew Spoouer has wrote us since he arrived in America, 
dated iu June, that Sally Seever is going to marry Tommy 
llussell. 

" The widow Borland is married in America, and two of her" 
sons. 

" Daniel Bliss's daughter has married a Capt. in the 8*^ 
Regiment in Canada. 

" Thus you have all the little matters of intelligence, saving 
that the State of New York are arming themselves to fight the 
State of Vermont, as they have both confiscated each others 
estates. Respecting some individuals — tarring and feathering 
frequent in America, and likewise in Ireland. 

" You have not had such a hodge-podge letter a great while. 

" My children send their love to all. All join with me in 
wishing health and happiness to you all. 

" Adieu. Y''^ affectionately 

" Peter Olivee, Jun'. 

"The greatest prospect of hay and corn here in England that 
has been known for several years." 

Thus the father and the son between them, contribute to 
inform us on the passing events of the day. Fragmentary as 
the scraps are, they must not be despised if they are so many 
facts, for facts saved out of the darkness of a past age, are like 
stars in a dark firmament, and one fact — by which I mean one 
modicum of truth — is worth more than ten pages of fiction. A 
fortnight after the preceding, the father took up his pen, and 
addressing himself on the 9th of August to his former corre- 
spondent in France, he shews that though the prevalence of 
a long war had interrupted industrial pursuits, ruined some, 



PIABY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 411 

and impoverished many, now that that war was over, those 
who had suffered so much were looking up their resources and 
collecting their energies, in order to try and repair their 
shattered fortunes by a return to the occupations of peace under 
the ^Egis of legal security. English merchants were eager 
to re-open business with America, and were volunteering large 
consignments of goods to that country, quite forgetting that at 
that juncture America was not in a condition to pay for them. 
The Chief Justice puts the case in the following terms : — 

"I am glad that you are content to defer your shipping goods to 
America untill further advice, for we have accounts from Boston, 
that the new traders who have been over, write that the country 
is so overstocked with goods, that they are not able to make 
speedy remittance. We have also an account from Virginia 
that their House of Assembly have passed a resolve, that no 
debt shall be paid to England, untill England hath paid 
£500,000 for their lost Negroes ; and I shall not be surprized to 
hear that other Provinces adopt the same Kesolve ; and that 
Massachusetts insists upon the pay for the destruction of 
Charlestown, &c. ; so that you will have an opportunity on your 
return, to be satisfied whether you are right or not in your 
adjournment of adventures. I have not forwarded any one 
letter which you sent to me. 

" M" Pickman hath sent his son with W Mather and his 
wife to Boulogne to learn French. He was here [at Birming- 
ham] last week on an excursion from London for his health, 
and seemed to be much out of health and spirits, and a little 
wasted. He seemed undetermined about his return. I pity 
him, for he hath heard of the ill health of his wife ; and his 
fears of the sea, and of an ill reception, worry him. Miss Clarke 
bought a dozen of cotton hose for M""^ Brimmer at 5/6 p pair, 
and delivered them to M"^ Pickman, who promised either to 
take them with him, or deliver them to some careful hand for 
Boston. 

" So much for business. 

" A new Province is made on St. John's river, and called 
New Brunswick. Gen^ Carleton's brother. Col. Carleton, is the 
Governor, and the General to be Gov General of Canada and 



412 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 

all. Col. Willanl with ii thousand Kefngeos, I hear, is em- 
barking for Nova Scotia, so that tlioy will encrease rapidly, and 
I suppose that our Provinco will sink as they rise, for none can 
return to it without tlie expense of Naturalization. In the 
Jersies,* they naturalize their returners by tarring and 
feathering ; and it costs tlieni more in scrubbing and cleaning 
than an adinigsion is worth, so that you know the fate of 
treading your natale solum. 

" Our public aflftiirs go on as swimmingly as your air balloons. 

Wvay and Fox, after 8 or 10,000£ expense, have got as far as 
to have 25 votes on each side rejected, and with £20,000 more 

they may finish by the dissolution of this, or the next 

Parliament. 

'■' Poor JVP Hatch died about 3 weeks since by his own hands; 

and if the Kefugees do not make haste for Nova Scotia, others 

may be forced to the same. 

" I am obliged to your brother for his kind letter. I am loth 

to put him to the charge of postage : he will have the short 

detail of news from you. Tell him I rejoice to hear of his and 

family's welfcire. I often think of them, and want to see them. 

I hope for his return to a good situation in England : my 

sincere regards await them. 

" We have just heard from JVP Startin, in New York. He 

had been sick — nigh to death, but they were in hopes that he 

w^as out of danger. Poor Sally ! I feel for her. 

" I understand M"" Watson was to be here, and that he was 

going to America. He hath been in Holland ; but where he is 

to be, must be left to futurity.t 

* Jersies is not the correct plural of Jersey, any more than monies is the 
correct plural of money, though frequently so written. Our Grammars teach 
us that words ending in ey, simply require an s for their plural, as Jersey, 
Jerseys ; money, moneys ; storey, (of a house), storeys, &c. ; but words ending 
in a consonant and a y, as sy, ny, ry, by, &c., turn the y into ies ; as daisy, 
daisies ; pony, ponies ; story, (a narrative), stories ; baby, babies ; and so on. 
I mention this little matter because we often see the rule disregarded by some 
who are accounted writers of fair repute. 

t It is not said whether this was a son of Col. Watson, and a brother of 
Elisha's wife. He seems to have been playing hide-and-seek, judging by the 
mystery hanging over his movements, and by the hints and innuendoes used 
in speaking of him : but whether he was suffering disgrace or a reverse of 
fortune, remains eipially unexplained. 



DIABT AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTCniNSON. 413 

" I am glad Polly hath an excuse for not writing again : an}^- 
thing contributing to her ease I rejoice in. My affectionate 
regards to her and tlie little ones, wliich Miss Clarke sincerely 
joins in. 

" Day, day ! 

ii Vrs 

" P. Olivek." 

" Elisha Hutcliinson, Esq." 

To his grand-daughter " Dear Polly," on the first of Sep- 
tember, 1784, he says : — 

"Young Pickman [gone to France], makes one American 
more ; if you increase much more you will all be Bastiled, lest 
you encourage a revolt in France. His father left Birmingham 
and embarked for America, but being not well, he disembarqued ; 
but I suppose is sailed by this time." Not at all ! for on the 
14th of October he wrote — " I understand that M'' AVatson is 
gone to America. Pickman hath made two attempts ; but tlie 
horrors of the sea, and terrors of tar and feathers keep him 
back," 

If the facete epistles of the Chief Justice have not palled on 
the reader's fancy, it may be announced that there are a few 
more of them bound up in the second volume of the Original 
Letters, where they are found in a group, arranged in consecu- 
tive order according to date. He aj)pears to liave been fond of 
writing, and as all the Hutchinsons were now on the Continent, 
he became the chief agent in conveying to them such scraps of 
news, political, domestic, or foreign, as by his industry he was 
^ble to pick up. He saw the comic side of most things ; and he 
was not slow to reveal that side, and sometimes he did so in 
very witty expressions. Alluding to contemplated measures by 
the Ministry in Parliament, he speaks on the 9th of November, 
1784, of a new tax, which in due course was passed, and which 
has survived to our own time, and which, from its wholesomeness 
is not likely to be soon abolished. He says : — 

" They design a tax upon dogs, down to lap-dogs : I there- 
fore advise you not to return till the tax is expired ; for if 
you have a large breed of the latter, you may find it very 
heavy upon you." 



414 DIAliY AND LKTTI'inS OF THOMAS JIUTiUUNSON. 



There was a great outcry in the country against tliis tax ; but 
that is not to be wondered at, seeing that in our own day every 
now tax raises a howl — not that it touches everybody, but 
everybody grumbles lest it should. My late parents were too 
young at the time to understand, or to trouble their heads 
about such subjects ; but I can well recollect having heard them 
sav that they could remember hearing grown people giving 
vent to their anger at its luiving been imposed. There was an 
immense slaughter of dogs upon the occasion. Those only were 
saved that had recognised owners, who were willing to pay for 
them. All the rest were condemned to extinction. The measure 
was a wise and a wholesome one, in so far that it cleared off a 
quantity of half-starved mongrels, that prowled about the 
streets, and infested the alleys, both to the annoyance and the 
danger of the inhabitants. 

Under the head " American Thermometer " he writes : — 

" The Congress clipped the guineas down to 17/., but they 
pour in here by weight. Pennsilvanians and Connecticut men 
have had a battle on the Susquehanna : several killed, and 
prisoners in Pennsilvania ; and the latter have sent up recruits. 

" New York and Massachusetts have quarreled about their 
lines, and some killed. Trade to America stagnates. They 
have had a terrible hurricane at Jamaica, and at Hispaniola. 
jy S. Gardiner, of 80 years, is married to T. Goldthwait's 
daughter, of 28. 

" I have just heard that D"^ Chandler hath lost his only son. 

Something has been lost at the end of the following letter, 
so that it terminates abruptly, and it is without any signature ; 
but the reader will have no difficulty in guessing who was the 
writer : — 

" Birmingham, Dec"" 6"", 1784. 
" Dear Sir ! 

" Complaints avaunt ! I received yours of 23'"'^ October, 
the day before this, and now answer it. 

" I have repeatedly heard from the Doctor at Tenby, where 
he is pleasantly situated, but fears he shall have no winter. 
As to us, we have got rid of November, but it was a very 
clever one. 



DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTGDINSON. 415 

" Upon the receipt of your last letter, I immediately wrote 
to M"" Danforth for the American paquet, but he says that he 
had orders to convey what came from thence to you, which I 
suppose he hath done, and that you have rec'^ them. x\s to 
the £20, I shall send for it according to your order. 

" Your fish is good — we have tried one, and shall reserve 
most, if not all the rest, for you. You insult us with your 
lamb, chickens, and grapes : — slunk lamb, and chickens dead 
with the pip in the egg^ are surely very cheap with you : but 
know, we can buy such here at half your French price : the 
grapes, I know as well as the fox did, that they are sour, 
though cousin Jenny says — ' No, no, Uncle : for I am sure I 
eat some when I was fast asleep one night last week, whicli 
they had brought over with them, as luscious as I ever ate in 
all my born days.' But uncle says that if she had been awake, 
they would have sot her teeth on edge, for they were the 
grapes of Sodom, and the clusters of Gomorrah. 

" You have slipped into your letter a few words from some 
very uncouth language, that I have no other way to answer 
you, than by telling you i\YAt — Wannanego huh, tjaugahontuaraiv 
menindungo yahhegonauhueconnasseteg weyontorego, huh ! huh ! '* 
Don't forget this excellent maxim, for it sounds witli harmony. 

" You tell me that you are all Methodists, and expect tliat 
I shall be so too : — be it so : — and as I have ahnost done with 
you sinners, I will give you a word about the American saints. 
Their papers tell us of nothing but war and bloodshed in their 
frontiers : that seven sail of French men-of-war are in the 
Delaware river — but further says not. The Boston papers 

* Having regard to the age and the country wherein the Chief Justice was 
born and brought up, and from the fact that in liis day many remnants of 
the Indian tribes Hugered still in Massachusetts, it is just possible that he 
.may have picked up some knowledge of the native tongues : but whether the 
specimen above is facetious gibberish of his own coining to amuse the children, 
or whether it is bond fide good Massachusetts Indian, I must leave to those 
who have had a better education than I have. In New York I bought a 
Prayer Book of the Church of England service, printed in the language of 
the great Indian tribes ; and on comparing what is above with this, there 
appears to be a strong resemblance between them in the style and character 
of the words. What strikes me most forcibly in the Prayer Book is, the 
remarkable length <f some of the words. Several are of 26 letters each, 
and I have found ouj of 32 letters without break. I presume that these are 
compound words. 



416 DTAnr AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 

mention the deplorable state of their Province, for want of 
money — their Collectors being in jail because they cannot 
collect taxes. One American vessel is taken by the Algerines : 
another is drove off the African coast by the French : Scotch 
and Irishmen are sold in America in droves, but Massachusetts 
will not suffer them to be^ imported there. They have had bad 
crops in the northern parts of America for two years past : the 
manufacturers here have suffered greatly by them, and there 
is an universal stoppage of exportation to them. 

" In England we are in political peace : the window tax 
shuts up ^vindo\^s, but the weather is so dark that several 
are opened again, finding candles to be dearer than windows. 
jy Jeffries went up last week from Park Lane in a balloon 
with Blanchard, and in less than an hour and a half sailed 
twenty-one miles to Dart ford, and wrote a letter to a friend, as 
he says — far, far above the clouds. Lunardi, the Italian, went 
up from London, and made above £2,000 by shewing himself 
after he came down. We have one a-going up soon from this 
town from the Pive Ways, with two persons, one of whom is a 
M'^ Sadler, a pastry-cook of Oxford, who hath already been up, 
and was the first Englishman who had made the voyage. 
Street robberies and burglaries are common in this town ; many 
have been knocked dowai in the night. Your taylor Herbert 
had his shop plundered, and all his goods and deaths; so 
that I suppose you have lost a pair of old velvet breeches, 
or so. 

" Tell the children we have a pig of knowledge near us, who 
can tell your thoughts, your name, the year, month, day of 
the year, hour of the day, &c., and all this by picking out the 
letter of the alphabet, and the figures. It is a very genteel, 
well-educated . . . greatest curiosity of the quadruped , . . 
[paper worn out.] 

" Lord Temple is created Marquis of Buckingham, and Lord 
Shelburne, Marquis of Lansdown — Bishop of Osnaburg, Duke 
of York. Parliament prorogued to 25^'' January. Two 
smugglers hanged, many taken, and the breed pretty well 
destroyed. 

" Lord George G n hath been at it again, and he takes 



DIABY AND LETTEES OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 417 

SO much pains to get hanged, that it is almost a pity lie should 
not be gratified." 

The rest is missing. 

At last it appears that in the beginning of June 1785, Elisha 
and his family at all events, returned to England. We owe 
this piece of information to the same hand that of late has 
done so much to lay before us the current events of tlie time, 
and he welcomes the new arrivals as follows : — 

" Biimingham, June 4"" 1785. 
"Dear Sir! 

" I have received yours 23'"'^ May at Paris ; and by yours to 

coz" Daniel, I find you safe arrived in London, but am sorry 

to hear that my Polly is not well. Tell her it is of great 

importance to her to nurse her cold. We rejoice at your safe 

arrivall, and hope to see you all here in health soon ; and in 

the mean time accept of love and friendship. We cannot 

determine whether your brother and family accompanied you ; 

if 80, my love to them. 

" I inclose to your care a bill of £50, the property of Miss 
Clarke, which she asks the favour of you to receive for her. 
M"" Pirn lives in Threadneedle Street, No. 69. If you receive 
it, she wishes you could get it in to the same fund with the 
rest of her money ; and as they do not take in less than £100, 
she says she hath a Bank bill by her of £50, which she will pay 
you on your arrival here, if you will advance that sum to make 
up the £100. 

" As to your house, coz° Daniel says that his lodgings are 
ready for him in Temple Street, at M''^ Hallowell's and cousin 
Louisa's also, at M" Neal's new house, near to yours. Your 
rooms are ready — swept, and garnished : strawberries, Indian 
corn, and other fruits, all flourishing ; and the tenement at the 
further end of the garden, swept and garnished too ; so that 
all things and matters are ready for occupation. 

" Further says not, 

" P. Olivek. 

" P.S. — He further says, that he wishes you would not 
mention the £50 bills while you are in London : as also, he 
VOL. II. 2 E 



418 DfAin' jyn lkttkiis of tiiomas iiutciiinson. 

advises you to buy your stock of candles at Kensington, for he 
assures you, upon trial, that they are as cheap at 12'' y pound, 
as the best hero are at 8''. If you buy any tea for yourselves, 
buy S'** or 4'" for me, of the okl 12/- sort." 

There is however, the transcript of a letter in the hand- 
writing of the elder brother, of June the Uth, which shews 
that the t\YO brothers, with all their belongings, returned 
to England together. It emanated from Brompton, and was 
addressed to Andrew Hpooner, who was in America, and is 
couched in the following terms : — 

"r.n.iniiton, June 0"' 1785. 
'' Dear Nephew. 

" My brother [Elisha] and myself, with our families, 
arrived here a few days ago from France. Hearing there 
is a vessel upon sailing for America, I have enquired for some 
person to whom I might safely trust the note-of-hand of your 
grandfather Oliver,* but unsuccessfully as yet. However, I 
send this to let you know of my arrival in England, and that 
I wrote you ia an answer to yours of Dec"" last, by a M'' Pick- 
man, which I hope you have received. I have not been here 
long enough to know the state of my affairs, nor what course I 
shall take next. 

" Your Affectionate Uncle, 

*' T. Hutchinson." 

" M'. Spooner." 

Soon after arriving in England the brothers proceeded to 
count the cost, and square up their accounts with each other, 
and in doing this there arose an amicable contention between 
them, over a balance of £62 3s., which Thomas declared 
was due to Elisha, which the latter could not see, and so he 
refused to take the money. The statement of accounts was 
the following : — 

* Spooner's mother, Margaret Oliver, was a daughter of the Lieut.- 
Governor. 



DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 419 



. Dr. E. H. witli T. H. 

To Bal. on Cash ace. . . . 145 S2 
To cash rec''m France, more 

than lialf travelHns; 

charges 80 17 1 

To d" advanced E. II. en 

route liome 20 17 G 



253 2 9 
To Bal 62 3 



Expenses J(jurneying. Cr. 

1785. 

•Tune. By the am. expense, 

Jonrney to and 

I'rom Nismes . . .245 5 9 
T>y £70 charged in ace. 

as settled at Dijmi, 

niit taken np hv 

E. H 70 



£315 3 9 

Brompton, June 13th, 1785, 

Errs. Except* 

T. H. 



£315 5 9 



Writing ou the 7th of July, Thomas remarks to his brother 
— " I send a copy of the ace* I meant to have given you had 
you called, as you promised, and will pay the £62 ,, 3 to your 
Order." But Elisha repudiated the money. Upon this re- 
pudiation TiiOmas wrote to explain, and ended by saying — 
" You must be mistaken in your calculations somewhere." 
And so perhaps he was, for he still hesitated ; whereupon an 
ultimatum was dispatched, which probably settled the question, 
for we hear no more of it. 

But another and a far more important question now arose 
to engage their attention. The anxieties attending the un- 
certain position of the Refugees in England had been great, 
and their altered circumstances served to keep their anxieties 
constantly before their eyes. Many there were who desired 
to return again to America now that the war was over, and in 
that country to put themselves above want by a resumption of 
their former occupations. The strong prejudices however that 
existed in the young Republic against the reappearance of 
expelled Loyalists amongst them, the necessity for taking the 
oaths and of becoming naturalised, and the assertion that some 
who had ventured to return had been imprisoned, or tarred 
and feathered, were facts that deterred many from taking a 
decided step. Efforts were at all events being made to recover 
private debts that had perhaps been contracted before the war 
began ; also to recover rents in arrear from estates that had 
been temporarily abandoned ;' but chiefly to take proceedings 

2 K 2 



420 DIJliY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS IIUTCniNSOK 

to try and recover property of various descriptions that had 
been seized, occupied, or confiscated. Andrew Spooner, who 
luul gone out to America, had acted as a sort of Agent for his 
rehitives now iu Enghmd. AVriting July 4, 1785, to Mr. Daniel 
Vose of Milton, he said — " I gave my nephew M'' A. Spooner, 
who went to America in 1782, a list of some debts due to me 
there, which I took off from my books in .a. hurry, and among 
the rest, put yours to me at £10G„3„6." He found afterwards, 
that in his hurry, when going to France, he had placed it too 
liigh, when he corrected it accordingly. 

In the same w-ay lie exerted himself on behalf of his sister- 
in-law Grizel Sanford, who for some time had received no rents 
from her property at Conanicut, and had suffered much 
inconvenience in consequence. And in 1785, addressing him- 
self to his nephew on the 17th of August, he says — " I thank 
you for the account you have given me both of publick and 
private affairs on your side the Atlantick. I. fear you are not 
yet in that tranquil state as to induce me to take a voyage, 
and become one of you : you know my penchant for American 
air." And he applied to a Mr. Taylor, latterly of Quebec, 
who had had £200 of hers in his hands for more than ten 
years, and he hoped that Mr. Taylor could make it convenient 
to return it. One of the farms had been leased to a man 
called Slocumb : the other was unlet, and he says — '' I think 
the tenants in the old lease, were obliged to plant a certain 
number of trees annually, as well as to make a certain quantity 
of stone wall. I sometimes wish myself upon such a farm, 
where I could inspect the improvements myself; but I must 
wait till you are more settled and composed." 

He was evidently hankering after a return to the American 
soil. 

The claims of the Refugees for compensation for their losses 
were now being taken up by the English Government. At 
the commencement of this movement in 1783, he wrote to some 
"Hon*^ and Dear Sir," and on the 15th of July he said — "You 
will see by the papers that Parliament have chosen a Committee 
for the purpose of investigating the estates of the Loyalists 
during the recess. May it not be worth your while to forward 



DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 421 

to 'England as particular an account of your losses of every 
kind as you are able ? " 

Commissioners were in due time appointed. The subjoined 
original letter mentions an award, taking into account the 
English laws of descent and primogeniture : — 

" Broinptoii, Aug' 31^' 1785. 
" Dear Brother. 

" As they begin paying at the Treasury the grants of 30 and 

40 p. c', I called to-day to enquire for myself, -when they gave 

me the memorandum as beloAA\ As I did not fully understand 

the distribution, I went immediately to M"" Forster, who 

willingly s&ar6hed the records of their proceedings with me. 

It seems they consider me as heir to all the real estate by the 

law of England, and that.they had no power to proceed otherwise 

than by that law, the Will [of the Governor] being deficient 

to convey real estate. I enclose receipts, which it is necessary 

you should sign, and I wish to have them as soon as may be. 

" I am 

" Your Affectionate Brother 

"Tho'. Hutchinson. 

•' Pray let me know 

" where I shall lodge y^' mony. 

" Order to pay Tho' Hutchinson . i^lS(]0 

Tho' and Elisha Hutcliiuson as Executors . 150 
Elisha Hutchinson 60 ** 

The sum of the above is 2070. The Loyalists were looked 
upon as people who had fallen between two stools — on the one 
hand, they had lost every tiling in America ; and on the other, 
they could not expect much from an impoverished government, 
exhausted by a long war with various countries, and petitioned 
by a host of suppliants. 

In a subsequent communication of Sep. 15, 1785, he explains 
the division he had made of the £2070 ; also, in stating his 
claims, the value he had put upon the mansion house, and 
store ; and at what sums he had appraised articles of furniture, 
effects, &c. Thus he says — " Since I have been here I have 
made out every account due in America to T. and E. H. which, 



422 DIARY AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS IIUTCIIINSOM. 

with nil the notes of hiiud, I have lodged in the hands of ti 
friend in the city, that they may be come at if wanted. At 
present I think there is nnich less chance than at any time for 
two years past, of anything being recovered. I shall acquaint 
you with my situation when fixt, and am, &c., 

"Tho' Hutchinson. 

I put the !^^ansion house, which 

sold for £1200, as I estimate 

it 1000 

My Store I valued at £200, I 

put at 100 

1100 
8ay a i)aynient at 35 ^ c' , . 385 
E. H. separate grant £C0 

T. H. . . 
E. 11. . , 
r. 0. . . 



Total . . 
T. H. ded' 


t 


. 2070 
• 885 


E. H. dcd' 


• 


1G85 
. GO 




• 


. 1625 
. 812 10 



1197 
4G6 
406 


10 
5 

5 


£2070 






Sucli is the memorandum of account appended to the letter. 
The autumn was approaching, and after some deliberation, he 
resolved to hybernate again in France. With this intention, 
about Michaelmas 1785, he crossed the Channel with his family 
and jDroceeded to the French capital— then to Blois^ — then to 
Mers-sur-Loire. From this place he wrote to his brother on 
the 19th of October, and amongst other things he said thus : — 
" Mers is a market town, but is inferior to Blois — about ten 
English miles nearer Paris, and as great a road as any in 
France. I found W Mather had lately removed from 
Beaugency, and he now lives about half a mile distance from 
me on the other side the town, and was instrumental in 
procuring me my house, having made acquaintance here, 
during his residence at Beaugency." 

Whilst they resided quietly in that country hoping for 
better times, and chewing the cud of sweet and bitter fancy, 
Dr. Peter Oliver's Diary shews us that he and his father were 
applying to the tardy Commissioners for money in England ; 
and. it also shews us, that though a man may go forth and make 
the grond tour of Europe, or of Warwickshire, yet, if he returns 



DIABY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 423 

back to bis bouse witb only one balfpenny in his pocket, be 
bas lived witbiii bis means : — 

" 1786. March 12.— The Judge, M*"^ Clarke, ]\P H., and 
myself, rode to London in the two-days coach, and return'd the 
24 lust. We went before the Commissioners, and soon was rid 
of them. They boggled about our want of proof, concerning 
the worth of our works. 

" 1786. June 26th. — I and the children went to Warwick 
in a post chaise : breakfasted at Knowle, then went on to 
Warwick . . . 

"27tb. — . . . thro' Castle Bromwich, and so home; and 
when I got to Birmingham I bad but one ^ penny left. 

" 1786. Sep'' 9. — A letter from Dowse at Caermartben, 
giving me an ace* of Bill Brown's hanging himself, Ap^ 30, 
— 86 : a most worthless character, the son of Gov"^ Brown of 
Bermudas." 

In spite of official delays, cold looks, and postponements, the 
Doctor persevered, and at last a brighter entry appears in his 
Diary — 

" 1787. July 27. — I had an order from the Commissioners to 
receive 660, as part payment for losses." 

The £ is understood. His bouse in Middleborougb, built 
and given to him by bis father, was taken from him but was not 
burnt, as was the mansion of the Judge, known as " Oliver 
Hall." As regards the period of this act of incendiarism, the 
Kev. Doctor Andrew Oliver, writing to me Oct. 5, 1881, says — 
*' I endeavoured in vain this summer, when I was in the 
neighbourhood of Middleboro', to ascertain the date of the 
burning of Oliver Hall ; but I have no doubt, from all I can 
learn, that it was sometime during the year 1782, or a little 
after W^ Andrew Oliver left it, which was early in that yeai'. 
She was the Judge's daughter-in-law." 

According to some family memorandums, she was Phebe 
Spooner of Middleborougb. Her husband, the said Andrew 
Oliver, was born Sep. 15, 1746, and died Jan. 21, 1772, so that 
at the time the bouse was destroyed, she had been ten years 
a widow. 

A florid account of this event had appeared in some of the 



424 DIAIiY AM) LETTERS OF THOMAS iWTCniNSON. 

local Journals, founded on a narrative given by an eye-witness. 
])uring one of his visits to tlie neighbourhood, the Kev. Doctor 
had become acquainted witli an old resident in Middleborough, 
who in his youth had known Mary Norcutt, the housekeeper 
of Judge Oliver, and she gave him all the particulars of what 
had occurred. After the fire the ruins gradually fell to decay, 
and it is difficult now to discover any traces of what once 
stood there, although several interesting relics have been 
picked up on the spot. 

Besides a sum of money to console him for the loss of his 
house. Dr. Peter Oliver informs us that the Kuglish govern- 
ment granted him a small pension — 

"Nov. 15, -88. — I took my oath before Squire Careless for 
the 1®* time, to receive my quarterly Pension at £50 p anu." 

The Chief Justice also had to petition and pres§ his suit, and 
bide his time, and exercise his patience, and the second para- 
graph of the following letter appears to refer to something of 
that sort : — 

" Loueloii, March 18'" 1787. 
" Dear Sir. 

" We are all going to Clapham, to dinner at W^ 

Timmins's. 

" I have been through the ordeal fire, and was treated with 
great politeness, and the Doctor also. 

" I fully expect to be at home this week, after the ladies 
have had their frolic out. 

" D"^ Chauncy is dead, 

" My love to the children, to Louisa and Daniel. Tell Polly 
to take care of home. 

" Excuse this writing, having nothing but a rusty straggled 
nail to write with, and the D"" at the other end of the table, 
shaking it. 

« Y^s p Q *' 

It must be allowed that the writing is very bad for the 
Judge, his caligraphy being usually the very pattern of 
neatness. 

I abhor long foot-notes in other people's books, and have no 
more love for them in my own, but the disagreables of life are 



DIARY AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS HVTCHINSON. 425 

sometimes determined to make themselves felt. The above is tlie 
last letter I see written by the Chief Justice ; and it seems a pity 
tliat the few remaining scraps of information referring to the two 
branches of the Oliver family that came to England, all the 
members of which are now died out, should not be preserved. 
These scraps lie mostly in the Diary of Dr. P. Oliver. His wife 
Sarah died three weeks after her father the Governor. Their 
children were Margaret Hutchinson Oliver, born Jan. 7, 1771 ; 
Thomas H. Oliver, b. July 15, 1772; Peter, b. Sep. 23, 1774. 
There were also two infants, each called Daniel, who were born 
in England, but who both died young ; as thiis — 

Dec. 20, 1778. Daniel born. 
Ap, 26, 1779. Daniel died, aged 4 m. 6 days. 
May 18, 1780. Daniel born, 

Aug. 27, 1780. Daniel the infant died of convulsions. 
Aug, 28, 1789. Thomas apprenticed to a Surgeon and Apothecary. 
Oct. 14, 1789. Peter sent to sea. 
Oct. 13, 1791. The Judge died this morning, aged 78 years, G 

months, and 13 days. 
Oct. 19, Wednesday. My father buried under the new churcli, 

Mr. Welsh, Mr. Perkins, Mr. Palmer, Mr. Green, Mr. Cope, and 

J. Freer, Bearers. 
Feb. 25, 1792. I put up a Monument in St. Phillip's Church, 

Birmingham, for the Judge. 
July 17, 18, 19, 1794. P. 0. [his son] appear'd to be dying slowl}-. 
19th., abt. 9 o'clock P. 0. died in the evening, aged 19 years and 

almost 10 months, wanting 3 days. He was the sickest person 

in a consumption I ever saw : had lost his voice almost 7 

months, and a very bad sore throat most of the time : continual 

cough and expectoration : high fever : great prostration of 

strength, and loss of flesh. P. 0. was buried in the new Cty, 

St. Chad's Yard, Wednesday the 23rd. 
Sep. 20, 1796. Peggy [his daughter Margaret] died, aged 25 years, 

6 months, and 13 days, after being sorely afflicted with a 

consumption, and the worst symptoms. 
June 17, 1799. My birthday : 58 compleat. 
Feb. 20, 1805. Gov. Pownall dyed this month at Bath, aged 85. 
Jan. 29, 1808. Ld. Gage dyed. 
June — 1808. T. Hutchinson, Jun. wife died. [This was 

Elizabeth Hagen, first wife of the Governor's grandson.] 
Aug. 1809. Peter Johannot dyed this month in London, Agd. 79. 
Dec. 1809. Sir John Bernard dyed in the West Indies, aged 65. 
May 11, 1812. Mr. Perceval shot. 

- 18. Bellinghara [who shot him] hangd. 



42n nTAnr akd letters of titomab iiutchinson. 

The Diary ends Jxino 28, 1821. Dr. Peter Olirer was ■buried at 
Birmingham. His last surviving child Thomas, the only healthy 
one of the ftimily, reached the age of 02, and died at Great 
Yarmouth. 

Ho was the last of that hranch of the family. 

There was however another branch in England. Lieut. Gov. 
Oliver, by his second wife, had a son named William Sanford, 
who m. Susannah Honeywell, and had a son also called William 
Sanford, and another, — "a son, whose death, in infancy, was caused 
by the rebels in Boston," as a note on the Pedigree informs us. 
The surviving son was in the na^-y. He m. Mary, my father's 
sister. Their eldest d. Mary m. her cousin and went to S. Africa ; 
and Elizabeth Gertrude, the other, died at Sidmouth in 1829 ; and 
the son William m. his cousin Rachel H., and had a daughter 
named Elizabeth Mary, born May 22, 1842. William, the last 
male representative of this other branch of the Olivers in England, 
died Jan. 25, 1873, and his daughter, the last survivor of the 
name, died. May 12, 1876. Thus, as far as I know, they are all 
extinct in England : but the descendants of the elder branch, 
by the Lieutenant-Governor's first wife, continue to flourish 
honourably in America. 

The second visit to France had now prolonged itself to the 
space of nearly three years, when preparations were being 
made to return. The first intimation of this appears in the 
Diary of Elisha at Birmingham, where he writes : — 

"1788. July 18.— Fair and pleasant. Glass 14, 17. Walked 
to town after dinner. The Judge and Miss Clarke called, who 
came from Barr this morning. Cousin Louisa drank tea with 
us, who has a letter from her brother, [Daniel, or Brinley 
Sylvester], which mentions Nurse having arrived at Brompton 
Kowe last Sunday, having left my brother at Paris last week 
on Wednesday, Avhich he was to leave on Friday, on his way to 
London where she hourly expected him." 

" July 30"\— I wrote to my brother at N°. 83 Tichfield Street, 
who I heard had arrived from France with his family the 19*'' 
of this month." 

A little incident occurred on the 20th which enlivened the 
quiet of Elisha's establishment. It runs as follows, thougli it 
is scarcely wortliy of extract : — 



MABY and letters of THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 427 



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428 DjAiiY Axi) lettePs of Thomas iivtciiinson. 

" July 20*^. — Cloudy : iutervnls of sunshine : some showers. 
Glass 13.14. — in the evening fell to 8. About 9 o'clock two 
sluibby looking felloNvs came and enquired for M'''' H., and 
when admitted, said they had found a trunk concealed in a 
barn in this neiglibourhood ; upon opening of which they had. 
found papers, two of which they liad carried to M"" Eobbins, 
to Avhom tliey were tenants, one of them being named Grant, 
and that they were labourers in the Smith's shop, by name 
of Wallis, adjoining to M'" Eobbins, in Snow Hill, where they 
liad left the trunk, having carried it there for making a 
discovery of the owner, which they had done by applying at 
Colemore How, and had come to give us notice, and would 
bring the trunk, which they accordingly did, M*"^ H. not 
having missed it, although no one could recollect having seen 
it for a fortnight past. It is a trunk containing all her private 
letters and papers, none of which seem to Le lost, though 
deranged. The two fellows appearing open and honest, and 
telling a straight story, I paid them for their trouble, and 
dismissed them. 

" 2V\ — Fair and pleasant. Glass 13.17. Walked to town, 
taking George with me to some shops. Called on IVF Eobbins, 
Snow Hill, who gave a fair and open ace*, and a good character 
of the men who found the trunk. "We imagine it was taken 
the night of [blank] having found the window open of a back 
chamber closet where the trunk was,- the next morning, and 
broke, and the things deranged ; but the children having 
amused themselves there the day before, we did not take much 
notice of it. They took some other small articles, but of little 
or no value." 

On arriving in London, Thomas communicated with his 
brother, and in August 1788 he said : — 

" As soon as I got to town, and was fixed in a lodging, I 
called at the American ofiice. MT Munrotold me he was going 
to write me on the matter of claims made in America, and the 
value of the estate in Boston, and the farm in Ehode Island 
Government." 

This subject, so closely affecting the interests of the Loyalists 
in general, is of frequent recurrence ; and there are memoran- 



DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 429 

diims sufficient among the papers to shew how the family 
persevered for more than twenty years In their efforts — how 
they suffered difficulties, delays, and postponements — and how 
ftir they eventually su('ceeded in rescuing and recovering some 
portions of the value of their estates. 

It was at this time that the King's mind visibly felt the 
strain of the momentous events that had taken place in the 
kingdom during the course of the last fifteen years: for, as 
head of the State, and not insensible to the great responsibilities 
attaching to his high position, from which all other men were 
free, the considerations bearing on the enormous demands that 
had been made on his loyal and willing subjects to maintain 
the dignity, honour, and safety of the nation through the 
vicissitudes of several long and costly wars, added to the un- 
certainties of their termination, amounted to an accumulation 
enough to try the strongest nerves. 

Addressing himself to his brother on the 15th of November, 
1788, Thomas briefly alluded to the national sympathy in the 
following sentence : — 

" All London, except it be the most profligate part of it, are 
under the greatest concern for the King, and sincerely praying 
for his recovery. From what I hear, [ fear the event." 

Passing by one or two old letters from G-randmamma Phebe 
Watson, written to Elisha's daughter Mary, acknowledging the 
receipt of a letter and a Map made in needlework as a present 
for the Colonel, and explaining that Grandpapa is unable to 
write himself, or scarcely able to read the names of the places 
worked on it even with a magnifier, owing to the dimness of his 
eyesight — and also passing by, as of no great national import- 
ance, one or two old letters from Eoxbury, written by aunt Sarah 
Brimmer* to the same young lady in England, we will give a 
little attention to a large and suffering body of people, whose 
only crime had been that of fidelity to the Mother country. 
Driven out of the land of their adoption, they had fled back to 
the land of their ancestors, where most of them were strangers. 
Some pressed their claims for relief from the English Govern- 

* I think Martin Brimmer married Sarah, one of the daughters of Col. 
Watson. 



430 DTAliY AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 



ment ; others applied to the American Courts for recovery of 
the estates themselves ; while others, despairing of success, gave 
up everytliing for lost, and sat down resigned to their fate. 
Sir Francis BiM-nard lost the valuable Island of IMount Desert? 
and Sir William J^epperell lost miles of coast line stretching 
away from Kittery Point to Saco, and extending miles into the 
interior. These unfortunate people were very difficultly placed 
— if they had joined the American party, they would have been 
Rebels to England : but when the war w^as over and they applied 
for the restitution of their estates, they were told they were 
Eebels to America. A Eesolution of the Legislature of Virginia 
in the beginning of 1783, declared that all demands or requests 
of the British Court for the restitution of confiscated property, 
unsupported by law, equity, or policy, inadmissible. Adolph. iii. 
503. Those who had openly borne arms against the Congress 
had little or no chance after peace had been established, but 
civilians stood in a more favourable position. Mr. William 
Vassell, a Kefugee in England, frequently mentioned in 
Governor Hutchinson's Diary, finding that as the Federal 
Constitution had been adopted, a State could be sued ; and 
Sabine informs us that he instituted proceedings against 
IMassachu setts in the Court of the United States; and Mr. Han- 
cock, who occupied the Executive Chair, was summoned as 
defendant in the case. His Excellency declined to appear ; 
and soon after, the eleventh amendment to the Constitution put 
an end to the right of Loyalists to test the validity of the Con- 
fiscation Acts of the Revolution. 

The Hutehinsons had very little chance of a favourable hear- 
ing in Massachusetts, but their prospects were brighter in Rhode 
Island on the one side, and in Maine on the other. 

" I would observe," writes Thomas to his brother, on the 20th 
of May, 1789, "that it seems to be pretty generally understood 
and expected by those concerned, that a provision will be made 
for such Loyalists as have received no compensation, and who 
must suffer without it ; as also, that where the compensation 
has not been adequate to the former allowance, a temporary one 
will be continued. A new list is every day expected at the 
Treasury, which will render this matter certain." 



niAJRY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS ITUTOTUNSON. 431 



And in vol. iii. of the Original Letters, on the 27th he writes 
again : — 

" I wrote you last week by ]\P Oliver that a revised list of 
temporary allowances was expected shortly to be made public 
at the Treasury. I am now able to acquaint you that you are 
continued at £100 p annum, and I enclose a blank re?eipt for 
the quarter, to April." 

Whilst these matters were under discussion, he projected 
another visit to France, and dating from Boulogne on the 23rd 
of July, he said to the same — • 

" Our journey and voyage were both executed very agreeably. 
We had a very easy five hours passage, tho' were all sea-sick, 
by reason of the swell of the sea, which we were not sorry for 
as soon as it was over. In less than a week Mary began to 
change colour, and to assume her usual spirits, which had for 
months been greatly changed, and I hope a little time will 
effect our wishes. This town exceeds the idea I had of it, 
having only before passed the upper part in the road to Calais : 
the environs are very pleasant, and the prospects more varied 
than common in this part of France. The great number of 
English families here who come to bathe, make it apjDcar an 
English town. I must be governed by accidents as to the time 
of our stay, as well as to the course we take at leaving it. I 
have wrote to London to know whether any or what steps can 
be taken as to the American debts." 

After a pleasant sojourn of three months he prepared to 
return, and not without being warned to provide for his personal 
safety, as appears from an expression used in a letter to his 
brother of October 13, wherein he implies that the ominous 
thunder clouds of some dire calamity were gathering over 

France, and that it would be safer to withdraw to England. 

The horrors of the Revolution manifested themselves in that 

country not long after. He says : — 

" Not without some regret, on the 12'^ of last month we 

quitted Boulogne, thinking it imprudent to risque a winter's 

residence in a country circumstanced as France is at this time. 

I took the pacquet for the most western port we could make 

without inconvenience to sea-sick passengers. Southampton 



432 DTART AND LETTEIiS OF THOMAS IIUTCniNSOK 

proved to be our goal, the wind coming on to blow a gale at 
west, we ran up the river thro' Spithead, the most beautiful I 
ever saw, after forty-eight hours very easy sail from our port, 
and almost without sea-sickness. We did not wish to return to 
London, and were without any fixed determination where we 
should stop. Southampton is a pretty place, but very extra- 
vagant is the living there. We proceeded on to Pool, which I 
tliiuk must be the cheapest town of its magnitude in the west, 
but it has a dreary country around it, and from its lonely 
situation, a kind of peninsula, did not please at all. We 
stopped at Lyme and Dorchester without meeting anything to 
induce us to fix. At Axminster Domett would fain have kept 
us a few days to make a trial of that town. Thinking it too 
small, tho' very pleasant, we proceeded on to Exeter, and I have 
taken a house at a mile from the town, but in the neighbour- 
hood, the house furnished, and has every convenience about it, 
with about six acres of land — mowing, orchard, and garden 
stocked with fruit trees. I could have had my house and 
garden without the land, at £45, and am to pay £60 p ann. for 
the whole. The last year my orchard produced 20 hhds. of cyder, 
and I begin to build castles in the air, but soon check myself. 

" Thus my whole tour, since I left London, appears to me a 
work of hazard and uncertainty, tho', on reflection, I know not 
where I could have dropped with more conveniences about me 
than I imagine to have here. 

" A. Spooner refers me to you respecting Eastern Lands. If 
I had a favorable opportunity I would forward the Bond, 
without discovering what the advantage can be in so doing ; 
but as you have the date — sum — and know what has been paid, 
you can make the culculation as well as if in your hands." 

He adds the following postscript: — ''My landlord is a M"" 
Cotsford, a two hundred thousand pounder, and Member of 
Parliament, but I have never but once as yet, had any conversa- 
tion with him." * 

* At the date of their return my father Andrew was a boy of twelve or 
more, near half of which had been passed in France. He there got well grounded 
in the French language, and he retained his proficiency in it as long as he 
lived. He used to make me read ' Gil Bias ' and ' Moliere ' to him. He told 
me that when they were in France, some English friend wrote to his father, 



DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 433 

Thus tbe family became settled in a respectable looking old 
house, built in the Queen Anne style, known as East Wonford 
House, in the parish of Heavitree, towards the sunrising from 
Exeter, and at about three quarters of a mile east from Heavitree 
church, where it still stands. The rent appears to be extraordina- 
rily low. He would not bind himself to a lease, but took it only 
from year to year, for he still had one eye upon America, and if 
circumstances should appear encouraging, he cherished the 
idea that he might yet some day turn his steps, either to 
Massachusetts or to Ehode Island. This appears from a 
paragraph in a letter of February the 2nd, 1789, dated at London, 
and addressed to his nephew Andrew Spooner, who was in 
America acting as his agent. Thus he says :— 

" The receipt of your letters of the 28"^ and 29*^ Nov"", by 
Scott, makes it necessary that I should embrace the first oppor- 
tunity of acquainting you that M''^ Sanford has not the least 
idea or intention of selling her estate in America, and if it were 
absolutely necessary for her so to do, I think it probable I 
should be myself the purchaser, having some views in regard 
to that country, which may or may not be put in execution, as 
circumstances occur." 

Time went on : some of their friends wrote over to different 
members of the family, and tried to persuade them to come out 
at once, and some sent over the gossip of Boston. Aunt 
Elizabeth Eussell — though it is not clear how the relationship 
was made out — wrote to Elisha's daughter Margaret, and told 
her the last news from Boston on the 20th of April, 1790. 

" You enquire," she said, " after your old friend Miss Harriot 
Lothrop. You will start perhaps to hear slie is going to be 
married, and for a moment discredit the intelligence ; but 
indeed it is true, and the gentleman of her choice is a son 
of Parson Kobbins's. 'Tis possible you remember him — M"^ 
Chandler Bobbins. I am told they are to be married soon: 

and throufli some strange inadvertence, merely addressed the letter, " Thomas 
Hutchinson, Esq., France," and curiously enough the letter reached him. It 
arrived at an inn where they had been, but they had gone on. The landlord, 
at a loss what to do with it, stuck it up in the looking-glass. After a con- 
siderable interval they touched at the same inn on their return, when the 
landlord handed over the letter — rather stale in news. 

VOL. TI. 2 F 



434 DIARY AXD LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTCIIINSON. 

she is ii very fine youug lady, possessed of a very good 
disposition, and very pleasing manners, bnt is too young to 
enter into the cares of a family." 

The party seem to have been content with their new home. 
Among the bound-up original letters, there is one from Thomas 
to his brother, of May 19, 1791, in which he says : — " After 
eighteen months residence we continue to think this a very 
agreeable part of England ; and perhaps I could not have made 
a better pitch than I have done." 

In another of Nov. 22, 1793, he alludes to the birth of John, 
Elisha's youngest child, born Sep. 21 of that year, afterwards 
Canon of Lichfield, and Editor of the tliird volume of Governor 
Hutchinson's History, where he says : — " I have been prevented 
by some necessary occupations from answering your letter of 
the oOth ultimo sooner. We most sincerely congratulate you 
and Mrs. Hutchinson on the addition of a son to your family, 
and wish he may be spared to be a comfort to you both." 

December 23, 1796, he writes : — "A few days after you left 
us M^' and M'"^ Sabatier, neither of whom I had any knowledge 
off [of] before, came into Devonshire and took lodgings about 
half a mile distance from us. We found them both well 
informed people and pleasant neighbours. They returned to 
London the first week in Nov*", with an intention of spending 
the next summer here." M"^ William Sabatiei* was the 
descendant of a Huguenot Kefugee, who visited America, and 
married Margaret, a daughter of Foster Hutchinson, at Halifax, 
Nova Scotia. 

But the American Befugees continued to make their lament 
tations heard. Many of them were reduced to complete 
destitution— some tried to earn bread by the most menial 
bccupations — and some broke down in health both bodily and 
mentally, for the delays were unavoidably prolonged, and he 
who waits for the corn to grow will starve in the interval. 
Durino" the course of a long series of years the case of the 
Loyalists had been occasionally before Parliament, and even 
for thirty or forty years after the termination of the war was 
still unsettled in some of its bearings. The 4th Article of the 
Treaty of Peace stipulated — "That creditors on either side 



DIALY AND LETTEH8 OF THOMAS IlUTCniNSON. 435 

shall meet with no lawful impediment to tlie recovery of tlie 
full value iu sterling money of all bona fide debts heretofore 
contracted." 

The 5th Article stipulates that Congress should recommend 
the restitution of all estates, rights, and properties which had 
been confiscated, to British subjects, who had not borne arms 
against the United States; and that persons of any other 
description should have free liberty to go and remain twelve 
months in the United States unmolested, in their endeavours to 
recover their confiscated property. 

As regarded the English Government, it w^as fully admitted 
that the Loyalists had just claims to compensation at their 
hands. The King in his S^Deech said — " I trust that you will 
agree with me, that a due and generous attention ought to be 
shewn to those who have relinquished their properties or 
possessions from motives of loyalty to me, or attachment to the 
Mother country." 

Lord "Walsingham, speaking of the Loyalists, observed :— 
*•' Their claim upon us is self-evident." 

In the Lower House, Mr. Wilberforce declared — " They must 
be compensated." Mr. Townshend, Secretary of State, said — 
" This country would feel itself bound in honor to make the 
Loyalists full compensation for their losses." 

The above few facts are taken from a printed " Abstract of 
the case of the Uncompensated American Loyalists," &c., which 
I find among the papers. Sabine, to whom I shall have to 
refer next, though as briefly as possible, gives many particulars 
relative to their claims, their losses, and the amount of what 
they recovered. Such were the delays, that even so late as in 
1821 — thirty-eight years after the war had ended, and forty- 
three years after the passing of the Confiscation Act — the 
subject was again mooted in Parliament. In the debates, as 
reported in the Glohe newspaper of March 22, that year, — 
'' M'' Courtenay rose to call the attention of the House to the 
claims of the American Loyalists, who had suffered iu the 
Eevolution, for the fulfilment of the engagements and promises 
made to them by Great Britain, to compensate whatever losses 
they might have sustained in consequence of their adherence 

2 F 2 



436 DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS EUTCEINSON. 

to the Crown of Euglaud during that period," &c., and ho 
moved an address for papers on the subject. 

Mr. Dickinson seconded, and amongst other things he 
observed — "These persons wore determined to persevere in 
their claims, for when they -went into the Courts of America,, 
they were treated as outlaws, and were told they could get no 
compensation." 

Mr. Wm. Smith lamented the length of time that had been 
suffered to elapse without meeting their demands. " This," he 
said, *' was one of the greatest hardships they had to complain 
of. Forty years ago they were entitled to these claims, and 
the sum would be trebly increased since that time by interest." 
The Chancellor of the Exchequer, inier alia, admitted — 
*' The lapse of time that has occurred should be no barrier to 
their claims ; they had never been lost sight of," but though 
the Address was agreed to, he did not hold out much hope that 
what was demanded could be certainly complied with. 

The number of the Loyalists who considered themselves 
justified in looking to the English Government in their peculiar 
situation, was extremely great, and it consisted of various 
classes. As regards the fighting men, Sabine, I. 70, remarks : — 
" It may not be possible to ascertain the number of the 
Loyalists who took up arms, but, from the best evidence which 
I have been able to obtain, I conclude there were twenty-five 
thousand at the lowest computation ; and unless their killed 
and wounded in the different battles and affrays in which they 
were engaged, were unusually large, I have put their aggregate 
force far too low." 

It had been notified that March the 26th, 1784, would be the 
latest period for presenting claims for the consideration of the 
Commissioners; and on, or before that day, the number of 
persons who had preferred their petitions, stood at 2063, and 
the alleged property lost at £7,046,278. Besides this, there 
were outstanding debts in America, owing to English creditors, 
amounting to the sum of £2,354,135. 

In 1788 Mr. Pitt submitted a plan for classifying the 
Claimants, and of classifying and apportioning the nature and 
amount of consolation Xo be allotted to each ; and to those 



DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 437 

whose losses had been caused principally by the deprivation of 
official or professional incomes, he proposed a system of pensions. 
By the 5th of April this year the Commissioners in England 
had heard and determined 1680 claims, and had liquidated the 
same at the sum of £1,887,548. 

It appeared finally, that the number of applicants from 
England, and from the Canadian Provinces, attained to the 
aggregate of 5072, of whom 954 either Avithdrew their applica- 
tions, or failed to press them ; and the sum of the losses was 
stated to have been £8,026,045. Another return however, was 
made out by Mr. J. E. Wilmot, one of the Commissioners, 
wherein the amount of the claims is given at £10,358,413, and 
the amount of the claims allowed at £3,033,091. 

The above items will be enough to shadow forth the gigantic 
dimensions of the work that during forty years had occasionally 
forced itself upon the attention of the Government. The 
delays that had occurred were partly owing to the difficulty of 
investigating the correctness of the claims — the soundness of 
the evidence — the changes in the Ministr}', or in the Depart- 
ments ; and in America the delays were prolonged by hostile 
or prohibitory Acts that had been enacted during the heat of 
party fervour, but which, in process of time, and by slow 
degrees, were either mitigated, or in great part removed. Many 
of the Loyalists had died in the interval, but in those eases 
where the efforts at recovery were followed up, the business 
was continued by their heirs. Though the chances of recovering 
anything within the limits of Massachusetts were looked upon 
as hopeless, still, the event proved that other estates — that is 
to say, the value of them in money — were recovered in Ehode 
Island, on the south, and also in that large tract stretching 
away Down East, then under the same government, and mostly 
unappropriated, but now absorbed in the State of Blaine. It 
will be shewn presently that by perseverance carried on through 
a long period, the Hutchinsons effected the sale of two farms 
on the island of Conanicut, opposite Newport, in Narragansett 
Bay, and received the payment for them, and also disposed of 
certain tracts, commonly spoken of as the " Eastern Lands," 
lying near_ Phillip's Town, at about 100 miles north-by-east 



438 7^7.1 7? r AND LETTEliS OF THOMAS EUTOHINSON. 



from Boston. Siively 8ir Francis Bernard and Sir William 
Pepperell were not more "notorious conspirators," (from the 
American point of view), than Thomas Hutchinson; and they 
are to be pitied for not having- been able to snatch something- 
out of the wreck, as might have been hoped, considering that 
their lauds ^\ere not in Massachusetts proper. It has been 
remarked, when speaking of the Pepperell family, that their 
vast possessions extended some thirty miles along the coast, 
and several miles in width ; and the official accounts inform us 
that when Governor Bernard was in the zenith of his popularity, 
the admiring colonists presented him with the island of Mount 
Desert — and a handsome gift it was. From a friend who 
visited the island in 1879, I have gathered a few personal 
observations. He went by steamer from Boston down east to 
the Penobscot river, and then by another of smaller size, 
twenty or thirty miles further along the coast, calling at 
intermediate stations, and stopped at the small port of Bar 
Harbour situated on the western side of the island. There was 
a small village at that place, but the accommodation Avas then so 
limited that he was directed to a farm house three miles off, 
where he lodged nearly a fortnight. He speaks of the aspect 
as rocky, with the heights still clothed in the primeval forest, 
though the low lands had been considerably cleared, and several 
farms laid out. Towards the western side the island lies very 
close to the main land, but towards the north-east the coast 
sweeps round, so that between the two a fine sheltered bay is 
formed. "When the French had Canada, or cruised in American 
waters at the time of the war, their fleet occasionally resorted 
to it, where they were secure in all winds but the south-east, 
and from these visits it obtained the name of Frenchman's Bay. 
During his stay, my friend amused himself in making ex- 
cursions and explorations. The island, in shape, is irregularly 
circular, somewhat prolonged towards the south, with an eleva- 
tion or mountain in the middle, to the summit of which he 
ascended, and enjoyed a beautiful view. In size it is near 
fifteen miles long, by seven or eight wide. The country in this 
part of America is not very thickly populated : the coast is iron 
bound, and the climate, though delightful in summer, is severe 



DIARY AND LETTERS OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON. 439 

in the winter months. The steamer that proceeded to Bar 
Harbour generally carried thither a few summer excursionists ; 
but as the place gets better known, the numbers are year by 
year on the increase, so that in proportion as it becomes the 
resort of visitors in the fine season, so its prosperity seems to be 
advancing. 

The following original letter, bearing date November 4, 
1801, written by young Thomas Hutchinson, son of the Judge, 
who had been bred to the law, and who now addressed it to his 
uncle Elisha, will explain the whole scope of the claims : — • 

"I take the opportunity of M'^' Dan' Oliver's return to 
Birmingham to convey to you the enclosed Power of Attorney 
for your signature, if it meets with your approbation. You are 
acquainted with the claims of the Hutcliiuson and Oliver 
families to certain lands to the eastward of Boston, and to the 
Bhode Island estate, heretofore the property of the late Miss 
Sanford ; and you are probably apprised of the defalcation of 
the Agents in America, whom my father had employed to look 
after these interests. Till very lately he has not, for some 
years past, received a line from either M'^ Low^ell or M"" 
Spooner, notwithstanding his repeated letters to them on the 
subject. ]\P Sabatier, the gentleman named in the enclosed 
Power, married a daughter [Margaret] of my great-uncle Foster 
Hutchinson : he is a man of business and an honest man. 
Previously to his departure for Nova Scotia, my father, un- 
willing that the family claims should be entirely given up, and 
thinking that a longer neglect would weaken them, com- 
missioned M"^ Sabatier to obtain what information he could 
respecting them. Three letters from M"^ Sabatier to M"" Spooner 
have at length produced from the latter a recommendation of 
a purchaser for the Eliode Island estate. It is apprehended 
that no considerable difficulty can occur with respect to the 
title of Miss Sanford's devisees to that estate. It is secured to 
them by the 9th Article of the Treaty of Commerce with 
America made in 1794 ; but what is perhaps a better security, 
M"^ Spooner has been in undisputed possession of it ever since 
the year 1787. For a year or two previous to Miss Sanford's 



410 I>IAI}Y AND LETTEBS OF THOMAS IIUlCniNBON. 

death he remitted the rents, which were applied to her support : 
since that period nothing has been received from him. The 
object of tlie enclosed Tower is, to enable M'' Sabatier to obtain 
possession, and (if the parties entrusted should think it ex- 
pedient), to dispose of the family interests in America; and 
from the present favourable appearances of the title to the 
Khodo Island estate, it is presumed that the profits therefrom 
will be sufficient to cover any expenses M"" Sabaticr may be at 
in the recovery of this, or any part of the Eastern Estate. 
Aware however, of tlie uncertain issue of claims so distantly 
preferred, and which have so long lain dormant, jM"" S. will be 
instructed to proceed with such caution as that the heirs may 
be nothing out of pocket by this experiment. 

" P.S. You will, if you think proper, put your signature 
opposite the second blank seal ; the first is intended for my 
father's. The Power will then be forwarded to M"" Lyde, New 
York, and from thence to W AV. 8. Oliver, New Brunswick. 
M"" Dan' Oliver will have an opportunity of conveying the 
Power back to me." 

After many delays, it appears by a statement bearing date 
Jan. 15, 1806, in the Letter Book of young Thomas Hutchinson, 
the Barister-at-Law, that one portion of the property at Rhode 
Island, known as the Cotton Farm, had been sold for 5400 
dollars. This sum, after a few increments and deductions, 
that it is not necessary to dally over, eventually produced 
£858„5„11 in sterling money. Grizzel Sanford, by her Will, 
left her property to be equally divided between the children of 
her two sisters, one having been married to Lieutenant-Governor 
Oliver, and the other to Governor Hutchins